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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 1 
Q.1 Which one of the following statements, if true, would weaken the author’s claims? 
Ans 
 1. Having migrated out in the last century, wolves are now returning to Lozère. 
 2. Wolf attacks on tourists in Lozère are on the rise. 
 3. Unemployment concerns the residents of Lozère. 
 4. The old mining sites of Lozère are now being used as grazing pastures for sheep. 
            
 
Page 2


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https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 2/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 1 
Q.1 Which one of the following statements, if true, would weaken the author’s claims? 
Ans 
 1. Having migrated out in the last century, wolves are now returning to Lozère. 
 2. Wolf attacks on tourists in Lozère are on the rise. 
 3. Unemployment concerns the residents of Lozère. 
 4. The old mining sites of Lozère are now being used as grazing pastures for sheep. 
            
 
12/5/23, 1:32 PM cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/2306… 
https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 3/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 2 
Q.2 The author presents a possible economic solution to an existing issue facing Lozère that 
takes into account the divergent and competing interests of: 
Ans 
 1. environmentalists and politicians. 
 2. farmers and environmentalists. 
 3. tourists and environmentalists. 
 4. politicians and farmers. 
 
Page 3


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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 1 
Q.1 Which one of the following statements, if true, would weaken the author’s claims? 
Ans 
 1. Having migrated out in the last century, wolves are now returning to Lozère. 
 2. Wolf attacks on tourists in Lozère are on the rise. 
 3. Unemployment concerns the residents of Lozère. 
 4. The old mining sites of Lozère are now being used as grazing pastures for sheep. 
            
 
12/5/23, 1:32 PM cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/2306… 
https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 3/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 2 
Q.2 The author presents a possible economic solution to an existing issue facing Lozère that 
takes into account the divergent and competing interests of: 
Ans 
 1. environmentalists and politicians. 
 2. farmers and environmentalists. 
 3. tourists and environmentalists. 
 4. politicians and farmers. 
 
12/5/23, 1:32 PM cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/2306… 
https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 4/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 3 
Q.3 The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT: 
Ans 
 1. decline in the number of hunting licences. 
 2. livestock losses. 
 3. poor rural communication infrastructure. 
 4. lack of educational facilities. 
 
Page 4


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https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 2/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 1 
Q.1 Which one of the following statements, if true, would weaken the author’s claims? 
Ans 
 1. Having migrated out in the last century, wolves are now returning to Lozère. 
 2. Wolf attacks on tourists in Lozère are on the rise. 
 3. Unemployment concerns the residents of Lozère. 
 4. The old mining sites of Lozère are now being used as grazing pastures for sheep. 
            
 
12/5/23, 1:32 PM cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/2306… 
https://cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/23061028_CAT… 3/57 
  
 
Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 2 
Q.2 The author presents a possible economic solution to an existing issue facing Lozère that 
takes into account the divergent and competing interests of: 
Ans 
 1. environmentalists and politicians. 
 2. farmers and environmentalists. 
 3. tourists and environmentalists. 
 4. politicians and farmers. 
 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 3 
Q.3 The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT: 
Ans 
 1. decline in the number of hunting licences. 
 2. livestock losses. 
 3. poor rural communication infrastructure. 
 4. lack of educational facilities. 
 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 4 
Q.4 Which one of the following has NOT contributed to the growing wolf population in Lozère? 
Ans 
 1. A decline in the rural population of Lozère. 
 2. The shutting down of the royal office of the Luparii. 
 3. An increase in woodlands and forest cover in Lozère. 
 4. The granting of a protected status to wolves in Europe. 
 
Page 5


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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 1 
Q.1 Which one of the following statements, if true, would weaken the author’s claims? 
Ans 
 1. Having migrated out in the last century, wolves are now returning to Lozère. 
 2. Wolf attacks on tourists in Lozère are on the rise. 
 3. Unemployment concerns the residents of Lozère. 
 4. The old mining sites of Lozère are now being used as grazing pastures for sheep. 
            
 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 2 
Q.2 The author presents a possible economic solution to an existing issue facing Lozère that 
takes into account the divergent and competing interests of: 
Ans 
 1. environmentalists and politicians. 
 2. farmers and environmentalists. 
 3. tourists and environmentalists. 
 4. politicians and farmers. 
 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 3 
Q.3 The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT: 
Ans 
 1. decline in the number of hunting licences. 
 2. livestock losses. 
 3. poor rural communication infrastructure. 
 4. lack of educational facilities. 
 
12/5/23, 1:32 PM cdn.digialm.com//per/g01/pub/756/touchstone/AssessmentQPHTMLMode1//CAT231/CAT231S1D4242/17013473891983939/2306… 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best 
answer for each question. 
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to 
many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon 
and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet 
connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated 
from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and 
hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, 
when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a 
wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. . 
. . 
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in 
France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 
1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved 
technology such as rifles in the 19
th
 century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, 
caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed 
the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have 
since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ 
presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths 
of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green 
activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy. 
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the 
story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a 
population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19
th
 century. Today the department has fewer 
than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, 
between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, 
as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by 
woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In 
the mid-to-late 20
th 
century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in 
woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des 
Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of 
active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting 
them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the 
efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf 
populations. 
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen 
closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who 
celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. 
Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, 
also generate income and jobs in rural areas. 
SubQuestion No : 4 
Q.4 Which one of the following has NOT contributed to the growing wolf population in Lozère? 
Ans 
 1. A decline in the rural population of Lozère. 
 2. The shutting down of the royal office of the Luparii. 
 3. An increase in woodlands and forest cover in Lozère. 
 4. The granting of a protected status to wolves in Europe. 
 
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Comprehension: 
The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the 
best answer for each question. 
Many human phenomena and characteristics – such as behaviors, beliefs, economies, 
genes, incomes, life expectancies, and other things – are influenced both by geographic 
factors and by non-geographic factors. Geographic factors mean physical and biological 
factors tied to geographic location, including climate, the distributions of wild plant and animal 
species, soils, and topography. Non-geographic factors include those factors subsumed under 
the term culture, other factors subsumed under the term history, and decisions by individual 
people. . . . 
[ T]he differences between the current economies of North and South Korea . . . cannot be 
attributed to the modest environmental differences between [them] . . . They are instead due 
entirely to the different [government] policies . . . At the opposite extreme, the Inuit and other 
traditional peoples living north of the Arctic Circle developed warm fur clothes but no 
agriculture, while equatorial lowland peoples around the world never developed warm fur 
clothes but often did develop agriculture. The explanation is straightforwardly geographic, 
rather than a cultural or historical quirk unrelated to geography. . . . Aboriginal Australia 
remained the sole continent occupied only by hunter/gatherers and with no indigenous 
farming or herding . . . [Here the] explanation is biogeographic: the Australian continent has 
no domesticable native animal species and few domesticable native plant species. Instead, 
the crops and domestic animals that now make Australia a food and wool exporter are all 
non-native (mainly Eurasian) species such as sheep, wheat, and grapes, brought to Australia 
by overseas colonists. 
Today, no scholar would be silly enough to deny that culture, history, and individual choices 
play a big role in many human phenomena. Scholars don’t react to cultural, historical, and 
individual-agent explanations by denouncing “cultural determinism,” “historical determinism,” 
or “individual determinism,” and then thinking no further. But many scholars do react to any 
explanation invoking some geographic role, by denouncing “geographic determinism” . . . 
Several reasons may underlie this widespread but nonsensical view. One reason is that some 
geographic explanations advanced a century ago were racist, thereby causing all geographic 
explanations to become tainted by racist associations in the minds of many scholars other 
than geographers. But many genetic, historical, psychological, and anthropological 
explanations advanced a century ago were also racist, yet the validity of newer non-racist 
genetic etc. explanations is widely accepted today. 
Another reason for reflex rejection of geographic explanations is that historians have a 
tradition, in their discipline, of stressing the role of contingency (a favorite word among 
historians) based on individual decisions and chance. Often that view is warranted . . . But 
often, too, that view is unwarranted. The development of warm fur clothes among the Inuit 
living north of the Arctic Circle was not because one influential Inuit leader persuaded other 
Inuit in 1783 to adopt warm fur clothes, for no good environmental reason. 
A third reason is that geographic explanations usually depend on detailed technical facts of 
geography and other fields of scholarship . . . Most historians and economists don’t acquire 
that detailed knowledge as part of the professional training. 
SubQuestion No : 5 
Q.5 All of the following are advanced by the author as reasons why non-geographers 
disregard geographic influences on human phenomena EXCEPT their: 
Ans 1 . dismissal of explanations that involve geographical causes for human behaviour. 
2 . disciplinary training which typically does not include technical knowledge of 
geography. 
3 . lingering impressions of past geographic analyses that were politically offensive. 
4 . belief in the central role of humans, unrelated to physical surroundings, in influencing 
phenomena. 
Question Type : MCQ 
Question ID : 48916816169 
Option 1 ID : 48916840347 
Option 2 ID : 48916840345 
Option 3 ID : 48916840348 
Option 4 ID : 48916840346 
Status : Not Answered 
Chosen Option : -- 
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