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CELL:  THE UNIT OF LIFE
Page 2


CELL:  THE UNIT OF LIFE
CELL THEORY :
? •Schieiden and Schwann together formulated the cell theory.
? •They proposed that the body of animal and plant are composed of cells and 
product of cells.
? •Rudolf Virchow (1855) he modified and gives the final shape to the cell 
theory. ?
? All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
? ?All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
Page 3


CELL:  THE UNIT OF LIFE
CELL THEORY :
? •Schieiden and Schwann together formulated the cell theory.
? •They proposed that the body of animal and plant are composed of cells and 
product of cells.
? •Rudolf Virchow (1855) he modified and gives the final shape to the cell 
theory. ?
? All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
? ?All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS :
? •Represented by bacteria, blue-green algae, mycoplasma and PPLO.
? •Smaller and multiply more rapidly than eukaryotic cells.
? •Four basic shape of bacteria are ?Bacillus (rod like)
? ?Coccus (spherical)
? ?Vibrio (comma shaped)
? ?Sprillum (spiral)
? •Presence of many small, circular, extra chromosomal and self replicable DNA 
called plasmid.
? •Plasmid provides unique characteristic to the bacteria.
Page 4


CELL:  THE UNIT OF LIFE
CELL THEORY :
? •Schieiden and Schwann together formulated the cell theory.
? •They proposed that the body of animal and plant are composed of cells and 
product of cells.
? •Rudolf Virchow (1855) he modified and gives the final shape to the cell 
theory. ?
? All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
? ?All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS :
? •Represented by bacteria, blue-green algae, mycoplasma and PPLO.
? •Smaller and multiply more rapidly than eukaryotic cells.
? •Four basic shape of bacteria are ?Bacillus (rod like)
? ?Coccus (spherical)
? ?Vibrio (comma shaped)
? ?Sprillum (spiral)
? •Presence of many small, circular, extra chromosomal and self replicable DNA 
called plasmid.
? •Plasmid provides unique characteristic to the bacteria.
? •One of the characteristic is antibiotic resistant.
? •No membrane bound cell organelles.
? •A specialized differentiated form of cell membrane called mesosome is 
present.
? Cell envelope and its Modifications :
? •Most prokaryotic cell have characteristic complex cell envelope.
? •The cell envelops consists of tightly bound three layer structure; ?The 
outermost glycocalyx.
? ?Middle cell wall
? ?Inner plasma membrane.
Page 5


CELL:  THE UNIT OF LIFE
CELL THEORY :
? •Schieiden and Schwann together formulated the cell theory.
? •They proposed that the body of animal and plant are composed of cells and 
product of cells.
? •Rudolf Virchow (1855) he modified and gives the final shape to the cell 
theory. ?
? All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
? ?All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS :
? •Represented by bacteria, blue-green algae, mycoplasma and PPLO.
? •Smaller and multiply more rapidly than eukaryotic cells.
? •Four basic shape of bacteria are ?Bacillus (rod like)
? ?Coccus (spherical)
? ?Vibrio (comma shaped)
? ?Sprillum (spiral)
? •Presence of many small, circular, extra chromosomal and self replicable DNA 
called plasmid.
? •Plasmid provides unique characteristic to the bacteria.
? •One of the characteristic is antibiotic resistant.
? •No membrane bound cell organelles.
? •A specialized differentiated form of cell membrane called mesosome is 
present.
? Cell envelope and its Modifications :
? •Most prokaryotic cell have characteristic complex cell envelope.
? •The cell envelops consists of tightly bound three layer structure; ?The 
outermost glycocalyx.
? ?Middle cell wall
? ?Inner plasma membrane.
? •According to the nature of the cell wall and behavior towards the stain 
developed by Gram, bacteria are Gram positive or Gram negative.
? •Glycocalyx may for a loose sheath called slime layer.
? •Glycocalyx may be thick and tough called the capsule.
? •The cell wall determines the shape of the cell, strong structural support to 
prevent the bacterium from bursting and collapsing.
? •Plasma membrane is semi-permeable in nature and interacts with outside 
world.
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FAQs on PPT: Cell - The Unit of Life - Biology Class 11 - NEET

1. What is a cell?
Ans. A cell is the basic unit of life, and it is the smallest structural and functional unit of all living organisms. It is responsible for carrying out various processes necessary for the organism's survival.
2. What are the different types of cells?
Ans. There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells, found in bacteria and archaea, lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells, found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists, have a true nucleus and various membrane-bound organelles.
3. What are the functions of a cell?
Ans. Cells perform multiple functions necessary for the organism's survival. These functions include metabolism, reproduction, growth, response to stimuli, and maintaining homeostasis. They also carry out specialized functions based on the type of cell, such as photosynthesis in plant cells or transmitting nerve impulses in nerve cells.
4. What are organelles?
Ans. Organelles are specialized structures within a cell that perform specific functions. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and chloroplasts. Each organelle has a specific role in carrying out cellular processes.
5. How do cells communicate with each other?
Ans. Cells communicate with each other through various mechanisms. One common way is through chemical signals, where cells release signaling molecules that are detected by receptor proteins on the surface of target cells. This communication helps coordinate the activities of different cells and tissues in an organism. Additionally, cells can also communicate through direct physical contact or through electrical signals in nerve cells.
264 videos|514 docs|310 tests
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