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 Page 1


We use different things in our daily life made
from metal. Can you list a number of items
used in your house made of metals. Where do
these metals come from?
You have studied that the earth’s crust is
made up of different minerals embedded in the
rocks. Various metals are extracted from these
minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our
lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin
to a towering building or a big ship, all are
made from minerals. The railway lines and the
tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements
and machinery too are made from minerals.
Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are
manufactured from minerals and run on
power resources derived from the earth. Even
the food that we eat contains minerals. In all
stages of development, human beings have
used minerals for their livelihood, decoration,
festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
Haban comes to Guwahati with his father
from a remote village.
He sees people getting into strange
house like objects which move along the
road. He also sees a “kitchen” dragging a
number of house along with it. He is amazed
and asked his father “Why don’t our houses
move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba?”
Ba replies, “These are not houses, they
are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these
are not made of bricks and stones, metal like
iron and alluminium are used in making
these. They do not move on their own. They
are driven by an engine which needs energy
to work.”
A bright smile from toothpaste
and minerals
Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive
minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium
oxide and various phosphate minerals do the
cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce
cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most
toothpaste are made white with titanium
oxide, which comes from minerals called
rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in
some  toothpastes comes from mica. The
toothbrush and tube containing the paste are
made of plastics from petroleum.  Find out
where these minerals are found?
Dig a little deeper and find out how many
minerals are used to make a light bulb?
All living things need minerals
Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
Although our mineral intake represents only
about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of
nutrients, they are so potent and so important
that without them we would not be able to
utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs.
Dig a little deeper and collect “Nutritional
Facts” printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define mineral as a
“homogenous, natura lly occurring substance
with a definable internal structure.” Minerals
are found in varied forms in nature, ranging
from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Why are they so varied?
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 2


We use different things in our daily life made
from metal. Can you list a number of items
used in your house made of metals. Where do
these metals come from?
You have studied that the earth’s crust is
made up of different minerals embedded in the
rocks. Various metals are extracted from these
minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our
lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin
to a towering building or a big ship, all are
made from minerals. The railway lines and the
tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements
and machinery too are made from minerals.
Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are
manufactured from minerals and run on
power resources derived from the earth. Even
the food that we eat contains minerals. In all
stages of development, human beings have
used minerals for their livelihood, decoration,
festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
Haban comes to Guwahati with his father
from a remote village.
He sees people getting into strange
house like objects which move along the
road. He also sees a “kitchen” dragging a
number of house along with it. He is amazed
and asked his father “Why don’t our houses
move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba?”
Ba replies, “These are not houses, they
are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these
are not made of bricks and stones, metal like
iron and alluminium are used in making
these. They do not move on their own. They
are driven by an engine which needs energy
to work.”
A bright smile from toothpaste
and minerals
Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive
minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium
oxide and various phosphate minerals do the
cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce
cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most
toothpaste are made white with titanium
oxide, which comes from minerals called
rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in
some  toothpastes comes from mica. The
toothbrush and tube containing the paste are
made of plastics from petroleum.  Find out
where these minerals are found?
Dig a little deeper and find out how many
minerals are used to make a light bulb?
All living things need minerals
Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
Although our mineral intake represents only
about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of
nutrients, they are so potent and so important
that without them we would not be able to
utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs.
Dig a little deeper and collect “Nutritional
Facts” printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define mineral as a
“homogenous, natura lly occurring substance
with a definable internal structure.” Minerals
are found in varied forms in nature, ranging
from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Why are they so varied?
Rationalised-2023-24
You have already learnt about rocks.
Rocks are combinations of homogenous
substances called minerals. Some rocks, for
instance limestone, consist of a single mineral
only, but majority of the rock consist of several
minerals in varying proportions. Although,
over 2000 minerals have been identified, only
a few are abundantly found in most of the
rocks.
A particular mineral that will be formed
from a certain combination of elements
depends upon the physical and chemical
conditions under which the material forms.
This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours,
hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that
a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use
these properties to classify the minerals.
Study of Minerals by Geographers
and Geologists
Geographers study minerals as part of the
earth’s crust for a better understanding of
landforms. The distribution of mineral
resources and associated  economic activities
are of interest to geographers. A geologist,
however, is interested in the formation of
minerals, their age and physical and
chemical composition.
 However, for general and commercial
purposes minerals can be classified as under.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS
Where are these minerals found?
Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The
term ore is used to describe an accumulation
of any mineral mixed with other elements.
The mineral content of the ore must be in
sufficient concentration to make its extraction
commercially viable. The type of formation or
structure in which they are found determines
the relative ease with which mineral ores may
be mined. This also determines the cost of
extraction. It is, therefore, important for us
to understand the main types of formations
in which minerals occur.
Minerals generally occur in these forms:
(i)In igneous and metamorphic rocks
minerals may occur in the cracks,
crevices, faults or joints. The smaller
occurrences are called veins and the
larger are called lodes. In most cases,
they are formed when minerals in liquid/
molten and gaseous forms are forced
upward through cavities towards the
earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as
they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin,
copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained
from veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals
occur in beds or layers. They have been
formed as a result of deposition,
accumulation and concentration in
horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of
iron ore have been concentrated as a result
of long periods under great heat and
pressure. Another group of sedimentary
minerals include gypsum, potash salt and
sodium salt. These are formed as a result
of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the
decomposition of surface rocks, and the
removal of soluble constituents, leaving
a residual mass of weathered
material containing ores. Bauxite is
formed this way.
43 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Fig. 5.1
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 3


We use different things in our daily life made
from metal. Can you list a number of items
used in your house made of metals. Where do
these metals come from?
You have studied that the earth’s crust is
made up of different minerals embedded in the
rocks. Various metals are extracted from these
minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our
lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin
to a towering building or a big ship, all are
made from minerals. The railway lines and the
tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements
and machinery too are made from minerals.
Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are
manufactured from minerals and run on
power resources derived from the earth. Even
the food that we eat contains minerals. In all
stages of development, human beings have
used minerals for their livelihood, decoration,
festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
Haban comes to Guwahati with his father
from a remote village.
He sees people getting into strange
house like objects which move along the
road. He also sees a “kitchen” dragging a
number of house along with it. He is amazed
and asked his father “Why don’t our houses
move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba?”
Ba replies, “These are not houses, they
are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these
are not made of bricks and stones, metal like
iron and alluminium are used in making
these. They do not move on their own. They
are driven by an engine which needs energy
to work.”
A bright smile from toothpaste
and minerals
Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive
minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium
oxide and various phosphate minerals do the
cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce
cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most
toothpaste are made white with titanium
oxide, which comes from minerals called
rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in
some  toothpastes comes from mica. The
toothbrush and tube containing the paste are
made of plastics from petroleum.  Find out
where these minerals are found?
Dig a little deeper and find out how many
minerals are used to make a light bulb?
All living things need minerals
Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
Although our mineral intake represents only
about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of
nutrients, they are so potent and so important
that without them we would not be able to
utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs.
Dig a little deeper and collect “Nutritional
Facts” printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define mineral as a
“homogenous, natura lly occurring substance
with a definable internal structure.” Minerals
are found in varied forms in nature, ranging
from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Why are they so varied?
Rationalised-2023-24
You have already learnt about rocks.
Rocks are combinations of homogenous
substances called minerals. Some rocks, for
instance limestone, consist of a single mineral
only, but majority of the rock consist of several
minerals in varying proportions. Although,
over 2000 minerals have been identified, only
a few are abundantly found in most of the
rocks.
A particular mineral that will be formed
from a certain combination of elements
depends upon the physical and chemical
conditions under which the material forms.
This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours,
hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that
a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use
these properties to classify the minerals.
Study of Minerals by Geographers
and Geologists
Geographers study minerals as part of the
earth’s crust for a better understanding of
landforms. The distribution of mineral
resources and associated  economic activities
are of interest to geographers. A geologist,
however, is interested in the formation of
minerals, their age and physical and
chemical composition.
 However, for general and commercial
purposes minerals can be classified as under.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS
Where are these minerals found?
Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The
term ore is used to describe an accumulation
of any mineral mixed with other elements.
The mineral content of the ore must be in
sufficient concentration to make its extraction
commercially viable. The type of formation or
structure in which they are found determines
the relative ease with which mineral ores may
be mined. This also determines the cost of
extraction. It is, therefore, important for us
to understand the main types of formations
in which minerals occur.
Minerals generally occur in these forms:
(i)In igneous and metamorphic rocks
minerals may occur in the cracks,
crevices, faults or joints. The smaller
occurrences are called veins and the
larger are called lodes. In most cases,
they are formed when minerals in liquid/
molten and gaseous forms are forced
upward through cavities towards the
earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as
they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin,
copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained
from veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals
occur in beds or layers. They have been
formed as a result of deposition,
accumulation and concentration in
horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of
iron ore have been concentrated as a result
of long periods under great heat and
pressure. Another group of sedimentary
minerals include gypsum, potash salt and
sodium salt. These are formed as a result
of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the
decomposition of surface rocks, and the
removal of soluble constituents, leaving
a residual mass of weathered
material containing ores. Bauxite is
formed this way.
43 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Fig. 5.1
Rationalised-2023-24
44 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
Dig a little deeper: What is the difference
between an open pit mine, a quarry and an
underground mine with shafts?
Rat-Hole Mining. Do you know that most
of the minerals in India are nationalised
and their extraction is possible only after
obtaining due permission from the
government? But in most of the tribal
areas of the north-east India, minerals are
owned by individuals or communities. In
Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal,
iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal
mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done
by family member in the form of a long
narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat hole’
mining. The National Green Tribunal has
declared such activities illegal and
recommended that these should be
stopped forthwith.
(iv)Certain minerals may occur as alluvial
deposits in sands of valley floors and the
base of hills. These deposits are called
‘placer deposits’ and generally contain
minerals, which are not corroded by water.
Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most
important among such minerals.
(v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities
of minerals, but most of these are too widely
diffused to be of economic significance.
However, common salt, magnesium and
bromine are largely derived from ocean
waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in
manganese nodules.
non-ferrous minerals. The vast alluvial plains
of north India are almost devoid of economic
minerals. These variations exist largely because
of the differences in the geological structure,
processes and time involved in the formation
of minerals.
Let us now study the distribution of a few
major minerals in India. Always remember that
the concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease
of extraction and closeness to the market play
an important role in affecting the economic
viability of a reserve. Thus, to meet the demand,
a choice has to be made between a number of
possible options. When this is done a mineral
‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into a mine.
Ferrous Minerals
Ferrous minerals account for about three-
fourths of the total value of the production of
metallic minerals. They provide a strong base
for the development of metallurgical industries.
India exports substantial quantities of ferrous
minerals after meeting her internal demands.
Iron Ore
Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone
of industrial development. India is endowed
with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India
is rich in good quality iron ores. Magnetite is
the finest iron ore with a very high content of
iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic
qualities, especially valuable in the electrical
industry. Hematite ore is the most important
industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity
used, but has a slightly lower iron content than
magnetite. (50-60 per cent). In 2018–19 almost
entire production of iron ore (97%) accrued
from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and
Jharkhand. The remaining production (3%)
was from other states.
India is fortunate to have fairly rich and
varied mineral resources. However, these are
unevenly distributed. Broadly speaking,
peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves
of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other
non-metallic minerals. Sedimentary rocks on
the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula,
in Gujarat and Assam have most of the
petroleum deposits. Rajasthan with the rock
systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many
Kudre in Kannada means horse. The
highest peak in the western ghats of
Karnataka resembles the face of a horse.
The Bailadila hills look like the hump of
an ox, and hence its name.
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 4


We use different things in our daily life made
from metal. Can you list a number of items
used in your house made of metals. Where do
these metals come from?
You have studied that the earth’s crust is
made up of different minerals embedded in the
rocks. Various metals are extracted from these
minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our
lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin
to a towering building or a big ship, all are
made from minerals. The railway lines and the
tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements
and machinery too are made from minerals.
Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are
manufactured from minerals and run on
power resources derived from the earth. Even
the food that we eat contains minerals. In all
stages of development, human beings have
used minerals for their livelihood, decoration,
festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
Haban comes to Guwahati with his father
from a remote village.
He sees people getting into strange
house like objects which move along the
road. He also sees a “kitchen” dragging a
number of house along with it. He is amazed
and asked his father “Why don’t our houses
move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba?”
Ba replies, “These are not houses, they
are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these
are not made of bricks and stones, metal like
iron and alluminium are used in making
these. They do not move on their own. They
are driven by an engine which needs energy
to work.”
A bright smile from toothpaste
and minerals
Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive
minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium
oxide and various phosphate minerals do the
cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce
cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most
toothpaste are made white with titanium
oxide, which comes from minerals called
rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in
some  toothpastes comes from mica. The
toothbrush and tube containing the paste are
made of plastics from petroleum.  Find out
where these minerals are found?
Dig a little deeper and find out how many
minerals are used to make a light bulb?
All living things need minerals
Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
Although our mineral intake represents only
about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of
nutrients, they are so potent and so important
that without them we would not be able to
utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs.
Dig a little deeper and collect “Nutritional
Facts” printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define mineral as a
“homogenous, natura lly occurring substance
with a definable internal structure.” Minerals
are found in varied forms in nature, ranging
from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Why are they so varied?
Rationalised-2023-24
You have already learnt about rocks.
Rocks are combinations of homogenous
substances called minerals. Some rocks, for
instance limestone, consist of a single mineral
only, but majority of the rock consist of several
minerals in varying proportions. Although,
over 2000 minerals have been identified, only
a few are abundantly found in most of the
rocks.
A particular mineral that will be formed
from a certain combination of elements
depends upon the physical and chemical
conditions under which the material forms.
This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours,
hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that
a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use
these properties to classify the minerals.
Study of Minerals by Geographers
and Geologists
Geographers study minerals as part of the
earth’s crust for a better understanding of
landforms. The distribution of mineral
resources and associated  economic activities
are of interest to geographers. A geologist,
however, is interested in the formation of
minerals, their age and physical and
chemical composition.
 However, for general and commercial
purposes minerals can be classified as under.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS
Where are these minerals found?
Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The
term ore is used to describe an accumulation
of any mineral mixed with other elements.
The mineral content of the ore must be in
sufficient concentration to make its extraction
commercially viable. The type of formation or
structure in which they are found determines
the relative ease with which mineral ores may
be mined. This also determines the cost of
extraction. It is, therefore, important for us
to understand the main types of formations
in which minerals occur.
Minerals generally occur in these forms:
(i)In igneous and metamorphic rocks
minerals may occur in the cracks,
crevices, faults or joints. The smaller
occurrences are called veins and the
larger are called lodes. In most cases,
they are formed when minerals in liquid/
molten and gaseous forms are forced
upward through cavities towards the
earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as
they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin,
copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained
from veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals
occur in beds or layers. They have been
formed as a result of deposition,
accumulation and concentration in
horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of
iron ore have been concentrated as a result
of long periods under great heat and
pressure. Another group of sedimentary
minerals include gypsum, potash salt and
sodium salt. These are formed as a result
of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the
decomposition of surface rocks, and the
removal of soluble constituents, leaving
a residual mass of weathered
material containing ores. Bauxite is
formed this way.
43 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Fig. 5.1
Rationalised-2023-24
44 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
Dig a little deeper: What is the difference
between an open pit mine, a quarry and an
underground mine with shafts?
Rat-Hole Mining. Do you know that most
of the minerals in India are nationalised
and their extraction is possible only after
obtaining due permission from the
government? But in most of the tribal
areas of the north-east India, minerals are
owned by individuals or communities. In
Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal,
iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal
mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done
by family member in the form of a long
narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat hole’
mining. The National Green Tribunal has
declared such activities illegal and
recommended that these should be
stopped forthwith.
(iv)Certain minerals may occur as alluvial
deposits in sands of valley floors and the
base of hills. These deposits are called
‘placer deposits’ and generally contain
minerals, which are not corroded by water.
Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most
important among such minerals.
(v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities
of minerals, but most of these are too widely
diffused to be of economic significance.
However, common salt, magnesium and
bromine are largely derived from ocean
waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in
manganese nodules.
non-ferrous minerals. The vast alluvial plains
of north India are almost devoid of economic
minerals. These variations exist largely because
of the differences in the geological structure,
processes and time involved in the formation
of minerals.
Let us now study the distribution of a few
major minerals in India. Always remember that
the concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease
of extraction and closeness to the market play
an important role in affecting the economic
viability of a reserve. Thus, to meet the demand,
a choice has to be made between a number of
possible options. When this is done a mineral
‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into a mine.
Ferrous Minerals
Ferrous minerals account for about three-
fourths of the total value of the production of
metallic minerals. They provide a strong base
for the development of metallurgical industries.
India exports substantial quantities of ferrous
minerals after meeting her internal demands.
Iron Ore
Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone
of industrial development. India is endowed
with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India
is rich in good quality iron ores. Magnetite is
the finest iron ore with a very high content of
iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic
qualities, especially valuable in the electrical
industry. Hematite ore is the most important
industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity
used, but has a slightly lower iron content than
magnetite. (50-60 per cent). In 2018–19 almost
entire production of iron ore (97%) accrued
from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and
Jharkhand. The remaining production (3%)
was from other states.
India is fortunate to have fairly rich and
varied mineral resources. However, these are
unevenly distributed. Broadly speaking,
peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves
of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other
non-metallic minerals. Sedimentary rocks on
the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula,
in Gujarat and Assam have most of the
petroleum deposits. Rajasthan with the rock
systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many
Kudre in Kannada means horse. The
highest peak in the western ghats of
Karnataka resembles the face of a horse.
The Bailadila hills look like the hump of
an ox, and hence its name.
Rationalised-2023-24
45 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
The major iron ore belts in India are:
• Odisha-Jharkhand belt: In Odisha high
grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar
mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar
districts. In the adjoining Singbhum
district of Jharkhand haematite iron ore is
mined in Gua and Noamundi.
• Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt lies in
Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high
grade hematites are found in the famous
Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district
of Chhattisgarh. The range of hills
comprise of 14 deposits of super high
grade hematite iron ore. It has the best
physical properties needed for steel
making. Iron ore from these mines is
exported to Japan and South Korea via
Vishakhapatnam port.
• Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-
Tumakuru belt in Karnataka has large
reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines
located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka
are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh
deposits are known to be one of the largest
in the world. The ore is transported as
slurry through a pipeline to a port near
Mangaluru.
• Maharashtra-Goa belt includes the state
of Goa and Ratnagiri district of
Maharashtra. Though, the ores are not of
very high quality, yet they are efficiently
exploited. Iron ore is exported through
Marmagao port.
Manganese
Manganese is mainly used in the
manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese
alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required
to manufacture one tonne of steel. It is also
used in manufacturing bleaching powder,
insecticides and paints.
Fig. 5.2:  Iron ore mine
Dig a little deeper: Superimpose the maps
showing distribution of iron ore, manganese,
coal and iron and steel industry. Do you see
any correlation. Why?
Non-Ferrous Minerals
India’s reserves and production of non-
ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
However, these minerals, which include
copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold play a
vital role in a number of metallurgical,
engineering and electrical industries. Let us
study the distribution of copper and
bauxite.
Fig. 5.3:  Production of Manganese showing
state-wise share in per cent, 2018–19
Odisha
16%
Karnataka
Andhra
Pradesh
10%
Madhya
Pradesh
33%
Others
2%
Maharashtra
27%
12%
Rationalised-2023-24
Page 5


We use different things in our daily life made
from metal. Can you list a number of items
used in your house made of metals. Where do
these metals come from?
You have studied that the earth’s crust is
made up of different minerals embedded in the
rocks. Various metals are extracted from these
minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our
lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin
to a towering building or a big ship, all are
made from minerals. The railway lines and the
tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements
and machinery too are made from minerals.
Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are
manufactured from minerals and run on
power resources derived from the earth. Even
the food that we eat contains minerals. In all
stages of development, human beings have
used minerals for their livelihood, decoration,
festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
Haban comes to Guwahati with his father
from a remote village.
He sees people getting into strange
house like objects which move along the
road. He also sees a “kitchen” dragging a
number of house along with it. He is amazed
and asked his father “Why don’t our houses
move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba?”
Ba replies, “These are not houses, they
are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these
are not made of bricks and stones, metal like
iron and alluminium are used in making
these. They do not move on their own. They
are driven by an engine which needs energy
to work.”
A bright smile from toothpaste
and minerals
Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive
minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium
oxide and various phosphate minerals do the
cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce
cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most
toothpaste are made white with titanium
oxide, which comes from minerals called
rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in
some  toothpastes comes from mica. The
toothbrush and tube containing the paste are
made of plastics from petroleum.  Find out
where these minerals are found?
Dig a little deeper and find out how many
minerals are used to make a light bulb?
All living things need minerals
Life processes cannot occur without minerals.
Although our mineral intake represents only
about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of
nutrients, they are so potent and so important
that without them we would not be able to
utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs.
Dig a little deeper and collect “Nutritional
Facts” printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define mineral as a
“homogenous, natura lly occurring substance
with a definable internal structure.” Minerals
are found in varied forms in nature, ranging
from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Why are they so varied?
Rationalised-2023-24
You have already learnt about rocks.
Rocks are combinations of homogenous
substances called minerals. Some rocks, for
instance limestone, consist of a single mineral
only, but majority of the rock consist of several
minerals in varying proportions. Although,
over 2000 minerals have been identified, only
a few are abundantly found in most of the
rocks.
A particular mineral that will be formed
from a certain combination of elements
depends upon the physical and chemical
conditions under which the material forms.
This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours,
hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that
a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use
these properties to classify the minerals.
Study of Minerals by Geographers
and Geologists
Geographers study minerals as part of the
earth’s crust for a better understanding of
landforms. The distribution of mineral
resources and associated  economic activities
are of interest to geographers. A geologist,
however, is interested in the formation of
minerals, their age and physical and
chemical composition.
 However, for general and commercial
purposes minerals can be classified as under.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS
Where are these minerals found?
Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The
term ore is used to describe an accumulation
of any mineral mixed with other elements.
The mineral content of the ore must be in
sufficient concentration to make its extraction
commercially viable. The type of formation or
structure in which they are found determines
the relative ease with which mineral ores may
be mined. This also determines the cost of
extraction. It is, therefore, important for us
to understand the main types of formations
in which minerals occur.
Minerals generally occur in these forms:
(i)In igneous and metamorphic rocks
minerals may occur in the cracks,
crevices, faults or joints. The smaller
occurrences are called veins and the
larger are called lodes. In most cases,
they are formed when minerals in liquid/
molten and gaseous forms are forced
upward through cavities towards the
earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as
they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin,
copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained
from veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals
occur in beds or layers. They have been
formed as a result of deposition,
accumulation and concentration in
horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of
iron ore have been concentrated as a result
of long periods under great heat and
pressure. Another group of sedimentary
minerals include gypsum, potash salt and
sodium salt. These are formed as a result
of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the
decomposition of surface rocks, and the
removal of soluble constituents, leaving
a residual mass of weathered
material containing ores. Bauxite is
formed this way.
43 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
Fig. 5.1
Rationalised-2023-24
44 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
Dig a little deeper: What is the difference
between an open pit mine, a quarry and an
underground mine with shafts?
Rat-Hole Mining. Do you know that most
of the minerals in India are nationalised
and their extraction is possible only after
obtaining due permission from the
government? But in most of the tribal
areas of the north-east India, minerals are
owned by individuals or communities. In
Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal,
iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal
mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done
by family member in the form of a long
narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat hole’
mining. The National Green Tribunal has
declared such activities illegal and
recommended that these should be
stopped forthwith.
(iv)Certain minerals may occur as alluvial
deposits in sands of valley floors and the
base of hills. These deposits are called
‘placer deposits’ and generally contain
minerals, which are not corroded by water.
Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most
important among such minerals.
(v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities
of minerals, but most of these are too widely
diffused to be of economic significance.
However, common salt, magnesium and
bromine are largely derived from ocean
waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in
manganese nodules.
non-ferrous minerals. The vast alluvial plains
of north India are almost devoid of economic
minerals. These variations exist largely because
of the differences in the geological structure,
processes and time involved in the formation
of minerals.
Let us now study the distribution of a few
major minerals in India. Always remember that
the concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease
of extraction and closeness to the market play
an important role in affecting the economic
viability of a reserve. Thus, to meet the demand,
a choice has to be made between a number of
possible options. When this is done a mineral
‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into a mine.
Ferrous Minerals
Ferrous minerals account for about three-
fourths of the total value of the production of
metallic minerals. They provide a strong base
for the development of metallurgical industries.
India exports substantial quantities of ferrous
minerals after meeting her internal demands.
Iron Ore
Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone
of industrial development. India is endowed
with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India
is rich in good quality iron ores. Magnetite is
the finest iron ore with a very high content of
iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic
qualities, especially valuable in the electrical
industry. Hematite ore is the most important
industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity
used, but has a slightly lower iron content than
magnetite. (50-60 per cent). In 2018–19 almost
entire production of iron ore (97%) accrued
from Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and
Jharkhand. The remaining production (3%)
was from other states.
India is fortunate to have fairly rich and
varied mineral resources. However, these are
unevenly distributed. Broadly speaking,
peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves
of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other
non-metallic minerals. Sedimentary rocks on
the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula,
in Gujarat and Assam have most of the
petroleum deposits. Rajasthan with the rock
systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many
Kudre in Kannada means horse. The
highest peak in the western ghats of
Karnataka resembles the face of a horse.
The Bailadila hills look like the hump of
an ox, and hence its name.
Rationalised-2023-24
45 MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES
The major iron ore belts in India are:
• Odisha-Jharkhand belt: In Odisha high
grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar
mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar
districts. In the adjoining Singbhum
district of Jharkhand haematite iron ore is
mined in Gua and Noamundi.
• Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt lies in
Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high
grade hematites are found in the famous
Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district
of Chhattisgarh. The range of hills
comprise of 14 deposits of super high
grade hematite iron ore. It has the best
physical properties needed for steel
making. Iron ore from these mines is
exported to Japan and South Korea via
Vishakhapatnam port.
• Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-
Tumakuru belt in Karnataka has large
reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines
located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka
are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh
deposits are known to be one of the largest
in the world. The ore is transported as
slurry through a pipeline to a port near
Mangaluru.
• Maharashtra-Goa belt includes the state
of Goa and Ratnagiri district of
Maharashtra. Though, the ores are not of
very high quality, yet they are efficiently
exploited. Iron ore is exported through
Marmagao port.
Manganese
Manganese is mainly used in the
manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese
alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required
to manufacture one tonne of steel. It is also
used in manufacturing bleaching powder,
insecticides and paints.
Fig. 5.2:  Iron ore mine
Dig a little deeper: Superimpose the maps
showing distribution of iron ore, manganese,
coal and iron and steel industry. Do you see
any correlation. Why?
Non-Ferrous Minerals
India’s reserves and production of non-
ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
However, these minerals, which include
copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold play a
vital role in a number of metallurgical,
engineering and electrical industries. Let us
study the distribution of copper and
bauxite.
Fig. 5.3:  Production of Manganese showing
state-wise share in per cent, 2018–19
Odisha
16%
Karnataka
Andhra
Pradesh
10%
Madhya
Pradesh
33%
Others
2%
Maharashtra
27%
12%
Rationalised-2023-24
46 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
India:  Distribution of Iron Ore, Manganese, Bauxite and Mica
Rationalised-2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Minerals & Energy Resources - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What are minerals and energy resources?
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a definite chemical composition and are found in various forms within the Earth's crust. Energy resources, on the other hand, refer to the sources of energy that are used to generate power or fuel various activities.
2. What are the different types of minerals?
Ans. There are several types of minerals, including metallic minerals (such as iron ore, copper, and gold), non-metallic minerals (such as limestone, gypsum, and mica), and energy minerals (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas).
3. How are minerals formed?
Ans. Minerals are formed through various geological processes. Some minerals are formed through the cooling and solidification of molten materials, while others are formed through precipitation from water solutions. Additionally, minerals can also be formed through the alteration of existing minerals due to heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
4. What are the major sources of energy resources?
Ans. The major sources of energy resources include fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, and natural gas), nuclear energy, hydropower, wind energy, solar energy, and biomass. These sources of energy play a vital role in powering industries, transportation, and the overall development of a country.
5. How are minerals and energy resources important for economic development?
Ans. Minerals and energy resources are crucial for economic development as they are used in various industries, including manufacturing, construction, agriculture, and transportation. They provide raw materials for the production of goods, generate employment opportunities, and contribute to the overall growth of a nation's economy. Additionally, energy resources play a vital role in powering industries, infrastructure, and households, enabling economic activities to thrive.
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