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States of Matter PPT Chemistry Class 11

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? Intermolecular forces are the forces of 
attraction and repulsion between interacting 
particles (atoms and molecules). This term does 
not include the electrostatic forces that exist 
between the two oppositely charged ions and the 
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together.
? Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and non polar molecules are electrically 
symmetrical and have no dipole moment because 
their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically 
distributed. But a dipole may
develop momentarily even in such atoms and 
molecules.
Page 2


? Intermolecular forces are the forces of 
attraction and repulsion between interacting 
particles (atoms and molecules). This term does 
not include the electrostatic forces that exist 
between the two oppositely charged ions and the 
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together.
? Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and non polar molecules are electrically 
symmetrical and have no dipole moment because 
their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically 
distributed. But a dipole may
develop momentarily even in such atoms and 
molecules.
Page 3


? Intermolecular forces are the forces of 
attraction and repulsion between interacting 
particles (atoms and molecules). This term does 
not include the electrostatic forces that exist 
between the two oppositely charged ions and the 
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together.
? Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and non polar molecules are electrically 
symmetrical and have no dipole moment because 
their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically 
distributed. But a dipole may
develop momentarily even in such atoms and 
molecules.
? Dipole-dipole forces act between the molecules 
possessing permanent dipole. Ends of the dipoles 
possess “partial charges” and these charges are 
shown by Greek letter delta (d).
? Partial charges are always less than the unit 
electronic charge (1.6×10–19 C). The polar 
molecules interact with neighbouring.molecules.
? Molecules shows electron cloud distribution in 
the dipole of hydrogen chloride shows dipole-
dipole interaction between two HCl molecules. 
This interaction is stronger than the London 
forces but is weaker than ion-ion interaction 
because only partial charges are involved
Page 4


? Intermolecular forces are the forces of 
attraction and repulsion between interacting 
particles (atoms and molecules). This term does 
not include the electrostatic forces that exist 
between the two oppositely charged ions and the 
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together.
? Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and non polar molecules are electrically 
symmetrical and have no dipole moment because 
their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically 
distributed. But a dipole may
develop momentarily even in such atoms and 
molecules.
? Dipole-dipole forces act between the molecules 
possessing permanent dipole. Ends of the dipoles 
possess “partial charges” and these charges are 
shown by Greek letter delta (d).
? Partial charges are always less than the unit 
electronic charge (1.6×10–19 C). The polar 
molecules interact with neighbouring.molecules.
? Molecules shows electron cloud distribution in 
the dipole of hydrogen chloride shows dipole-
dipole interaction between two HCl molecules. 
This interaction is stronger than the London 
forces but is weaker than ion-ion interaction 
because only partial charges are involved
Page 5


? Intermolecular forces are the forces of 
attraction and repulsion between interacting 
particles (atoms and molecules). This term does 
not include the electrostatic forces that exist 
between the two oppositely charged ions and the 
forces that hold atoms of a molecule together.
? Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and non polar molecules are electrically 
symmetrical and have no dipole moment because 
their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically 
distributed. But a dipole may
develop momentarily even in such atoms and 
molecules.
? Dipole-dipole forces act between the molecules 
possessing permanent dipole. Ends of the dipoles 
possess “partial charges” and these charges are 
shown by Greek letter delta (d).
? Partial charges are always less than the unit 
electronic charge (1.6×10–19 C). The polar 
molecules interact with neighbouring.molecules.
? Molecules shows electron cloud distribution in 
the dipole of hydrogen chloride shows dipole-
dipole interaction between two HCl molecules. 
This interaction is stronger than the London 
forces but is weaker than ion-ion interaction 
because only partial charges are involved
? This type of attractive forces operate between the
polar molecules having permanent dipole and the
molecules lacking permanent dipole. Permanent
dipole of the polar molecule induces dipole on the
electrically neutral molecule by deforming its
electronic cloud. Thus an induced dipole is
developed in the other molecule. In this case also
interaction energy is proportional to 1/r 6
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FAQs on States of Matter PPT Chemistry Class 11

1. What are the three states of matter?
Ans. The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. In a solid, particles are tightly packed and have a fixed shape and volume. In a liquid, particles are close together but can move around freely, taking the shape of their container. In a gas, particles are widely spaced and have no fixed shape or volume.
2. How does a substance change from one state of matter to another?
Ans. A substance can change from one state of matter to another through the processes of heating and cooling. When a solid is heated, its particles gain energy and start moving faster, eventually turning into a liquid. Further heating will cause the liquid to evaporate and become a gas. Cooling a gas will cause its particles to slow down and condense into a liquid, and further cooling will solidify the liquid into a solid.
3. What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change in the states of matter?
Ans. A physical change in the states of matter does not alter the substance at a molecular level. It only changes its physical properties, such as shape, size, or state. Examples of physical changes include melting, freezing, and boiling. On the other hand, a chemical change involves a chemical reaction that results in the formation of new substances with different properties. Examples of chemical changes include burning, rusting, and digestion.
4. Can a substance exist in more than one state of matter at the same time?
Ans. Yes, a substance can exist in more than one state of matter at the same time under specific conditions. This phenomenon is known as a phase transition or a phase equilibrium. For example, when a substance reaches its melting point, it can exist as both a solid and a liquid simultaneously. Similarly, at its boiling point, it can exist as both a liquid and a gas.
5. How does temperature affect the states of matter?
Ans. Temperature plays a crucial role in determining the state of matter. As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of particles also increases. This leads to stronger particle movements and a transition from a solid to a liquid and then a gas. Conversely, decreasing temperature causes particles to lose kinetic energy, resulting in the transition from a gas to a liquid and then a solid. Temperature is directly related to the average energy of particles, influencing their arrangement and behavior in different states of matter.
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