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 Page 1


vThere is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics ... . It may
be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of
beauty of any kind, we may not know quite what we mean by a
beautiful poem, but that does not prevent us from recognising
one when we read it. — G. H. HARDY v
1.1  Introduction
Recall that the notion of relations and functions, domain,
co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI
along with different types of specific real valued functions
and their graphs. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in
mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation
in English language, according to which two objects or
quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection
or link between the two objects or quantities. Let  A be
the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the
set of students of Class XI of the same school. Then some
of the examples of relations from A to B are
(i) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is brother of b},
(ii) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is sister of b},
(iii) {(a, b) ? A × B: age of a is greater than age of b},
(iv) {(a, b) ? A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than
the total marks obtained by b in the final examination},
(v) {(a, b) ? A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}.  However, abstracting from
this, we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset
of A × B.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as
a R b. In general, (a, b) ? R, we do not bother whether there is a recognisable
connection or link between a and b. As seen in Class XI, functions are special kind of
relations.
In this chapter, we will study different types of relations and functions, composition
of functions, invertible functions and binary operations.
Chapter 1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Lejeune Dirichlet
 (1805-1859)
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


vThere is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics ... . It may
be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of
beauty of any kind, we may not know quite what we mean by a
beautiful poem, but that does not prevent us from recognising
one when we read it. — G. H. HARDY v
1.1  Introduction
Recall that the notion of relations and functions, domain,
co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI
along with different types of specific real valued functions
and their graphs. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in
mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation
in English language, according to which two objects or
quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection
or link between the two objects or quantities. Let  A be
the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the
set of students of Class XI of the same school. Then some
of the examples of relations from A to B are
(i) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is brother of b},
(ii) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is sister of b},
(iii) {(a, b) ? A × B: age of a is greater than age of b},
(iv) {(a, b) ? A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than
the total marks obtained by b in the final examination},
(v) {(a, b) ? A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}.  However, abstracting from
this, we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset
of A × B.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as
a R b. In general, (a, b) ? R, we do not bother whether there is a recognisable
connection or link between a and b. As seen in Class XI, functions are special kind of
relations.
In this chapter, we will study different types of relations and functions, composition
of functions, invertible functions and binary operations.
Chapter 1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Lejeune Dirichlet
 (1805-1859)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 2
1.2  Types of Relations
In this section, we would like to study different types of relations. We know that a
relation in a set A is a subset of A × A. Thus, the empty set f and A × A are two
extreme relations. For illustration, consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4} given by
R = {(a, b): a – b = 10}. This is the empty set, as no pair (a, b) satisfies the condition
a – b = 10. Similarly, R' = {(a, b) : | a – b | = 0} is the whole set A × A, as all pairs
(a, b) in A × A satisfy | a – b | = 0. These two extreme examples lead us to the
following definitions.
Definition 1 A relation R in a set A is called empty relation, if no element of A is
related to any element of A, i.e., R = f ? A × A.
Definition 2  A relation R in a set A is called universal relation, if each element of A
is related to every element of A, i.e., R = A × A.
Both the empty relation and the universal relation are some times called trivial
relations.
Example 1 Let A be the set of all students of a boys school. Show that the relation R
in A given by R = {(a, b) : a is sister of b} is the empty relation and R' = {(a, b) : the
difference between heights of a and b is less than 3 meters} is the universal relation.
Solution Since the school is boys school, no student of the school can be sister of any
student of the school. Hence, R = f, showing that R is the empty relation. It is also
obvious that the difference between heights of any two students of the school has to be
less than 3 meters. This shows that R' = A × A is the universal relation.
Remark In Class XI, we have seen two ways of representing a relation, namely raster
method and set builder method. However, a relation R in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} defined by R
= {(a, b) : b = a + 1} is also expressed as a R b if and only if
b = a + 1 by many authors. We may also use this notation, as and when convenient.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b and we denote it as a R b.
One of the most important relation, which plays a significant role in Mathematics,
is an equivalence relation. To study equivalence relation, we first consider three
types of relations, namely reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Definition 3 A relation R in a set A is called
(i) reflexive, if (a, a) ? R, for every a
 
? A,
(ii) symmetric, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R implies that (a
2
, a
1
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
 ? A.
(iii) transitive, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R and (a
2
, a
3
)
 
? R implies that (a
1
, a
3
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
,
a
3
 ? A.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


vThere is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics ... . It may
be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of
beauty of any kind, we may not know quite what we mean by a
beautiful poem, but that does not prevent us from recognising
one when we read it. — G. H. HARDY v
1.1  Introduction
Recall that the notion of relations and functions, domain,
co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI
along with different types of specific real valued functions
and their graphs. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in
mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation
in English language, according to which two objects or
quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection
or link between the two objects or quantities. Let  A be
the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the
set of students of Class XI of the same school. Then some
of the examples of relations from A to B are
(i) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is brother of b},
(ii) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is sister of b},
(iii) {(a, b) ? A × B: age of a is greater than age of b},
(iv) {(a, b) ? A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than
the total marks obtained by b in the final examination},
(v) {(a, b) ? A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}.  However, abstracting from
this, we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset
of A × B.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as
a R b. In general, (a, b) ? R, we do not bother whether there is a recognisable
connection or link between a and b. As seen in Class XI, functions are special kind of
relations.
In this chapter, we will study different types of relations and functions, composition
of functions, invertible functions and binary operations.
Chapter 1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Lejeune Dirichlet
 (1805-1859)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 2
1.2  Types of Relations
In this section, we would like to study different types of relations. We know that a
relation in a set A is a subset of A × A. Thus, the empty set f and A × A are two
extreme relations. For illustration, consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4} given by
R = {(a, b): a – b = 10}. This is the empty set, as no pair (a, b) satisfies the condition
a – b = 10. Similarly, R' = {(a, b) : | a – b | = 0} is the whole set A × A, as all pairs
(a, b) in A × A satisfy | a – b | = 0. These two extreme examples lead us to the
following definitions.
Definition 1 A relation R in a set A is called empty relation, if no element of A is
related to any element of A, i.e., R = f ? A × A.
Definition 2  A relation R in a set A is called universal relation, if each element of A
is related to every element of A, i.e., R = A × A.
Both the empty relation and the universal relation are some times called trivial
relations.
Example 1 Let A be the set of all students of a boys school. Show that the relation R
in A given by R = {(a, b) : a is sister of b} is the empty relation and R' = {(a, b) : the
difference between heights of a and b is less than 3 meters} is the universal relation.
Solution Since the school is boys school, no student of the school can be sister of any
student of the school. Hence, R = f, showing that R is the empty relation. It is also
obvious that the difference between heights of any two students of the school has to be
less than 3 meters. This shows that R' = A × A is the universal relation.
Remark In Class XI, we have seen two ways of representing a relation, namely raster
method and set builder method. However, a relation R in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} defined by R
= {(a, b) : b = a + 1} is also expressed as a R b if and only if
b = a + 1 by many authors. We may also use this notation, as and when convenient.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b and we denote it as a R b.
One of the most important relation, which plays a significant role in Mathematics,
is an equivalence relation. To study equivalence relation, we first consider three
types of relations, namely reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Definition 3 A relation R in a set A is called
(i) reflexive, if (a, a) ? R, for every a
 
? A,
(ii) symmetric, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R implies that (a
2
, a
1
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
 ? A.
(iii) transitive, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R and (a
2
, a
3
)
 
? R implies that (a
1
, a
3
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
,
a
3
 ? A.
Rationalised 2023-24
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 3
Definition 4 A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is
reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Example 2 Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation in T given by
R = {(T
1
, T
2
) : T
1
 is congruent to T
2
}. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, since every triangle is congruent to itself. Further,
(T
1
, T
2
) ? R ? T
1
 is congruent to T
2
 ? T
2
 is congruent to T
1
 ? (T
2
, T
1
) ? R. Hence,
R is symmetric. Moreover, (T
1
, T
2
), (T
2
, T
3
) ? R ? T
1
 is  congruent to T
2
 and T
2
 is
congruent to T
3
 ? T
1
 is congruent to T
3
 ? (T
1
, T
3
) ? R. Therefore, R is an equivalence
relation.
Example 3 Let L be the set of all lines in a plane and R be the relation in L defined as
R = {(L
1
, L
2
) : L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
}. Show that R is symmetric but neither
reflexive nor transitive.
Solution R is not reflexive, as a line L
1
 can not be perpendicular to itself, i.e., (L
1
, L
1
)
? R. R is symmetric as (L
1
, L
2
) ? R
? L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
? L
2
 is perpendicular to L
1
? (L
2
, L
1
) ? R.
R is not transitive. Indeed, if L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
 and
L
2
 is perpendicular to L
3
, then L
1
 can never be perpendicular to
L
3
. In fact, L
1
 is parallel to L
3
, i.e., (L
1
, L
2
) ? R, (L
2
, L
3
) ? R but (L
1
, L
3
) ? R.
Example 4 Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 1), (2, 2),
(3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3)} is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive.
Solution R is reflexive, since (1, 1), (2, 2) and (3, 3) lie in R. Also, R is not symmetric,
as (1, 2) ? R but (2, 1) ? R. Similarly, R is not transitive, as (1, 2) ? R and (2, 3) ? R
but (1, 3) ? R.
Example 5 Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by
R = {(a, b) : 2 divides a – b}
is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, as 2 divides (a – a) for all a ? Z. Further, if (a, b) ? R, then
2 divides a – b. Therefore, 2 divides b – a. Hence, (b, a) ? R, which shows that R is
symmetric. Similarly, if (a, b) ? R and (b, c) ? R, then a – b and b – c are divisible by
2. Now, a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Why?). So, (a – c) is divisible by 2. This
shows that R is transitive. Thus, R is an equivalence relation in Z.
Fig 1.1
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


vThere is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics ... . It may
be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of
beauty of any kind, we may not know quite what we mean by a
beautiful poem, but that does not prevent us from recognising
one when we read it. — G. H. HARDY v
1.1  Introduction
Recall that the notion of relations and functions, domain,
co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI
along with different types of specific real valued functions
and their graphs. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in
mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation
in English language, according to which two objects or
quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection
or link between the two objects or quantities. Let  A be
the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the
set of students of Class XI of the same school. Then some
of the examples of relations from A to B are
(i) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is brother of b},
(ii) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is sister of b},
(iii) {(a, b) ? A × B: age of a is greater than age of b},
(iv) {(a, b) ? A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than
the total marks obtained by b in the final examination},
(v) {(a, b) ? A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}.  However, abstracting from
this, we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset
of A × B.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as
a R b. In general, (a, b) ? R, we do not bother whether there is a recognisable
connection or link between a and b. As seen in Class XI, functions are special kind of
relations.
In this chapter, we will study different types of relations and functions, composition
of functions, invertible functions and binary operations.
Chapter 1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Lejeune Dirichlet
 (1805-1859)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 2
1.2  Types of Relations
In this section, we would like to study different types of relations. We know that a
relation in a set A is a subset of A × A. Thus, the empty set f and A × A are two
extreme relations. For illustration, consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4} given by
R = {(a, b): a – b = 10}. This is the empty set, as no pair (a, b) satisfies the condition
a – b = 10. Similarly, R' = {(a, b) : | a – b | = 0} is the whole set A × A, as all pairs
(a, b) in A × A satisfy | a – b | = 0. These two extreme examples lead us to the
following definitions.
Definition 1 A relation R in a set A is called empty relation, if no element of A is
related to any element of A, i.e., R = f ? A × A.
Definition 2  A relation R in a set A is called universal relation, if each element of A
is related to every element of A, i.e., R = A × A.
Both the empty relation and the universal relation are some times called trivial
relations.
Example 1 Let A be the set of all students of a boys school. Show that the relation R
in A given by R = {(a, b) : a is sister of b} is the empty relation and R' = {(a, b) : the
difference between heights of a and b is less than 3 meters} is the universal relation.
Solution Since the school is boys school, no student of the school can be sister of any
student of the school. Hence, R = f, showing that R is the empty relation. It is also
obvious that the difference between heights of any two students of the school has to be
less than 3 meters. This shows that R' = A × A is the universal relation.
Remark In Class XI, we have seen two ways of representing a relation, namely raster
method and set builder method. However, a relation R in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} defined by R
= {(a, b) : b = a + 1} is also expressed as a R b if and only if
b = a + 1 by many authors. We may also use this notation, as and when convenient.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b and we denote it as a R b.
One of the most important relation, which plays a significant role in Mathematics,
is an equivalence relation. To study equivalence relation, we first consider three
types of relations, namely reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Definition 3 A relation R in a set A is called
(i) reflexive, if (a, a) ? R, for every a
 
? A,
(ii) symmetric, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R implies that (a
2
, a
1
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
 ? A.
(iii) transitive, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R and (a
2
, a
3
)
 
? R implies that (a
1
, a
3
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
,
a
3
 ? A.
Rationalised 2023-24
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 3
Definition 4 A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is
reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Example 2 Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation in T given by
R = {(T
1
, T
2
) : T
1
 is congruent to T
2
}. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, since every triangle is congruent to itself. Further,
(T
1
, T
2
) ? R ? T
1
 is congruent to T
2
 ? T
2
 is congruent to T
1
 ? (T
2
, T
1
) ? R. Hence,
R is symmetric. Moreover, (T
1
, T
2
), (T
2
, T
3
) ? R ? T
1
 is  congruent to T
2
 and T
2
 is
congruent to T
3
 ? T
1
 is congruent to T
3
 ? (T
1
, T
3
) ? R. Therefore, R is an equivalence
relation.
Example 3 Let L be the set of all lines in a plane and R be the relation in L defined as
R = {(L
1
, L
2
) : L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
}. Show that R is symmetric but neither
reflexive nor transitive.
Solution R is not reflexive, as a line L
1
 can not be perpendicular to itself, i.e., (L
1
, L
1
)
? R. R is symmetric as (L
1
, L
2
) ? R
? L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
? L
2
 is perpendicular to L
1
? (L
2
, L
1
) ? R.
R is not transitive. Indeed, if L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
 and
L
2
 is perpendicular to L
3
, then L
1
 can never be perpendicular to
L
3
. In fact, L
1
 is parallel to L
3
, i.e., (L
1
, L
2
) ? R, (L
2
, L
3
) ? R but (L
1
, L
3
) ? R.
Example 4 Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 1), (2, 2),
(3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3)} is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive.
Solution R is reflexive, since (1, 1), (2, 2) and (3, 3) lie in R. Also, R is not symmetric,
as (1, 2) ? R but (2, 1) ? R. Similarly, R is not transitive, as (1, 2) ? R and (2, 3) ? R
but (1, 3) ? R.
Example 5 Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by
R = {(a, b) : 2 divides a – b}
is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, as 2 divides (a – a) for all a ? Z. Further, if (a, b) ? R, then
2 divides a – b. Therefore, 2 divides b – a. Hence, (b, a) ? R, which shows that R is
symmetric. Similarly, if (a, b) ? R and (b, c) ? R, then a – b and b – c are divisible by
2. Now, a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Why?). So, (a – c) is divisible by 2. This
shows that R is transitive. Thus, R is an equivalence relation in Z.
Fig 1.1
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 4
In Example 5, note that all even integers are related to zero, as (0, ± 2), (0, ± 4)
etc., lie in R and no odd integer is related to 0, as (0, ± 1), (0, ± 3) etc., do not lie in R.
Similarly, all odd integers are related to one and no even integer is related to one.
Therefore, the set E of all even integers and the set O of all odd integers are subsets of
Z satisfying following conditions:
(i) All elements of E are related to each other and all elements of O are related to
each other.
(ii) No element of E is related to any element of O and vice-versa.
(iii) E and O are disjoint and Z = E ? O.
The subset E is called the equivalence class containing zero and is denoted by
[0]. Similarly, O is the equivalence class containing 1 and is denoted by [1]. Note that
[0] ? [1], [0] = [2r] and [1] = [2r + 1], r ? Z. Infact, what we have seen above is true
for an arbitrary equivalence relation R in a set X. Given an arbitrary equivalence
relation R in an arbitrary set X, R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets A
i
 called
partitions or subdivisions  of X satisfying:
(i) all elements of A
i
 are related to each other, for all i.
(ii) no element of A
i
 is related to any element of A
j
, i ? j.
(iii) ? A
j
 = X and A
i
 n A
j
 = f, i ? j.
The subsets A
i
 are called equivalence classes. The interesting part of the situation
is that we can go reverse also. For example, consider a subdivision of the set Z given
by three mutually disjoint subsets A
1
, A
2
 and A
3
 whose union is Z with
A
1
 = {x ? Z : x is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 6, – 3, 0, 3, 6, ...}
A
2
 = {x ? Z : x – 1 is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 5, – 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
A
3
 = {x ? Z : x – 2 is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 4, – 1, 2, 5, 8, ...}
Define a relation R in Z given by R = {(a, b) : 3 divides a – b}. Following the
arguments similar to those used in Example 5, we can show that R is an equivalence
relation. Also, A
1
 coincides with the set of all integers in Z which are related to zero, A
2
coincides with the set of all integers which are related to 1 and A
3
 coincides with the
set of all integers in Z which are related to 2. Thus, A
1
 = [0], A
2
 = [1] and A
3
 = [2].
In fact, A
1
 = [3r], A
2
 = [3r + 1] and A
3
 = [3r + 2], for all r ? Z.
Example 6 Let R be the relation defined in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} by
R = {(a, b) : both a and b are either odd or even}. Show that R is an equivalence
relation. Further, show that all the elements of the subset {1, 3, 5, 7} are related to each
other and all the elements of the subset {2, 4, 6} are related to each other, but no
element of the subset {1, 3, 5, 7} is related to any element of the subset {2, 4, 6}.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


vThere is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics ... . It may
be very hard to define mathematical beauty but that is just as true of
beauty of any kind, we may not know quite what we mean by a
beautiful poem, but that does not prevent us from recognising
one when we read it. — G. H. HARDY v
1.1  Introduction
Recall that the notion of relations and functions, domain,
co-domain and range have been introduced in Class XI
along with different types of specific real valued functions
and their graphs. The concept of the term ‘relation’ in
mathematics has been drawn from the meaning of relation
in English language, according to which two objects or
quantities are related if there is a recognisable connection
or link between the two objects or quantities. Let  A be
the set of students of Class XII of a school and B be the
set of students of Class XI of the same school. Then some
of the examples of relations from A to B are
(i) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is brother of b},
(ii) {(a, b) ? A × B: a is sister of b},
(iii) {(a, b) ? A × B: age of a is greater than age of b},
(iv) {(a, b) ? A × B: total marks obtained by a in the final examination is less than
the total marks obtained by b in the final examination},
(v) {(a, b) ? A × B: a lives in the same locality as b}.  However, abstracting from
this, we define mathematically a relation R from A to B as an arbitrary subset
of A × B.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b under the relation R and we write as
a R b. In general, (a, b) ? R, we do not bother whether there is a recognisable
connection or link between a and b. As seen in Class XI, functions are special kind of
relations.
In this chapter, we will study different types of relations and functions, composition
of functions, invertible functions and binary operations.
Chapter 1
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Lejeune Dirichlet
 (1805-1859)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 2
1.2  Types of Relations
In this section, we would like to study different types of relations. We know that a
relation in a set A is a subset of A × A. Thus, the empty set f and A × A are two
extreme relations. For illustration, consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4} given by
R = {(a, b): a – b = 10}. This is the empty set, as no pair (a, b) satisfies the condition
a – b = 10. Similarly, R' = {(a, b) : | a – b | = 0} is the whole set A × A, as all pairs
(a, b) in A × A satisfy | a – b | = 0. These two extreme examples lead us to the
following definitions.
Definition 1 A relation R in a set A is called empty relation, if no element of A is
related to any element of A, i.e., R = f ? A × A.
Definition 2  A relation R in a set A is called universal relation, if each element of A
is related to every element of A, i.e., R = A × A.
Both the empty relation and the universal relation are some times called trivial
relations.
Example 1 Let A be the set of all students of a boys school. Show that the relation R
in A given by R = {(a, b) : a is sister of b} is the empty relation and R' = {(a, b) : the
difference between heights of a and b is less than 3 meters} is the universal relation.
Solution Since the school is boys school, no student of the school can be sister of any
student of the school. Hence, R = f, showing that R is the empty relation. It is also
obvious that the difference between heights of any two students of the school has to be
less than 3 meters. This shows that R' = A × A is the universal relation.
Remark In Class XI, we have seen two ways of representing a relation, namely raster
method and set builder method. However, a relation R in the set {1, 2, 3, 4} defined by R
= {(a, b) : b = a + 1} is also expressed as a R b if and only if
b = a + 1 by many authors. We may also use this notation, as and when convenient.
If (a, b) ? R, we say that a is related to b and we denote it as a R b.
One of the most important relation, which plays a significant role in Mathematics,
is an equivalence relation. To study equivalence relation, we first consider three
types of relations, namely reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Definition 3 A relation R in a set A is called
(i) reflexive, if (a, a) ? R, for every a
 
? A,
(ii) symmetric, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R implies that (a
2
, a
1
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
 ? A.
(iii) transitive, if (a
1
, a
2
) ? R and (a
2
, a
3
)
 
? R implies that (a
1
, a
3
)
 
? R, for all a
1
, a
2
,
a
3
 ? A.
Rationalised 2023-24
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 3
Definition 4 A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is
reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Example 2 Let T be the set of all triangles in a plane with R a relation in T given by
R = {(T
1
, T
2
) : T
1
 is congruent to T
2
}. Show that R is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, since every triangle is congruent to itself. Further,
(T
1
, T
2
) ? R ? T
1
 is congruent to T
2
 ? T
2
 is congruent to T
1
 ? (T
2
, T
1
) ? R. Hence,
R is symmetric. Moreover, (T
1
, T
2
), (T
2
, T
3
) ? R ? T
1
 is  congruent to T
2
 and T
2
 is
congruent to T
3
 ? T
1
 is congruent to T
3
 ? (T
1
, T
3
) ? R. Therefore, R is an equivalence
relation.
Example 3 Let L be the set of all lines in a plane and R be the relation in L defined as
R = {(L
1
, L
2
) : L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
}. Show that R is symmetric but neither
reflexive nor transitive.
Solution R is not reflexive, as a line L
1
 can not be perpendicular to itself, i.e., (L
1
, L
1
)
? R. R is symmetric as (L
1
, L
2
) ? R
? L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
? L
2
 is perpendicular to L
1
? (L
2
, L
1
) ? R.
R is not transitive. Indeed, if L
1
 is perpendicular to L
2
 and
L
2
 is perpendicular to L
3
, then L
1
 can never be perpendicular to
L
3
. In fact, L
1
 is parallel to L
3
, i.e., (L
1
, L
2
) ? R, (L
2
, L
3
) ? R but (L
1
, L
3
) ? R.
Example 4 Show that the relation R in the set {1, 2, 3} given by R = {(1, 1), (2, 2),
(3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3)} is reflexive but neither symmetric nor transitive.
Solution R is reflexive, since (1, 1), (2, 2) and (3, 3) lie in R. Also, R is not symmetric,
as (1, 2) ? R but (2, 1) ? R. Similarly, R is not transitive, as (1, 2) ? R and (2, 3) ? R
but (1, 3) ? R.
Example 5 Show that the relation R in the set Z of integers given by
R = {(a, b) : 2 divides a – b}
is an equivalence relation.
Solution R is reflexive, as 2 divides (a – a) for all a ? Z. Further, if (a, b) ? R, then
2 divides a – b. Therefore, 2 divides b – a. Hence, (b, a) ? R, which shows that R is
symmetric. Similarly, if (a, b) ? R and (b, c) ? R, then a – b and b – c are divisible by
2. Now, a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) is even (Why?). So, (a – c) is divisible by 2. This
shows that R is transitive. Thus, R is an equivalence relation in Z.
Fig 1.1
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 4
In Example 5, note that all even integers are related to zero, as (0, ± 2), (0, ± 4)
etc., lie in R and no odd integer is related to 0, as (0, ± 1), (0, ± 3) etc., do not lie in R.
Similarly, all odd integers are related to one and no even integer is related to one.
Therefore, the set E of all even integers and the set O of all odd integers are subsets of
Z satisfying following conditions:
(i) All elements of E are related to each other and all elements of O are related to
each other.
(ii) No element of E is related to any element of O and vice-versa.
(iii) E and O are disjoint and Z = E ? O.
The subset E is called the equivalence class containing zero and is denoted by
[0]. Similarly, O is the equivalence class containing 1 and is denoted by [1]. Note that
[0] ? [1], [0] = [2r] and [1] = [2r + 1], r ? Z. Infact, what we have seen above is true
for an arbitrary equivalence relation R in a set X. Given an arbitrary equivalence
relation R in an arbitrary set X, R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets A
i
 called
partitions or subdivisions  of X satisfying:
(i) all elements of A
i
 are related to each other, for all i.
(ii) no element of A
i
 is related to any element of A
j
, i ? j.
(iii) ? A
j
 = X and A
i
 n A
j
 = f, i ? j.
The subsets A
i
 are called equivalence classes. The interesting part of the situation
is that we can go reverse also. For example, consider a subdivision of the set Z given
by three mutually disjoint subsets A
1
, A
2
 and A
3
 whose union is Z with
A
1
 = {x ? Z : x is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 6, – 3, 0, 3, 6, ...}
A
2
 = {x ? Z : x – 1 is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 5, – 2, 1, 4, 7, ...}
A
3
 = {x ? Z : x – 2 is a multiple of 3} = {..., – 4, – 1, 2, 5, 8, ...}
Define a relation R in Z given by R = {(a, b) : 3 divides a – b}. Following the
arguments similar to those used in Example 5, we can show that R is an equivalence
relation. Also, A
1
 coincides with the set of all integers in Z which are related to zero, A
2
coincides with the set of all integers which are related to 1 and A
3
 coincides with the
set of all integers in Z which are related to 2. Thus, A
1
 = [0], A
2
 = [1] and A
3
 = [2].
In fact, A
1
 = [3r], A
2
 = [3r + 1] and A
3
 = [3r + 2], for all r ? Z.
Example 6 Let R be the relation defined in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} by
R = {(a, b) : both a and b are either odd or even}. Show that R is an equivalence
relation. Further, show that all the elements of the subset {1, 3, 5, 7} are related to each
other and all the elements of the subset {2, 4, 6} are related to each other, but no
element of the subset {1, 3, 5, 7} is related to any element of the subset {2, 4, 6}.
Rationalised 2023-24
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 5
Solution Given any element a in A, both a and a must be either odd or even, so
that (a, a) ? R. Further, (a, b) ? R ? both a and b must be either odd or even
? (b, a) ? R. Similarly, (a, b) ? R and (b, c) ? R ? all elements a, b, c, must be
either even or odd simultaneously ? (a, c) ? R. Hence, R is an equivalence relation.
Further, all the elements of {1, 3, 5, 7} are related to each other, as all the elements
of this subset are odd. Similarly, all the elements of the subset {2, 4, 6} are related to
each other, as all of them are even. Also, no element of the subset {1, 3, 5, 7} can be
related to any element of {2, 4, 6}, as elements of {1, 3, 5, 7} are odd, while elements
of {2, 4, 6} are even.
EXERCISE 1.1
1. Determine whether each of the following relations are reflexive, symmetric and
transitive:
(i) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, ..., 13, 14} defined as
R = {(x, y) : 3x – y = 0}
(ii) Relation R in the set N of natural numbers defined as
R = {(x, y) : y = x + 5 and x < 4}
(iii) Relation R in the set A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as
R = {(x, y) : y is divisible by x}
(iv) Relation R in the set Z of all integers defined as
R = {(x, y) : x – y is an integer}
(v) Relation R in the set A of human beings in a town at a particular time given by
(a)  R = {(x, y) : x and y work at the same place}
(b)  R = {(x, y) : x and y live in the same locality}
(c)  R = {(x, y) : x is exactly 7 cm taller than y}
(d)  R = {(x, y) : x is wife of y}
(e)  R = {(x, y) : x is father of y}
2. Show that the relation R in the set R of real numbers, defined as
R = {(a, b) : a = b
2
} is neither reflexive nor symmetric nor transitive.
3. Check whether the relation R defined in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} as
R = {(a, b) : b = a + 1} is reflexive, symmetric or transitive.
4. Show that the relation R in R defined as R = {(a, b) : a = b}, is reflexive and
transitive but not symmetric.
5. Check whether the relation R in R defined by R = {(a, b) : a = b
3
} is reflexive,
symmetric or transitive.
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook - Relations and Functions - NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12) - CTET & State TET

1. What are relations and functions in mathematics?
Ans. In mathematics, relations and functions are fundamental concepts. A relation is a set of ordered pairs, where each ordered pair consists of two elements from different sets. A function, on the other hand, is a special type of relation where each input value (or element from the domain) is associated with exactly one output value (or element from the range).
2. What is the difference between a function and a relation?
Ans. The main difference between a function and a relation is that a function has a unique output value for each input value, while a relation can have multiple output values for the same input value. In other words, a function passes the vertical line test, meaning that no vertical line can intersect the graph of a function at more than one point.
3. How can we represent relations and functions graphically?
Ans. Relations and functions can be represented graphically using coordinate planes. For a relation, we plot the ordered pairs as individual points on the coordinate plane. For a function, we ensure that no two points share the same x-coordinate. The graph of a function is a set of points that pass the vertical line test, meaning that no vertical line intersects the graph at more than one point.
4. What is the domain and range of a function?
Ans. The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values (x-values) for which the function is defined. The range, on the other hand, is the set of all possible output values (y-values) that the function can produce. In simpler terms, the domain represents the valid inputs, while the range represents the corresponding outputs.
5. How can we determine if a relation is a function?
Ans. To determine if a relation is a function, we apply the vertical line test. If no vertical line intersects the graph of the relation at more than one point, then it is a function. Alternatively, we can also check if each input value in the relation is associated with a unique output value. If every input has a unique output, then the relation is a function.
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