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CAT 2017 Slot 2: Previous Year Question Paper with Solutions

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 Page 1


CAT 2017 Shift-2
VARC
Instructions [1 - 6 ]
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children
knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data,
perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the
presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In. fact creativity is a social
process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet
spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they
allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of
creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are
regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their
ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they
were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2
percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question
was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than
their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide — our rising inequality — that plagues
us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most
creative cities — are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies,
innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators — those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I
term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated,
ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us — in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing
cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and
every one of us.
1. In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A    contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B    expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C    provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D    provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.
A n s w e r : D
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph starting with 'cities are true fronts of creativity', author mentions that cities have diverse population. 
The author also mentions that cities provide the space  where people can meet and share ideas. Then, the author discusses the financial
  
.
Page 2


CAT 2017 Shift-2
VARC
Instructions [1 - 6 ]
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children
knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data,
perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the
presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In. fact creativity is a social
process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet
spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they
allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of
creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are
regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their
ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they
were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2
percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question
was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than
their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide — our rising inequality — that plagues
us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most
creative cities — are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies,
innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators — those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I
term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated,
ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us — in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing
cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and
every one of us.
1. In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A    contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B    expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C    provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D    provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.
A n s w e r : D
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph starting with 'cities are true fronts of creativity', author mentions that cities have diverse population. 
The author also mentions that cities provide the space  where people can meet and share ideas. Then, the author discusses the financial
  
.
and organizational infrastructure that cities provide for ideas to flourish.
No where has it been mentioned that cities provide access to cultural activities. We cannot infer option D from the passage. 
Therefore, option D is the right answer.
    
2. The author uses 'ironic' in the third paragraph to point out that
A    people need social contact rather than isolation to nurture their creativity.
B    institutions created to promote creativity eventually stifle it.
C    the larger the creative population in a city, the more likely it is to be stifled.
D    large bureaucracies and institutions are the inevitable outcome of successful cities.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
'Irony' is a term used to define an activity defeating its very purpose. Therefore, the answer must be along similar lines - a method or
activity that stifles its purpose.
In the passage (1968 survey), the author describes how schools and colleges, the institutions that were supposed to foster creativity,
stifle it. Also, in the paragraph preceding the paragraph about survey, the author mentions explicitly that the institutes created to promote
creativity stifle it. Therefore, option B is the right answer.
3. The central idea of this passage is that
A    social interaction is necessary to nurture creativity.
B    creativity and ideas are gradually declining in all societies.
C    the creativity divide is widening in societies in line with socio-economic trends.
D    more people should work in jobs that engage their creative faculties.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around how cities provide grounds for creativity to flourish and how our education system stifles it. 
Option B states that creativity and ideas are gradually declining. But, in the last paragraph, the author mentions that 'Creativity itself is not
in danger'. Therefore, we can rule out option B.
Option D states that more people must engage in creative jobs. But it cannot be said to be the central idea of the passage. As we have
discussed, the passage revolves around social interaction and creativity divide. Therefore, we can eliminate option D too.
Options A and C are close. But, the author describes creativity divide more as an effect than the problem itself. Barring the last 2
paragraphs, the author describes about the importance of social interaction and how the lack of it kills creativity. Since the question is
about the central idea, option A can be deemed a better fit than option C. 
Therefore, option A is the right answer.
4. Jane Jacobs believed that cities that are more creative
A    have to struggle to retain their creativity.
  
.
Page 3


CAT 2017 Shift-2
VARC
Instructions [1 - 6 ]
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children
knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data,
perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the
presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In. fact creativity is a social
process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet
spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they
allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of
creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are
regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their
ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they
were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2
percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question
was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than
their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide — our rising inequality — that plagues
us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most
creative cities — are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies,
innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators — those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I
term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated,
ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us — in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing
cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and
every one of us.
1. In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A    contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B    expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C    provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D    provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.
A n s w e r : D
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph starting with 'cities are true fronts of creativity', author mentions that cities have diverse population. 
The author also mentions that cities provide the space  where people can meet and share ideas. Then, the author discusses the financial
  
.
and organizational infrastructure that cities provide for ideas to flourish.
No where has it been mentioned that cities provide access to cultural activities. We cannot infer option D from the passage. 
Therefore, option D is the right answer.
    
2. The author uses 'ironic' in the third paragraph to point out that
A    people need social contact rather than isolation to nurture their creativity.
B    institutions created to promote creativity eventually stifle it.
C    the larger the creative population in a city, the more likely it is to be stifled.
D    large bureaucracies and institutions are the inevitable outcome of successful cities.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
'Irony' is a term used to define an activity defeating its very purpose. Therefore, the answer must be along similar lines - a method or
activity that stifles its purpose.
In the passage (1968 survey), the author describes how schools and colleges, the institutions that were supposed to foster creativity,
stifle it. Also, in the paragraph preceding the paragraph about survey, the author mentions explicitly that the institutes created to promote
creativity stifle it. Therefore, option B is the right answer.
3. The central idea of this passage is that
A    social interaction is necessary to nurture creativity.
B    creativity and ideas are gradually declining in all societies.
C    the creativity divide is widening in societies in line with socio-economic trends.
D    more people should work in jobs that engage their creative faculties.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around how cities provide grounds for creativity to flourish and how our education system stifles it. 
Option B states that creativity and ideas are gradually declining. But, in the last paragraph, the author mentions that 'Creativity itself is not
in danger'. Therefore, we can rule out option B.
Option D states that more people must engage in creative jobs. But it cannot be said to be the central idea of the passage. As we have
discussed, the passage revolves around social interaction and creativity divide. Therefore, we can eliminate option D too.
Options A and C are close. But, the author describes creativity divide more as an effect than the problem itself. Barring the last 2
paragraphs, the author describes about the importance of social interaction and how the lack of it kills creativity. Since the question is
about the central idea, option A can be deemed a better fit than option C. 
Therefore, option A is the right answer.
4. Jane Jacobs believed that cities that are more creative
A    have to struggle to retain their creativity.
  
.
B    
have to 'squelch' unproductive people and promote creative ones.
C    have leaders and institutions that do not block creativity.
D    typically do not start off as creative hubs.
A n s w e r : C
  
Explanation:
In the passage, the author clearly describes that Jane Jacobs attributes creativity to the type of leaders. From the paragraph about
'squelchers', we can infer that Jane Jacobs holds leaders responsible for the creativity of the people. Therefore, option C is the right
answer.
       
5. The 1968 study is used here to show that
A    as they get older, children usually learn to be more creative.
B    schooling today does not encourage creative thinking in children.
C    the more children learn, the less creative they become.
D    technology today prevents children from being creative.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
There has been no talk about technology in the entire passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option B straight away.
Also, option A states that children become more creative as they get older. However, the exact opposite has been discussed in the
passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option A too.
Among options B and C, option C attributes reduction in creativity to learning more. But, in the paragraph about 'what staunches
creativity', the author mentions that institutions that were created to promote creativity stifle it. He then produces the 1968 study as a
validation of the argument. Therefore, the author implies that schools and colleges stifle creativity.
Hence, option B is the right answer.
6. The author's conclusions about the most 'creative cities' in the US (paragraph 6) are based on his assumption that
A    people who work with their hands are not doing creative work.
B    more than half the population works in non-creative jobs.
C    only artists, musicians, writers, and so on should be valued in a society.
D    most cities ignore or waste the creativity of low-wage workers.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph regarding creative cities, the author makes a remark that the creativity of only those people who work with their mind are
utilized. Therefore, we can infer that the author thinks that the creativity of people who do not work with their minds (who work with their
hands) is not utilized. Therefore, option A is the right answer.
Instructions [7 - 12 ]
  
.
Page 4


CAT 2017 Shift-2
VARC
Instructions [1 - 6 ]
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children
knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data,
perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the
presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In. fact creativity is a social
process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet
spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they
allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of
creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are
regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their
ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they
were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2
percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question
was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than
their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide — our rising inequality — that plagues
us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most
creative cities — are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies,
innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators — those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I
term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated,
ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us — in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing
cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and
every one of us.
1. In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A    contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B    expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C    provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D    provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.
A n s w e r : D
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph starting with 'cities are true fronts of creativity', author mentions that cities have diverse population. 
The author also mentions that cities provide the space  where people can meet and share ideas. Then, the author discusses the financial
  
.
and organizational infrastructure that cities provide for ideas to flourish.
No where has it been mentioned that cities provide access to cultural activities. We cannot infer option D from the passage. 
Therefore, option D is the right answer.
    
2. The author uses 'ironic' in the third paragraph to point out that
A    people need social contact rather than isolation to nurture their creativity.
B    institutions created to promote creativity eventually stifle it.
C    the larger the creative population in a city, the more likely it is to be stifled.
D    large bureaucracies and institutions are the inevitable outcome of successful cities.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
'Irony' is a term used to define an activity defeating its very purpose. Therefore, the answer must be along similar lines - a method or
activity that stifles its purpose.
In the passage (1968 survey), the author describes how schools and colleges, the institutions that were supposed to foster creativity,
stifle it. Also, in the paragraph preceding the paragraph about survey, the author mentions explicitly that the institutes created to promote
creativity stifle it. Therefore, option B is the right answer.
3. The central idea of this passage is that
A    social interaction is necessary to nurture creativity.
B    creativity and ideas are gradually declining in all societies.
C    the creativity divide is widening in societies in line with socio-economic trends.
D    more people should work in jobs that engage their creative faculties.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around how cities provide grounds for creativity to flourish and how our education system stifles it. 
Option B states that creativity and ideas are gradually declining. But, in the last paragraph, the author mentions that 'Creativity itself is not
in danger'. Therefore, we can rule out option B.
Option D states that more people must engage in creative jobs. But it cannot be said to be the central idea of the passage. As we have
discussed, the passage revolves around social interaction and creativity divide. Therefore, we can eliminate option D too.
Options A and C are close. But, the author describes creativity divide more as an effect than the problem itself. Barring the last 2
paragraphs, the author describes about the importance of social interaction and how the lack of it kills creativity. Since the question is
about the central idea, option A can be deemed a better fit than option C. 
Therefore, option A is the right answer.
4. Jane Jacobs believed that cities that are more creative
A    have to struggle to retain their creativity.
  
.
B    
have to 'squelch' unproductive people and promote creative ones.
C    have leaders and institutions that do not block creativity.
D    typically do not start off as creative hubs.
A n s w e r : C
  
Explanation:
In the passage, the author clearly describes that Jane Jacobs attributes creativity to the type of leaders. From the paragraph about
'squelchers', we can infer that Jane Jacobs holds leaders responsible for the creativity of the people. Therefore, option C is the right
answer.
       
5. The 1968 study is used here to show that
A    as they get older, children usually learn to be more creative.
B    schooling today does not encourage creative thinking in children.
C    the more children learn, the less creative they become.
D    technology today prevents children from being creative.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
There has been no talk about technology in the entire passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option B straight away.
Also, option A states that children become more creative as they get older. However, the exact opposite has been discussed in the
passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option A too.
Among options B and C, option C attributes reduction in creativity to learning more. But, in the paragraph about 'what staunches
creativity', the author mentions that institutions that were created to promote creativity stifle it. He then produces the 1968 study as a
validation of the argument. Therefore, the author implies that schools and colleges stifle creativity.
Hence, option B is the right answer.
6. The author's conclusions about the most 'creative cities' in the US (paragraph 6) are based on his assumption that
A    people who work with their hands are not doing creative work.
B    more than half the population works in non-creative jobs.
C    only artists, musicians, writers, and so on should be valued in a society.
D    most cities ignore or waste the creativity of low-wage workers.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph regarding creative cities, the author makes a remark that the creativity of only those people who work with their mind are
utilized. Therefore, we can infer that the author thinks that the creativity of people who do not work with their minds (who work with their
hands) is not utilized. Therefore, option A is the right answer.
Instructions [7 - 12 ]
  
.
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
During the frigid season... it's often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm. The temperature difference between the
blanket and the air outside is so palpable that we often have trouble leaving our warm refuge. Many plants and animals similarly hunker
down, relying on snow cover for safety from winter's harsh conditions. The small area between the snowpack and the ground, called the
subnivium... might be the most important ecosystem that you have never heard of.
The subnivium is so well-insulated and stable that its temperature holds steady at around 32 degree Fahrenheit (0 degree Celsius).
Although that might still sound cold, a constant temperature of 32 degree Fahrenheit can often be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the air
temperature during the peak of winter. Because of this large temperature difference, a wide variety of species...depend on the subnivium
for winter protection.
For many organisms living in temperate and Arctic regions, the difference between being under the snow or outside it is a matter of life
and death. Consequently, disruptions to the subnivium brought about by climate change will affect everything from population dynamics
to nutrient cycling through the ecosystem.
The formation and stability of the subnivium requires more than a few flurries. Winter ecologists have suggested that eight inches of
snow is necessary to develop a stable layer of insulation. Depth is not the only factor, however. More accurately, the stability of the
subnivium depends on the interaction between snow depth and snow density. Imagine being under a stack of blankets that are all
flattened and pressed together. When compressed, the blankets essentially form one compacted layer. In contrast, when they are lightly
placed on top of one another, their insulative capacity increases because the air pockets between them trap heat. Greater depths of low-
density snow are therefore better at insulating the ground.
Both depth and density of snow are sensitive to temperature. Scientists are now beginning to explore how climate change will affect the
subnivium, as well as the species that depend on it. At first glance, warmer winters seem beneficial for species that have difficulty
surviving subzero temperatures; however, as with most ecological phenomena, the consequences are not so straightforward. Research
has shown that the snow season (the period when snow is more likely than rain) has become shorter since l970. When rain falls on snow,
it increases the density of the snow and reduces its insulative capacity. Therefore, even though winters are expected to become warmer
overall from future climate change, the subnivium will tend to become colder and more variable with less protection from the above-
ground temperatures.
The effects of a colder subnivium are complex... For example, shrubs such as crowberry and alpine azalea that grow along the forest
floor tend to block the wind and so retain higher depths of snow around them. This captured snow helps to keep soils insulated and in
turn increases plant decomposition and nutrient release. In field experiments, researchers removed a portion. of the snow cover to
investigate the importance of the subnivium's insulation. They found that soil frost in the snow-free area resulted in damage to plant
roots and sometimes even the death of the plant.
7. The purpose of this passage is to
A    introduce readers to a relatively unknown ecosystem: the subnivium.
B    explain how the subnivium works to provide shelter and food to several species.
C    outline the effects of climate change on the subnivium.
D    draw an analogy between the effect of blankets on humans and of snow cover on species living in the subnivium.
A n s w e r : C
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around the effects of climate change on subnivium.
We can eliminate option D directly as it talks about a small illustration. It cannot be said to be the purpose of the passage. Options A and
B emphasize subnivium as the subject. However, the passage is about the effects of climate change on subnivium rather than subnivium
itself. Throughout the passage, the author discusses the effects of various climatic changes and how it affects the subnivium.
Therefore, option C is the right answer.
    
  
.
Page 5


CAT 2017 Shift-2
VARC
Instructions [1 - 6 ]
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children
knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data,
perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the
presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In. fact creativity is a social
process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet
spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they
allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of
creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are
regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their
ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they
were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2
percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question
was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than
their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide — our rising inequality — that plagues
us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most
creative cities — are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies,
innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators — those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I
term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated,
ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us — in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing
cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and
every one of us.
1. In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A    contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B    expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C    provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D    provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.
A n s w e r : D
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph starting with 'cities are true fronts of creativity', author mentions that cities have diverse population. 
The author also mentions that cities provide the space  where people can meet and share ideas. Then, the author discusses the financial
  
.
and organizational infrastructure that cities provide for ideas to flourish.
No where has it been mentioned that cities provide access to cultural activities. We cannot infer option D from the passage. 
Therefore, option D is the right answer.
    
2. The author uses 'ironic' in the third paragraph to point out that
A    people need social contact rather than isolation to nurture their creativity.
B    institutions created to promote creativity eventually stifle it.
C    the larger the creative population in a city, the more likely it is to be stifled.
D    large bureaucracies and institutions are the inevitable outcome of successful cities.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
'Irony' is a term used to define an activity defeating its very purpose. Therefore, the answer must be along similar lines - a method or
activity that stifles its purpose.
In the passage (1968 survey), the author describes how schools and colleges, the institutions that were supposed to foster creativity,
stifle it. Also, in the paragraph preceding the paragraph about survey, the author mentions explicitly that the institutes created to promote
creativity stifle it. Therefore, option B is the right answer.
3. The central idea of this passage is that
A    social interaction is necessary to nurture creativity.
B    creativity and ideas are gradually declining in all societies.
C    the creativity divide is widening in societies in line with socio-economic trends.
D    more people should work in jobs that engage their creative faculties.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around how cities provide grounds for creativity to flourish and how our education system stifles it. 
Option B states that creativity and ideas are gradually declining. But, in the last paragraph, the author mentions that 'Creativity itself is not
in danger'. Therefore, we can rule out option B.
Option D states that more people must engage in creative jobs. But it cannot be said to be the central idea of the passage. As we have
discussed, the passage revolves around social interaction and creativity divide. Therefore, we can eliminate option D too.
Options A and C are close. But, the author describes creativity divide more as an effect than the problem itself. Barring the last 2
paragraphs, the author describes about the importance of social interaction and how the lack of it kills creativity. Since the question is
about the central idea, option A can be deemed a better fit than option C. 
Therefore, option A is the right answer.
4. Jane Jacobs believed that cities that are more creative
A    have to struggle to retain their creativity.
  
.
B    
have to 'squelch' unproductive people and promote creative ones.
C    have leaders and institutions that do not block creativity.
D    typically do not start off as creative hubs.
A n s w e r : C
  
Explanation:
In the passage, the author clearly describes that Jane Jacobs attributes creativity to the type of leaders. From the paragraph about
'squelchers', we can infer that Jane Jacobs holds leaders responsible for the creativity of the people. Therefore, option C is the right
answer.
       
5. The 1968 study is used here to show that
A    as they get older, children usually learn to be more creative.
B    schooling today does not encourage creative thinking in children.
C    the more children learn, the less creative they become.
D    technology today prevents children from being creative.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
There has been no talk about technology in the entire passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option B straight away.
Also, option A states that children become more creative as they get older. However, the exact opposite has been discussed in the
passage. Therefore, we can eliminate option A too.
Among options B and C, option C attributes reduction in creativity to learning more. But, in the paragraph about 'what staunches
creativity', the author mentions that institutions that were created to promote creativity stifle it. He then produces the 1968 study as a
validation of the argument. Therefore, the author implies that schools and colleges stifle creativity.
Hence, option B is the right answer.
6. The author's conclusions about the most 'creative cities' in the US (paragraph 6) are based on his assumption that
A    people who work with their hands are not doing creative work.
B    more than half the population works in non-creative jobs.
C    only artists, musicians, writers, and so on should be valued in a society.
D    most cities ignore or waste the creativity of low-wage workers.
A n s w e r : A
  
Explanation:
In the paragraph regarding creative cities, the author makes a remark that the creativity of only those people who work with their mind are
utilized. Therefore, we can infer that the author thinks that the creativity of people who do not work with their minds (who work with their
hands) is not utilized. Therefore, option A is the right answer.
Instructions [7 - 12 ]
  
.
The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
During the frigid season... it's often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm. The temperature difference between the
blanket and the air outside is so palpable that we often have trouble leaving our warm refuge. Many plants and animals similarly hunker
down, relying on snow cover for safety from winter's harsh conditions. The small area between the snowpack and the ground, called the
subnivium... might be the most important ecosystem that you have never heard of.
The subnivium is so well-insulated and stable that its temperature holds steady at around 32 degree Fahrenheit (0 degree Celsius).
Although that might still sound cold, a constant temperature of 32 degree Fahrenheit can often be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the air
temperature during the peak of winter. Because of this large temperature difference, a wide variety of species...depend on the subnivium
for winter protection.
For many organisms living in temperate and Arctic regions, the difference between being under the snow or outside it is a matter of life
and death. Consequently, disruptions to the subnivium brought about by climate change will affect everything from population dynamics
to nutrient cycling through the ecosystem.
The formation and stability of the subnivium requires more than a few flurries. Winter ecologists have suggested that eight inches of
snow is necessary to develop a stable layer of insulation. Depth is not the only factor, however. More accurately, the stability of the
subnivium depends on the interaction between snow depth and snow density. Imagine being under a stack of blankets that are all
flattened and pressed together. When compressed, the blankets essentially form one compacted layer. In contrast, when they are lightly
placed on top of one another, their insulative capacity increases because the air pockets between them trap heat. Greater depths of low-
density snow are therefore better at insulating the ground.
Both depth and density of snow are sensitive to temperature. Scientists are now beginning to explore how climate change will affect the
subnivium, as well as the species that depend on it. At first glance, warmer winters seem beneficial for species that have difficulty
surviving subzero temperatures; however, as with most ecological phenomena, the consequences are not so straightforward. Research
has shown that the snow season (the period when snow is more likely than rain) has become shorter since l970. When rain falls on snow,
it increases the density of the snow and reduces its insulative capacity. Therefore, even though winters are expected to become warmer
overall from future climate change, the subnivium will tend to become colder and more variable with less protection from the above-
ground temperatures.
The effects of a colder subnivium are complex... For example, shrubs such as crowberry and alpine azalea that grow along the forest
floor tend to block the wind and so retain higher depths of snow around them. This captured snow helps to keep soils insulated and in
turn increases plant decomposition and nutrient release. In field experiments, researchers removed a portion. of the snow cover to
investigate the importance of the subnivium's insulation. They found that soil frost in the snow-free area resulted in damage to plant
roots and sometimes even the death of the plant.
7. The purpose of this passage is to
A    introduce readers to a relatively unknown ecosystem: the subnivium.
B    explain how the subnivium works to provide shelter and food to several species.
C    outline the effects of climate change on the subnivium.
D    draw an analogy between the effect of blankets on humans and of snow cover on species living in the subnivium.
A n s w e r : C
  
Explanation:
The entire passage revolves around the effects of climate change on subnivium.
We can eliminate option D directly as it talks about a small illustration. It cannot be said to be the purpose of the passage. Options A and
B emphasize subnivium as the subject. However, the passage is about the effects of climate change on subnivium rather than subnivium
itself. Throughout the passage, the author discusses the effects of various climatic changes and how it affects the subnivium.
Therefore, option C is the right answer.
    
  
.
8. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT
A    Snow depth and Snow density both influence the stability of the subnivium.
B    Climate change has some positive effects on the subnivium.
C    
The subnivium maintains a steady temperature that can be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the winter air
temperature.
D    Researchers have established the adverse effects of dwindling snow cover on the subnivium.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
The author mentions that 'Both depth and density of snow are sensitive to temperature.' Therefore, we can easily eliminate option A.
Option C talks about the insulating properties of subnivium which has been explicitly mentioned in the passage - 'Although that might still
sound cold, a constant temperature of 32°F can often be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the air temperature during the peak of winter.'
Therefore, we can eliminate option C too.
Option D states that researchers have established the adverse effects of the dwindling snow cover in subnivium. From the line starting
with 'research has shown that...', we can infer that the effects of the dwindling snow cover on subnivium has been established.
The entire passage does not discuss any positive effect of climate change on the subnivium. Therefore, we can say that option B is the
right answer.
9. Based on this extract, the author would support which one of the following actions?
A    The use of snow machines in winter to ensure snow cover of at least eight inches.
B    Government action to curb climate change.
C    Adding nutrients to the soil in winter.
D    Planting more shrubs in areas of short snow season.
A n s w e r : B
  
Explanation:
The author mentions in the passage that the quality of snow also plays a vital role. Therefore, maintaining 8 inches of snow with a
machine will not fix the problem. Moreover, the option feels too shallow and unsustainable. Therefore, we can eliminate option A.
Option C also feels shallow and unrealistic. Moreover, it has not been mentioned that adding nutrients will fix the issue. 
Option D suggests planting shrubs. But, in the last paragraph the author mentions that the effects are multilayered and complex. Options
A, C, and D try to address the symptom than attacking the cause. Option B offers a more viable solution and addresses the cause of the
issue rather than its manifestation. Therefore, the author is most likely to agree with option B and hence, option B is the right answer.
10. In paragraph 6, the author provides the examples of crowberry and alpine azalea to demonstrate that
A    Despite frigid temperatures, several species survive in temperate and Arctic regions.
B    
Due to frigid temperatures in the temperate and Arctic regions, plant species that survive tend to be shrubs rather
than trees.
C    
The crowberry and alpine azalea are abundant in temperate and Arctic regions.
D    The stability of the subnivium depends on several interrelated factors, including shrubs on the forest floor.
A n s w e r : D
  
.
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FAQs on CAT 2017 Slot 2: Previous Year Question Paper with Solutions

1. What is the CAT 2017 Slot 2 exam?
Ans. The CAT 2017 Slot 2 exam refers to the second session of the Common Admission Test (CAT) conducted in 2017. CAT is a national-level entrance exam conducted in India for admission to various management programs offered by premier B-schools. Slot 2 refers to the second time slot of the exam on a particular day.
2. Where can I find the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper?
Ans. The CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper can be found on the official website of the conducting body. They usually release the question paper after the completion of the exam. Additionally, various coaching institutes and educational websites may also provide the question paper for reference and practice.
3. Are the solutions provided for the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper accurate?
Ans. The accuracy of the solutions provided for the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper may vary depending on the source. It is recommended to refer to solutions provided by reputed coaching institutes or the official answer key released by the conducting body for the most accurate solutions.
4. How can I analyze my performance using the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper?
Ans. To analyze your performance using the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper, you can compare your answers with the solutions provided. Identify the questions you answered correctly and incorrectly. Focus on understanding the concepts and reasoning behind the correct solutions. Analyze your strengths and weaknesses in different sections to develop a targeted preparation strategy.
5. Can I use the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper for my CAT 2021 preparation?
Ans. While the CAT 2017 Slot 2 question paper can provide valuable practice and insights into the exam pattern, it may not be the most relevant resource for CAT 2021 preparation. It is recommended to primarily focus on practicing with recent question papers and mock tests specifically designed for CAT 2021, as the exam pattern and difficulty level may have changed over the years.
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