UPSC Exam  >  UPSC Notes  >  CSAT Preparation  >  UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2021 with Solutions: CSAT Paper 2

UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2021 with Solutions: CSAT Paper 2 | CSAT Preparation PDF Download

Download, print and study this document offline
Please wait while the PDF view is loading
 Page 1


 
1                                                                                                                              
	
	
UPSC	2021-	CSAT	SOLUTION	
	
Observations	and	Recommendations	
 
1. OBSERVATIONS 
1.1 Reading Comprehension  
• The question pattern largely remained the same as previous year papers (last 5 years) in terms 
of type/ pattern of the questions (Logical inference/ Critical idea/ Valid assumptions/ Logical 
corollary etc), barring a new type of RC question which was based on missing preceding part 
of a given passage (For reference- Q43 of Set B). 
• The framing of statements and language seemed difficult to decipher at first reading for many 
questions. This added to the anxiety and impeded the overall time-management of the paper.   
• The diverse range and depth of topical themes based on which the passages were constructed 
posed a challenge. For instance, certain passages delved into depths of Religion, Science & 
Technology, International Relations, Law, and Philosophy which would need subject 
familiarity to answer them well.    
1.2. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Questions of mathematics were of medium difficulty level this year. However, in a few 
questions, interpretation was a bit tricky. 
• The utility of shortcuts and direct formula based methods to arrive at answers diminished as the 
intended purpose of the paper was to check the problem-solving approach rather than the 
calculation speed of the candidates.  
• One of the critical tools UPSC uses to trick candidates in exams is “language”. The same tool 
was extensively used in this year's UPSC CSAT exam. The language was on the difficult side. 
It was to check candidate comprehension skills not only in English but also in maths and 
reasoning questions. 
• Though the paper wasn’t lengthy as compared to the previous year's paper, few questions 
demanded better application of mind. (For reference Q-26 and 69 of Set-B) 
• UPSC has again included the data interpretation questions this year to test the ability of 
candidates to comprehend the data and derive meaningful interpretations of data to solve the 
given questions on the same. 
 
 
	
	
															
 
Page 2


 
1                                                                                                                              
	
	
UPSC	2021-	CSAT	SOLUTION	
	
Observations	and	Recommendations	
 
1. OBSERVATIONS 
1.1 Reading Comprehension  
• The question pattern largely remained the same as previous year papers (last 5 years) in terms 
of type/ pattern of the questions (Logical inference/ Critical idea/ Valid assumptions/ Logical 
corollary etc), barring a new type of RC question which was based on missing preceding part 
of a given passage (For reference- Q43 of Set B). 
• The framing of statements and language seemed difficult to decipher at first reading for many 
questions. This added to the anxiety and impeded the overall time-management of the paper.   
• The diverse range and depth of topical themes based on which the passages were constructed 
posed a challenge. For instance, certain passages delved into depths of Religion, Science & 
Technology, International Relations, Law, and Philosophy which would need subject 
familiarity to answer them well.    
1.2. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Questions of mathematics were of medium difficulty level this year. However, in a few 
questions, interpretation was a bit tricky. 
• The utility of shortcuts and direct formula based methods to arrive at answers diminished as the 
intended purpose of the paper was to check the problem-solving approach rather than the 
calculation speed of the candidates.  
• One of the critical tools UPSC uses to trick candidates in exams is “language”. The same tool 
was extensively used in this year's UPSC CSAT exam. The language was on the difficult side. 
It was to check candidate comprehension skills not only in English but also in maths and 
reasoning questions. 
• Though the paper wasn’t lengthy as compared to the previous year's paper, few questions 
demanded better application of mind. (For reference Q-26 and 69 of Set-B) 
• UPSC has again included the data interpretation questions this year to test the ability of 
candidates to comprehend the data and derive meaningful interpretations of data to solve the 
given questions on the same. 
 
 
	
	
															
 
 
2                                                                                                                              
2. RECOMMENDATIONS 
2.1. Recommendations for Improving Reading Comprehension solving skills 
• Inculcate Regular Habit of Active Reading: It is pertinent to be consistent with reading topics 
from different areas as mentioned above. Regular and active reading of opinions, lead articles 
and op-eds of good newspapers like Indian Express, The Hindu, Live Mint etc  are needed.   
• Alternative Sources of Reading: Some other useful sources can include the magazine section 
and the Sunday edition of The Hindu Newspaper. This would improve comprehension and 
analytical skills, further enhance the thought process of students and consequently build 
familiarity with a diverse range of topics.  
• Clarity over Directive words:Most of the questions require a clear understanding of directive 
words such as crux, logical and rational inference, assumption, etc. It is highly desirable that 
students are precisely aware of these meanings and also the difference among them. Not doing 
so can be fatal in Reading Comprehension questions by making answers incorrect.  
• Better Time Management:  Some questions in the RC are invariably tricky. Students should 
be mindful of this and should attempt questions where they are more comfortable. Staying agile 
and mindful of one’s own strengths in this context is key to better time-management and 
eventually better scores. 
• Free from Prejudices/ Biases: One of the common mistakes often committed by the candidate 
is using their GS knowledge to derive the answer for a given passage in RC. Hence the 
candidate has to attempt RC questions without any preconceptions or biases based on the GS 
knowledge.  
2.2. Recommendation for improving Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Conceptual Clarity of Fundamentals: The first and foremost step is to have a thorough 
understanding and gain command over  the basic concepts and its applications pertaining to all 
the topics like Number system,Percentages, Ratios etc. of the syllabus of mathematics.  
• Focus on Regular Practice: Lack of practice is one of the key reasons for students failing to 
attempt the entire paper and securing the qualifying marks. With meticulous planning and 
proper practice of mocks students can better attempt the entire paper and would lead to higher 
chances of clearing the cut-off. 
• Sources for improving data interpretation skills: Laying emphasis to data related sections 
of dailies and reading the Economic Survey can be a useful source as it contains the data and 
numbers with their meaningful interpretation in form of tables/ line graphs etc. This will help 
students to get familiar with numbers and improve their analytical skills. 
• Reasonable command over language: To improve verbal reasoning, a candidate has to have 
basic to intermediate language skills including grammatical knowledge. Language and 
Grammar skills are mostly ignored by the candidates, however, these  help us to identify the 
fallacy in a statement and guide us to the right answer. 
• Miscellaneous: In addition to the above, students should develop substitution/ reverse 
engineering techniques of problem solving to arrive at the right solutions. It helps them to 
reduce the need for calculation for every option while solving problems. 
• Also, for a quick reference and recall, students can also prepare a chapter/topic wise document 
of important formulae and innovative tips and tools. 
 
 
Page 3


 
1                                                                                                                              
	
	
UPSC	2021-	CSAT	SOLUTION	
	
Observations	and	Recommendations	
 
1. OBSERVATIONS 
1.1 Reading Comprehension  
• The question pattern largely remained the same as previous year papers (last 5 years) in terms 
of type/ pattern of the questions (Logical inference/ Critical idea/ Valid assumptions/ Logical 
corollary etc), barring a new type of RC question which was based on missing preceding part 
of a given passage (For reference- Q43 of Set B). 
• The framing of statements and language seemed difficult to decipher at first reading for many 
questions. This added to the anxiety and impeded the overall time-management of the paper.   
• The diverse range and depth of topical themes based on which the passages were constructed 
posed a challenge. For instance, certain passages delved into depths of Religion, Science & 
Technology, International Relations, Law, and Philosophy which would need subject 
familiarity to answer them well.    
1.2. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Questions of mathematics were of medium difficulty level this year. However, in a few 
questions, interpretation was a bit tricky. 
• The utility of shortcuts and direct formula based methods to arrive at answers diminished as the 
intended purpose of the paper was to check the problem-solving approach rather than the 
calculation speed of the candidates.  
• One of the critical tools UPSC uses to trick candidates in exams is “language”. The same tool 
was extensively used in this year's UPSC CSAT exam. The language was on the difficult side. 
It was to check candidate comprehension skills not only in English but also in maths and 
reasoning questions. 
• Though the paper wasn’t lengthy as compared to the previous year's paper, few questions 
demanded better application of mind. (For reference Q-26 and 69 of Set-B) 
• UPSC has again included the data interpretation questions this year to test the ability of 
candidates to comprehend the data and derive meaningful interpretations of data to solve the 
given questions on the same. 
 
 
	
	
															
 
 
2                                                                                                                              
2. RECOMMENDATIONS 
2.1. Recommendations for Improving Reading Comprehension solving skills 
• Inculcate Regular Habit of Active Reading: It is pertinent to be consistent with reading topics 
from different areas as mentioned above. Regular and active reading of opinions, lead articles 
and op-eds of good newspapers like Indian Express, The Hindu, Live Mint etc  are needed.   
• Alternative Sources of Reading: Some other useful sources can include the magazine section 
and the Sunday edition of The Hindu Newspaper. This would improve comprehension and 
analytical skills, further enhance the thought process of students and consequently build 
familiarity with a diverse range of topics.  
• Clarity over Directive words:Most of the questions require a clear understanding of directive 
words such as crux, logical and rational inference, assumption, etc. It is highly desirable that 
students are precisely aware of these meanings and also the difference among them. Not doing 
so can be fatal in Reading Comprehension questions by making answers incorrect.  
• Better Time Management:  Some questions in the RC are invariably tricky. Students should 
be mindful of this and should attempt questions where they are more comfortable. Staying agile 
and mindful of one’s own strengths in this context is key to better time-management and 
eventually better scores. 
• Free from Prejudices/ Biases: One of the common mistakes often committed by the candidate 
is using their GS knowledge to derive the answer for a given passage in RC. Hence the 
candidate has to attempt RC questions without any preconceptions or biases based on the GS 
knowledge.  
2.2. Recommendation for improving Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Conceptual Clarity of Fundamentals: The first and foremost step is to have a thorough 
understanding and gain command over  the basic concepts and its applications pertaining to all 
the topics like Number system,Percentages, Ratios etc. of the syllabus of mathematics.  
• Focus on Regular Practice: Lack of practice is one of the key reasons for students failing to 
attempt the entire paper and securing the qualifying marks. With meticulous planning and 
proper practice of mocks students can better attempt the entire paper and would lead to higher 
chances of clearing the cut-off. 
• Sources for improving data interpretation skills: Laying emphasis to data related sections 
of dailies and reading the Economic Survey can be a useful source as it contains the data and 
numbers with their meaningful interpretation in form of tables/ line graphs etc. This will help 
students to get familiar with numbers and improve their analytical skills. 
• Reasonable command over language: To improve verbal reasoning, a candidate has to have 
basic to intermediate language skills including grammatical knowledge. Language and 
Grammar skills are mostly ignored by the candidates, however, these  help us to identify the 
fallacy in a statement and guide us to the right answer. 
• Miscellaneous: In addition to the above, students should develop substitution/ reverse 
engineering techniques of problem solving to arrive at the right solutions. It helps them to 
reduce the need for calculation for every option while solving problems. 
• Also, for a quick reference and recall, students can also prepare a chapter/topic wise document 
of important formulae and innovative tips and tools. 
 
 
 
3                                                                                                                              
Directions for the following 4 (four) items: 
Read the following four passages and answer the items that follow. Your answer to these items should 
be based on the passages only. 
Passage – 1 
With respect to what are called denominations of religion, if everyone is left to be a judge of his own 
religion, there is no such things as religion that is wrong; but if they are to be a judge of each other’s 
religion, there is no such thing as a religion that is right, and therefore all the world is right or all the 
world is wrong in the matter of religion. 
 
Q.1. What is the most logical assumption that can be made from the passage given above? 
(a) No man can live without adhering to some religious denomination. 
(b) It is the duty of everyone to propagate one’s religious denomination. 
(c) Religious denominations tend to ignore the unity of man. 
(d) Men do not understand their own religious denomination. 
Ans. (c)   
Explanation: 
The passage is trying to understand how the meaning of religion changes based on the perspective of 
the looker. It contrasts how we tend to see one's religious denomination as the most correct one and 
tend to disregard the religious beliefs of others.  
Option (a) is incorrect: As the passage does not assume that an individual cannot survive without 
following any religious denomination.  
Option (b) is incorrect as the passage is concerned only with the interpretation of religion from 
different perspectives but not with the propagation of religion. 
Option (c) is correct as when we consider our religion to be the correct one and all others as false, we 
are assuming that all men are not united by any shared common values or principles.  
Option (d) is incorrect as people believe that they understand their own religion and on the basis of 
this understanding only they tend to discard and disapprove of the other denominations. 
 
Passage – 2 
It is certain, that seditions, wars, and contempt or breach of the laws are not so much to be imputed to 
the wickedness of the subjects, as to the bad state of a dominion. For men are not born fir for citizenship 
but must be made so. Besides, men’s natural passions are everywhere the same; and if wickedness more 
prevails, and more offences are committed in one commonwealth than in another, it is certain that the 
former has neither enough pursued the end of unity, nor framed its laws with sufficient forethought; 
and that, therefore, it has failed in making quite good its right as a commonwealth. 
 
Q.2. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from 
the passage given above? 
(a) Seditions, wars, and breach of the laws are inevitable in every dominion. 
(b) It is not the people, but the sovereign who is responsible for all the problems of any 
dominion. 
(c) That dominion is the best which pursues the aim of unity and has laws for good citizenship. 
(d) It is impossible for men to establish a good dominion. 
Page 4


 
1                                                                                                                              
	
	
UPSC	2021-	CSAT	SOLUTION	
	
Observations	and	Recommendations	
 
1. OBSERVATIONS 
1.1 Reading Comprehension  
• The question pattern largely remained the same as previous year papers (last 5 years) in terms 
of type/ pattern of the questions (Logical inference/ Critical idea/ Valid assumptions/ Logical 
corollary etc), barring a new type of RC question which was based on missing preceding part 
of a given passage (For reference- Q43 of Set B). 
• The framing of statements and language seemed difficult to decipher at first reading for many 
questions. This added to the anxiety and impeded the overall time-management of the paper.   
• The diverse range and depth of topical themes based on which the passages were constructed 
posed a challenge. For instance, certain passages delved into depths of Religion, Science & 
Technology, International Relations, Law, and Philosophy which would need subject 
familiarity to answer them well.    
1.2. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Questions of mathematics were of medium difficulty level this year. However, in a few 
questions, interpretation was a bit tricky. 
• The utility of shortcuts and direct formula based methods to arrive at answers diminished as the 
intended purpose of the paper was to check the problem-solving approach rather than the 
calculation speed of the candidates.  
• One of the critical tools UPSC uses to trick candidates in exams is “language”. The same tool 
was extensively used in this year's UPSC CSAT exam. The language was on the difficult side. 
It was to check candidate comprehension skills not only in English but also in maths and 
reasoning questions. 
• Though the paper wasn’t lengthy as compared to the previous year's paper, few questions 
demanded better application of mind. (For reference Q-26 and 69 of Set-B) 
• UPSC has again included the data interpretation questions this year to test the ability of 
candidates to comprehend the data and derive meaningful interpretations of data to solve the 
given questions on the same. 
 
 
	
	
															
 
 
2                                                                                                                              
2. RECOMMENDATIONS 
2.1. Recommendations for Improving Reading Comprehension solving skills 
• Inculcate Regular Habit of Active Reading: It is pertinent to be consistent with reading topics 
from different areas as mentioned above. Regular and active reading of opinions, lead articles 
and op-eds of good newspapers like Indian Express, The Hindu, Live Mint etc  are needed.   
• Alternative Sources of Reading: Some other useful sources can include the magazine section 
and the Sunday edition of The Hindu Newspaper. This would improve comprehension and 
analytical skills, further enhance the thought process of students and consequently build 
familiarity with a diverse range of topics.  
• Clarity over Directive words:Most of the questions require a clear understanding of directive 
words such as crux, logical and rational inference, assumption, etc. It is highly desirable that 
students are precisely aware of these meanings and also the difference among them. Not doing 
so can be fatal in Reading Comprehension questions by making answers incorrect.  
• Better Time Management:  Some questions in the RC are invariably tricky. Students should 
be mindful of this and should attempt questions where they are more comfortable. Staying agile 
and mindful of one’s own strengths in this context is key to better time-management and 
eventually better scores. 
• Free from Prejudices/ Biases: One of the common mistakes often committed by the candidate 
is using their GS knowledge to derive the answer for a given passage in RC. Hence the 
candidate has to attempt RC questions without any preconceptions or biases based on the GS 
knowledge.  
2.2. Recommendation for improving Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Conceptual Clarity of Fundamentals: The first and foremost step is to have a thorough 
understanding and gain command over  the basic concepts and its applications pertaining to all 
the topics like Number system,Percentages, Ratios etc. of the syllabus of mathematics.  
• Focus on Regular Practice: Lack of practice is one of the key reasons for students failing to 
attempt the entire paper and securing the qualifying marks. With meticulous planning and 
proper practice of mocks students can better attempt the entire paper and would lead to higher 
chances of clearing the cut-off. 
• Sources for improving data interpretation skills: Laying emphasis to data related sections 
of dailies and reading the Economic Survey can be a useful source as it contains the data and 
numbers with their meaningful interpretation in form of tables/ line graphs etc. This will help 
students to get familiar with numbers and improve their analytical skills. 
• Reasonable command over language: To improve verbal reasoning, a candidate has to have 
basic to intermediate language skills including grammatical knowledge. Language and 
Grammar skills are mostly ignored by the candidates, however, these  help us to identify the 
fallacy in a statement and guide us to the right answer. 
• Miscellaneous: In addition to the above, students should develop substitution/ reverse 
engineering techniques of problem solving to arrive at the right solutions. It helps them to 
reduce the need for calculation for every option while solving problems. 
• Also, for a quick reference and recall, students can also prepare a chapter/topic wise document 
of important formulae and innovative tips and tools. 
 
 
 
3                                                                                                                              
Directions for the following 4 (four) items: 
Read the following four passages and answer the items that follow. Your answer to these items should 
be based on the passages only. 
Passage – 1 
With respect to what are called denominations of religion, if everyone is left to be a judge of his own 
religion, there is no such things as religion that is wrong; but if they are to be a judge of each other’s 
religion, there is no such thing as a religion that is right, and therefore all the world is right or all the 
world is wrong in the matter of religion. 
 
Q.1. What is the most logical assumption that can be made from the passage given above? 
(a) No man can live without adhering to some religious denomination. 
(b) It is the duty of everyone to propagate one’s religious denomination. 
(c) Religious denominations tend to ignore the unity of man. 
(d) Men do not understand their own religious denomination. 
Ans. (c)   
Explanation: 
The passage is trying to understand how the meaning of religion changes based on the perspective of 
the looker. It contrasts how we tend to see one's religious denomination as the most correct one and 
tend to disregard the religious beliefs of others.  
Option (a) is incorrect: As the passage does not assume that an individual cannot survive without 
following any religious denomination.  
Option (b) is incorrect as the passage is concerned only with the interpretation of religion from 
different perspectives but not with the propagation of religion. 
Option (c) is correct as when we consider our religion to be the correct one and all others as false, we 
are assuming that all men are not united by any shared common values or principles.  
Option (d) is incorrect as people believe that they understand their own religion and on the basis of 
this understanding only they tend to discard and disapprove of the other denominations. 
 
Passage – 2 
It is certain, that seditions, wars, and contempt or breach of the laws are not so much to be imputed to 
the wickedness of the subjects, as to the bad state of a dominion. For men are not born fir for citizenship 
but must be made so. Besides, men’s natural passions are everywhere the same; and if wickedness more 
prevails, and more offences are committed in one commonwealth than in another, it is certain that the 
former has neither enough pursued the end of unity, nor framed its laws with sufficient forethought; 
and that, therefore, it has failed in making quite good its right as a commonwealth. 
 
Q.2. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from 
the passage given above? 
(a) Seditions, wars, and breach of the laws are inevitable in every dominion. 
(b) It is not the people, but the sovereign who is responsible for all the problems of any 
dominion. 
(c) That dominion is the best which pursues the aim of unity and has laws for good citizenship. 
(d) It is impossible for men to establish a good dominion. 
 
4                                                                                                                              
Ans. (c) 
Explanation: 
Option (a) is incorrect: The option is an assumption that issues of sedition, wars, etc. are inevitable 
and they should not be amputated to the wickedness of the subjects. So, it can not be an inference drawn 
based on the passage. 
Option (b)is incorrect. As it lays the responsibility for all the issues on the sovereign, which is not the 
most rational inference that can be drawn based on the information provided.  
Option (c) is correct: It has been mentioned that if there are more crimes in dominion in comparison 
to another, it is due to laws which lack foresight, and the sovereign has not pursued unity. But if the 
State does so, it becomes the best State.  
Option (d) is incorrect: This is not the most rational and logical inference as the ability of men or 
sovereign to establish good dominion is not being discussed and cannot be inferred as well.  
 
Passage – 3 
Inequality violates a basic democratic norm: the equal standing of citizens. Equality is a relation that 
obtains between persons in respect of some fundamental characteristic that they share in common. 
Equality is, morally speaking, a default principle. Therefore, persons should not be discriminated on 
grounds such as race, caste, gender, ethnicity, disability, or class. These features of human condition 
are morally irrelevant. The idea that one should treat persons with respect not only because some of 
these persons some special features or talent, for example skilled cricketers, gifted musicians, or literary 
giants, but because persons are human being, is by now part of commonsense morality. 
 
 
 
Page 5


 
1                                                                                                                              
	
	
UPSC	2021-	CSAT	SOLUTION	
	
Observations	and	Recommendations	
 
1. OBSERVATIONS 
1.1 Reading Comprehension  
• The question pattern largely remained the same as previous year papers (last 5 years) in terms 
of type/ pattern of the questions (Logical inference/ Critical idea/ Valid assumptions/ Logical 
corollary etc), barring a new type of RC question which was based on missing preceding part 
of a given passage (For reference- Q43 of Set B). 
• The framing of statements and language seemed difficult to decipher at first reading for many 
questions. This added to the anxiety and impeded the overall time-management of the paper.   
• The diverse range and depth of topical themes based on which the passages were constructed 
posed a challenge. For instance, certain passages delved into depths of Religion, Science & 
Technology, International Relations, Law, and Philosophy which would need subject 
familiarity to answer them well.    
1.2. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Questions of mathematics were of medium difficulty level this year. However, in a few 
questions, interpretation was a bit tricky. 
• The utility of shortcuts and direct formula based methods to arrive at answers diminished as the 
intended purpose of the paper was to check the problem-solving approach rather than the 
calculation speed of the candidates.  
• One of the critical tools UPSC uses to trick candidates in exams is “language”. The same tool 
was extensively used in this year's UPSC CSAT exam. The language was on the difficult side. 
It was to check candidate comprehension skills not only in English but also in maths and 
reasoning questions. 
• Though the paper wasn’t lengthy as compared to the previous year's paper, few questions 
demanded better application of mind. (For reference Q-26 and 69 of Set-B) 
• UPSC has again included the data interpretation questions this year to test the ability of 
candidates to comprehend the data and derive meaningful interpretations of data to solve the 
given questions on the same. 
 
 
	
	
															
 
 
2                                                                                                                              
2. RECOMMENDATIONS 
2.1. Recommendations for Improving Reading Comprehension solving skills 
• Inculcate Regular Habit of Active Reading: It is pertinent to be consistent with reading topics 
from different areas as mentioned above. Regular and active reading of opinions, lead articles 
and op-eds of good newspapers like Indian Express, The Hindu, Live Mint etc  are needed.   
• Alternative Sources of Reading: Some other useful sources can include the magazine section 
and the Sunday edition of The Hindu Newspaper. This would improve comprehension and 
analytical skills, further enhance the thought process of students and consequently build 
familiarity with a diverse range of topics.  
• Clarity over Directive words:Most of the questions require a clear understanding of directive 
words such as crux, logical and rational inference, assumption, etc. It is highly desirable that 
students are precisely aware of these meanings and also the difference among them. Not doing 
so can be fatal in Reading Comprehension questions by making answers incorrect.  
• Better Time Management:  Some questions in the RC are invariably tricky. Students should 
be mindful of this and should attempt questions where they are more comfortable. Staying agile 
and mindful of one’s own strengths in this context is key to better time-management and 
eventually better scores. 
• Free from Prejudices/ Biases: One of the common mistakes often committed by the candidate 
is using their GS knowledge to derive the answer for a given passage in RC. Hence the 
candidate has to attempt RC questions without any preconceptions or biases based on the GS 
knowledge.  
2.2. Recommendation for improving Mathematics and Logical Reasoning  
• Conceptual Clarity of Fundamentals: The first and foremost step is to have a thorough 
understanding and gain command over  the basic concepts and its applications pertaining to all 
the topics like Number system,Percentages, Ratios etc. of the syllabus of mathematics.  
• Focus on Regular Practice: Lack of practice is one of the key reasons for students failing to 
attempt the entire paper and securing the qualifying marks. With meticulous planning and 
proper practice of mocks students can better attempt the entire paper and would lead to higher 
chances of clearing the cut-off. 
• Sources for improving data interpretation skills: Laying emphasis to data related sections 
of dailies and reading the Economic Survey can be a useful source as it contains the data and 
numbers with their meaningful interpretation in form of tables/ line graphs etc. This will help 
students to get familiar with numbers and improve their analytical skills. 
• Reasonable command over language: To improve verbal reasoning, a candidate has to have 
basic to intermediate language skills including grammatical knowledge. Language and 
Grammar skills are mostly ignored by the candidates, however, these  help us to identify the 
fallacy in a statement and guide us to the right answer. 
• Miscellaneous: In addition to the above, students should develop substitution/ reverse 
engineering techniques of problem solving to arrive at the right solutions. It helps them to 
reduce the need for calculation for every option while solving problems. 
• Also, for a quick reference and recall, students can also prepare a chapter/topic wise document 
of important formulae and innovative tips and tools. 
 
 
 
3                                                                                                                              
Directions for the following 4 (four) items: 
Read the following four passages and answer the items that follow. Your answer to these items should 
be based on the passages only. 
Passage – 1 
With respect to what are called denominations of religion, if everyone is left to be a judge of his own 
religion, there is no such things as religion that is wrong; but if they are to be a judge of each other’s 
religion, there is no such thing as a religion that is right, and therefore all the world is right or all the 
world is wrong in the matter of religion. 
 
Q.1. What is the most logical assumption that can be made from the passage given above? 
(a) No man can live without adhering to some religious denomination. 
(b) It is the duty of everyone to propagate one’s religious denomination. 
(c) Religious denominations tend to ignore the unity of man. 
(d) Men do not understand their own religious denomination. 
Ans. (c)   
Explanation: 
The passage is trying to understand how the meaning of religion changes based on the perspective of 
the looker. It contrasts how we tend to see one's religious denomination as the most correct one and 
tend to disregard the religious beliefs of others.  
Option (a) is incorrect: As the passage does not assume that an individual cannot survive without 
following any religious denomination.  
Option (b) is incorrect as the passage is concerned only with the interpretation of religion from 
different perspectives but not with the propagation of religion. 
Option (c) is correct as when we consider our religion to be the correct one and all others as false, we 
are assuming that all men are not united by any shared common values or principles.  
Option (d) is incorrect as people believe that they understand their own religion and on the basis of 
this understanding only they tend to discard and disapprove of the other denominations. 
 
Passage – 2 
It is certain, that seditions, wars, and contempt or breach of the laws are not so much to be imputed to 
the wickedness of the subjects, as to the bad state of a dominion. For men are not born fir for citizenship 
but must be made so. Besides, men’s natural passions are everywhere the same; and if wickedness more 
prevails, and more offences are committed in one commonwealth than in another, it is certain that the 
former has neither enough pursued the end of unity, nor framed its laws with sufficient forethought; 
and that, therefore, it has failed in making quite good its right as a commonwealth. 
 
Q.2. Which among the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from 
the passage given above? 
(a) Seditions, wars, and breach of the laws are inevitable in every dominion. 
(b) It is not the people, but the sovereign who is responsible for all the problems of any 
dominion. 
(c) That dominion is the best which pursues the aim of unity and has laws for good citizenship. 
(d) It is impossible for men to establish a good dominion. 
 
4                                                                                                                              
Ans. (c) 
Explanation: 
Option (a) is incorrect: The option is an assumption that issues of sedition, wars, etc. are inevitable 
and they should not be amputated to the wickedness of the subjects. So, it can not be an inference drawn 
based on the passage. 
Option (b)is incorrect. As it lays the responsibility for all the issues on the sovereign, which is not the 
most rational inference that can be drawn based on the information provided.  
Option (c) is correct: It has been mentioned that if there are more crimes in dominion in comparison 
to another, it is due to laws which lack foresight, and the sovereign has not pursued unity. But if the 
State does so, it becomes the best State.  
Option (d) is incorrect: This is not the most rational and logical inference as the ability of men or 
sovereign to establish good dominion is not being discussed and cannot be inferred as well.  
 
Passage – 3 
Inequality violates a basic democratic norm: the equal standing of citizens. Equality is a relation that 
obtains between persons in respect of some fundamental characteristic that they share in common. 
Equality is, morally speaking, a default principle. Therefore, persons should not be discriminated on 
grounds such as race, caste, gender, ethnicity, disability, or class. These features of human condition 
are morally irrelevant. The idea that one should treat persons with respect not only because some of 
these persons some special features or talent, for example skilled cricketers, gifted musicians, or literary 
giants, but because persons are human being, is by now part of commonsense morality. 
 
 
 
 
5                                                                                                                              
Q.3. With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made: 
1. Equality is a prerequisite for people to participate in the multiple transactions of society 
from a position of confidence. 
2. Occurrence of inequality is detrimental to the survival of democracy. 
3. Equal standing of all citizens is an idea that cannot actually be realised even in a democracy. 
4. Right to equality should be incorporated into our values and day-to-day political 
vocabulary. 
Which of the above assumptions are valid? 
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 4 only 
(d) 3 and 4 only 
Ans. (a) 
Explanation: 
Statement 1 is correct:  Since the passage is talking about the removal of inequalities, we are assuming 
that equalities are prerequisites for people to participate in social transactions and interactions with 
confidence.  
Statement 2 is Correct: Since the passage talks about the violation of democratic norms when 
inequality is present, it is being assumed that the occurrence of inequality can threaten the survival of 
democracy itself and therefore we should strive to remove it.  
Statement 3 is incorrect: This is counterintuitive to the theme of the discussion of the passage. Also, 
the effort of the passage is the removal of inequalities.  
Statement 4 is incorrect: This statement is more like a recommendation for the future and cannot be 
an assumption.  
Hence, Option (a) is correct.  
 
Passage – 4 
Aristocratic government ruins itself by limiting too narrowly the circle within which power is confined; 
oligarchic government ruins itself by the incautious scramble for immediate wealth. But even 
democracy ruins itself by excess of democracy. Its basic principle is the equal right of all to hold office 
and determine public policy. This is, at first glance, a delightful arrangement; it becomes disastrous 
because the people are not properly equipped by education to select the best rulers and the wisest 
courses. The people have no understanding and only repeat what their rulers are pleased to tell them. 
Such a democracy is tyranny or autocracy. – Plato 
 
Q.4. Which one of the following statements best reflects the crux of the passage given above? 
(a) Human societies experiment with different forms of governments. 
(b) Any form of government tends to deteriorate by excess of its basic principle. 
(c) Education of all citizens ensures a perfect, functional and sustainable democracy. 
(d) Having a government is a necessary evil because tyranny is inherent in any form of 
government. 
Ans. (b) 
Explanation: 
Option (a) is incorrect: Although this is reflected in the passage, it is not the most important or decisive 
point or issue.  
Option (b) is correct because two forms of government-oligarchies and democracy have been 
discussed and it has been shown how they can turn into tyrannies due to their excesses.  
Read More
214 videos|139 docs|151 tests

Up next

214 videos|139 docs|151 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for UPSC exam

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

pdf

,

Sample Paper

,

Objective type Questions

,

Free

,

past year papers

,

MCQs

,

UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2021 with Solutions: CSAT Paper 2 | CSAT Preparation

,

UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2021 with Solutions: CSAT Paper 2 | CSAT Preparation

,

Semester Notes

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

study material

,

ppt

,

Summary

,

Important questions

,

Extra Questions

,

UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2021 with Solutions: CSAT Paper 2 | CSAT Preparation

,

Exam

,

video lectures

,

mock tests for examination

,

practice quizzes

;