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India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present,
in different parts of India, the following
farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/
community labour. This type of farming
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of
the soil and suitability of other environmental
conditions to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district
of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘ Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 2


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present,
in different parts of India, the following
farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/
community labour. This type of farming
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of
the soil and suitability of other environmental
conditions to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district
of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘ Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used
for obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading
to the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in
the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used
as raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc., are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Karnataka are some of the important
plantation crops grown in these states. Since
the production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets
plays an important role in the development
of plantations.
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
31 AGRICULTURE
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 3


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present,
in different parts of India, the following
farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/
community labour. This type of farming
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of
the soil and suitability of other environmental
conditions to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district
of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘ Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used
for obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading
to the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in
the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used
as raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc., are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Karnataka are some of the important
plantation crops grown in these states. Since
the production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets
plays an important role in the development
of plantations.
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
31 AGRICULTURE
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Rationalised-2023-24
32 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons
— rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi
crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and
mustard. Though, these crops are grown in
large parts of India, states from the north
and north-western parts such as Punjab,
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and
Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are
important for the production of wheat and
other rabi crops. Availability of precipitation
during winter months due to the western
temperate cyclones helps in the success of
these crops. However, the success of the green
revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar
Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been
an important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season
are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar),
moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and
soyabean. Some of the most important rice-
growing regions are Assam, West Bengal,
coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Maharashtra,  particularly the (Konkan coast)
along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently,
paddy has also become an important crop of
Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam,
West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy
are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman
and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are
grown in different parts of the country
depending upon the variations in soil, climate
and cultivation practices. Major crops grown
in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea,
coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute,
etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after
China. It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of
irrigation.
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the
field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 4


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present,
in different parts of India, the following
farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/
community labour. This type of farming
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of
the soil and suitability of other environmental
conditions to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district
of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘ Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used
for obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading
to the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in
the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used
as raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc., are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Karnataka are some of the important
plantation crops grown in these states. Since
the production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets
plays an important role in the development
of plantations.
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
31 AGRICULTURE
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Rationalised-2023-24
32 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons
— rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi
crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and
mustard. Though, these crops are grown in
large parts of India, states from the north
and north-western parts such as Punjab,
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and
Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are
important for the production of wheat and
other rabi crops. Availability of precipitation
during winter months due to the western
temperate cyclones helps in the success of
these crops. However, the success of the green
revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar
Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been
an important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season
are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar),
moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and
soyabean. Some of the most important rice-
growing regions are Assam, West Bengal,
coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Maharashtra,  particularly the (Konkan coast)
along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently,
paddy has also become an important crop of
Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam,
West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy
are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman
and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are
grown in different parts of the country
depending upon the variations in soil, climate
and cultivation practices. Major crops grown
in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea,
coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute,
etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after
China. It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of
irrigation.
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the
field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
Rationalised-2023-24
33 AGRICULTURE
India:  Distribution of Rice
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 5


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present,
in different parts of India, the following
farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/
community labour. This type of farming
depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of
the soil and suitability of other environmental
conditions to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district
of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and
Nicobar Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘ Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used
for obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading
to the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in
the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used
as raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc., are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Karnataka are some of the important
plantation crops grown in these states. Since
the production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets
plays an important role in the development
of plantations.
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
31 AGRICULTURE
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Rationalised-2023-24
32 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons
— rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi
crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and
mustard. Though, these crops are grown in
large parts of India, states from the north
and north-western parts such as Punjab,
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and
Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are
important for the production of wheat and
other rabi crops. Availability of precipitation
during winter months due to the western
temperate cyclones helps in the success of
these crops. However, the success of the green
revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar
Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been
an important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season
are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar),
moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and
soyabean. Some of the most important rice-
growing regions are Assam, West Bengal,
coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh,
Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Maharashtra,  particularly the (Konkan coast)
along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently,
paddy has also become an important crop of
Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam,
West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy
are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman
and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are
grown in different parts of the country
depending upon the variations in soil, climate
and cultivation practices. Major crops grown
in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea,
coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute,
etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after
China. It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of
irrigation.
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the
field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
Rationalised-2023-24
33 AGRICULTURE
India:  Distribution of Rice
Rationalised-2023-24
34 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
Rice is grown in the plains of north and
north-eastern India, coastal areas and the
deltaic regions. Development of dense network
of canal irrigation and tubewells have made
it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall
such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar
Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Wheat: This is the second most important
cereal crop. It is the main food crop, in north
and north-western part of the country. This
rabi crop requires a cool growing season and
a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It
requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly-
distributed over the growing season. There
are two important wheat-growing zones in the
country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the
north-west and black soil region of the Deccan.
The major wheat-producing states are
Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.
Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the
important millets grown in India. Though,
these are known as coarse grains, they have
very high nutritional value. For example, ragi
is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro
nutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third
most important food crop with respect to area
and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly
grown in the moist areas which hardly needs
irrigation. Major Jowar producing States are
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
and Madhya Pradesh.
Fig. 4.6:  Bajra Cultivation
Bajra grows well on sandy soils and
shallow black soil. Major Bajra producing
States are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Ragi is
a crop of dry regions and grows well on red,
black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
Major ragi producing states are: Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
Maize: It is a crop which is used both as
food and fodder. It is a kharif crop which
requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C
and grows well in old alluvial soil. In some
states like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season
also. Use of modern inputs such as HYV
seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have
contributed to the increasing production of
maize. Major maize-producing states are
Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Fig. 4.5:  Wheat Cultivation
Fig. 4.7:  Maize Cultivation
Rationalised-2023-24
Read More
76 videos|480 docs|131 tests

FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Agriculture - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture is the practice of cultivating crops and rearing animals for food, fiber, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain human life. It involves various activities such as plowing, sowing, watering, harvesting, and animal husbandry.
2. What are the different types of farming methods?
Ans. There are several types of farming methods, including: - Subsistence farming: It is practiced to meet the needs of a family or a small community. - Commercial farming: It involves the cultivation of crops or rearing of animals for sale in the market. - Organic farming: It focuses on the use of natural materials and techniques to maintain soil fertility and prevent pests and diseases. - Hydroponics: It is a method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in water. - Agroforestry: It is the integration of trees with crops or livestock to create a sustainable and productive agricultural system.
3. What are the main factors influencing agriculture?
Ans. The main factors influencing agriculture are: - Climate: Temperature, rainfall, and sunlight play a crucial role in determining the type of crops that can be grown in a region. - Soil: The quality and fertility of the soil affect crop productivity. - Topography: The slope, elevation, and drainage of the land influence the choice of crops and farming practices. - Water availability: Adequate water supply is essential for agriculture, either through rainfall or irrigation. - Market demand: Farmers consider market demand and prices while deciding on the crops or products to produce.
4. How does agriculture impact the environment?
Ans. Agriculture can have both positive and negative environmental impacts. Some of the impacts include: - Deforestation: Forests are often cleared for agricultural expansion, leading to loss of biodiversity and habitat destruction. - Water pollution: The use of fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate water bodies, affecting aquatic life. - Soil erosion: Unsustainable farming practices can result in soil erosion, leading to loss of fertile topsoil. - Greenhouse gas emissions: Agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, mainly through livestock production and the use of synthetic fertilizers. - Loss of natural habitats: Conversion of natural habitats into farmland can result in the loss of natural ecosystems and wildlife.
5. How can sustainable agriculture be promoted?
Ans. Sustainable agriculture can be promoted through various practices, including: - Organic farming: Using natural methods and materials to maintain soil fertility and control pests and diseases. - Crop rotation: Alternating the cultivation of different crops to enhance soil health and reduce pests and diseases. - Conservation agriculture: Minimizing soil disturbance, maintaining soil cover, and practicing crop diversification to improve water and nutrient retention. - Agroforestry: Integrating trees with crops or livestock to enhance biodiversity, improve soil fertility, and provide additional income sources. - Efficient irrigation techniques: Adopting water-saving irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation or sprinkler systems, to minimize water wastage.
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