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Lecture 14 
Indian Judiciary 
Prelims 2020 Crash Course  
Capstone IAS Learning
Page 2


Lecture 14 
Indian Judiciary 
Prelims 2020 Crash Course  
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Organisation of Judiciary in general. 
The Supreme Court of India. 
High Courts  
Subordinate Judiciary. 
Issue of Judicial Reforms
Page 3


Lecture 14 
Indian Judiciary 
Prelims 2020 Crash Course  
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Organisation of Judiciary in general. 
The Supreme Court of India. 
High Courts  
Subordinate Judiciary. 
Issue of Judicial Reforms
Organisation of Judiciary
Despite adopting a federal system, the 
Constitution of India has not provided for a 
double system of courts as in United States. 
Under our Constitution, there is a single 
integrated system of Courts for the Union as 
well as the States which administer both Union 
and State laws. 
Supreme Court of India stands at the head of 
the entire system. 
Below the Supreme Court stand the High 
Courts of the different States. 
Under each High Court there is a hierarchy of 
other Courts which are referred to in the 
Constitution as “subordinate courts”.[Article 
233-237].
Supreme Court
High Courts
Subordinate Courts
Page 4


Lecture 14 
Indian Judiciary 
Prelims 2020 Crash Course  
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Organisation of Judiciary in general. 
The Supreme Court of India. 
High Courts  
Subordinate Judiciary. 
Issue of Judicial Reforms
Organisation of Judiciary
Despite adopting a federal system, the 
Constitution of India has not provided for a 
double system of courts as in United States. 
Under our Constitution, there is a single 
integrated system of Courts for the Union as 
well as the States which administer both Union 
and State laws. 
Supreme Court of India stands at the head of 
the entire system. 
Below the Supreme Court stand the High 
Courts of the different States. 
Under each High Court there is a hierarchy of 
other Courts which are referred to in the 
Constitution as “subordinate courts”.[Article 
233-237].
Supreme Court
High Courts
Subordinate Courts
Supreme Court of India
Article 124 
(1)  There shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India and, 
until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than thirty other Judges. 
(2)  Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant 
under his hand and seal after consultation with such Judges of the Supreme Court and 
of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose 
and shall hold of?ce until he attains the age of sixty-?ve years : 
Provided that in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the 
Chief Justice of India shall always be consulted: 
Provided further that — 
(a)  a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his of?ce; 
(b)  a Judge may be removed from his of?ce in the manner provided in clause (4). 
Page 5


Lecture 14 
Indian Judiciary 
Prelims 2020 Crash Course  
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Organisation of Judiciary in general. 
The Supreme Court of India. 
High Courts  
Subordinate Judiciary. 
Issue of Judicial Reforms
Organisation of Judiciary
Despite adopting a federal system, the 
Constitution of India has not provided for a 
double system of courts as in United States. 
Under our Constitution, there is a single 
integrated system of Courts for the Union as 
well as the States which administer both Union 
and State laws. 
Supreme Court of India stands at the head of 
the entire system. 
Below the Supreme Court stand the High 
Courts of the different States. 
Under each High Court there is a hierarchy of 
other Courts which are referred to in the 
Constitution as “subordinate courts”.[Article 
233-237].
Supreme Court
High Courts
Subordinate Courts
Supreme Court of India
Article 124 
(1)  There shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India and, 
until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than thirty other Judges. 
(2)  Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant 
under his hand and seal after consultation with such Judges of the Supreme Court and 
of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose 
and shall hold of?ce until he attains the age of sixty-?ve years : 
Provided that in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the 
Chief Justice of India shall always be consulted: 
Provided further that — 
(a)  a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his of?ce; 
(b)  a Judge may be removed from his of?ce in the manner provided in clause (4). 
[(2A)  The age of a Judge of the Supreme Court shall be determined by such authority 
and in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.] 
(3)  A person shall not be quali?ed for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court 
unless he is a citizen of India and — 
(a)  has been for at least ?ve years a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such 
Courts in succession; or 
(b)  has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such 
Courts in succession; or 
(c)  is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist. 
Explanation I —  In this clause "High Court'' means a High Court which exercises, or 
which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised, jurisdiction 
in any part of the territory of India. 
Explanation II —  In computing for the purpose of this clause the period during which a 
person has been an advocate, any period during which a person has held judicial of?ce 
not inferior to that of a district judge after he became an advocate shall be included. 
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FAQs on PPT: Indian Judiciary - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is the structure of the Indian Judiciary?
Ans. The Indian Judiciary is composed of three tiers: the Supreme Court at the top, followed by the High Courts in each state or group of states, and the subordinate courts at the district level.
2. How are judges appointed in the Indian Judiciary?
Ans. Judges in the Indian Judiciary are appointed by the President of India upon the recommendation of the collegium system, which consists of the Chief Justice of India and a group of senior judges.
3. What is the role of the Supreme Court in the Indian Judiciary?
Ans. The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial authority in the country. Its role includes interpreting the Constitution, resolving disputes between states and the center, and safeguarding fundamental rights.
4. How can a decision of the Indian Judiciary be challenged?
Ans. A decision of the Indian Judiciary can be challenged through the process of filing an appeal. Appeals can be filed in higher courts against the decisions of lower courts, ensuring a system of checks and balances.
5. What is the significance of the independence of the Indian Judiciary?
Ans. The independence of the Indian Judiciary is crucial for upholding the rule of law and ensuring justice. It allows judges to make unbiased decisions and protects them from external influences, thus maintaining public trust in the judicial system.
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