NCERT Textbook: Differential Equations

# NCERT Textbook: Differential Equations | NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12) - CTET & State TET PDF Download

``` Page 1

MATHEMATICS 300
vHe who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind
seeks for the most part in vain. – D. HILBERT v
9.1  Introduction
In Class XI and in Chapter 5 of the present book, we
discussed how to differentiate a given function f with respect
to an independent variable, i.e., how to find f '(x) for a given
function f at each x in its domain of definition. Further, in
the chapter on Integral Calculus, we discussed  how to find
a function f whose derivative is the function g, which may
also be formulated as follows:
For a given function g, find a function f such that
dy
dx
= g(x), where y = f(x)                   ... (1)
An equation of the form (1) is known as a differential
equation. A formal definition will be given later.
These equations arise in a variety of applications, may it be in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Anthropology, Geology,  Economics etc. Hence, an indepth study of differential
equations has assumed prime importance in all modern scientific investigations.
In this chapter, we will study some basic concepts related to differential equation,
general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of differential
equations, some methods to solve a first order - first degree differential equation and
some applications of differential equations in different areas.
9.2  Basic Concepts
We are already familiar with the equations of the type:
x
2
– 3x + 3 = 0 ... (1)
sin x + cos x = 0 ... (2)
x + y = 7 ... (3)
Chapter 9
DIFFERENTIAL  EQUATIONS
Henri Poincare
(1854-1912 )
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2

MATHEMATICS 300
vHe who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind
seeks for the most part in vain. – D. HILBERT v
9.1  Introduction
In Class XI and in Chapter 5 of the present book, we
discussed how to differentiate a given function f with respect
to an independent variable, i.e., how to find f '(x) for a given
function f at each x in its domain of definition. Further, in
the chapter on Integral Calculus, we discussed  how to find
a function f whose derivative is the function g, which may
also be formulated as follows:
For a given function g, find a function f such that
dy
dx
= g(x), where y = f(x)                   ... (1)
An equation of the form (1) is known as a differential
equation. A formal definition will be given later.
These equations arise in a variety of applications, may it be in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Anthropology, Geology,  Economics etc. Hence, an indepth study of differential
equations has assumed prime importance in all modern scientific investigations.
In this chapter, we will study some basic concepts related to differential equation,
general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of differential
equations, some methods to solve a first order - first degree differential equation and
some applications of differential equations in different areas.
9.2  Basic Concepts
We are already familiar with the equations of the type:
x
2
– 3x + 3 = 0 ... (1)
sin x + cos x = 0 ... (2)
x + y = 7 ... (3)
Chapter 9
DIFFERENTIAL  EQUATIONS
Henri Poincare
(1854-1912 )
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 301
Let us consider the equation:
dy
x y
dx
+
= 0 ... (4)
W e see that equations (1), (2) and (3) involve independent and/or dependent variable
(variables) only but equation (4) involves variables as well as derivative of the dependent
variable y with respect to the independent variable x. Such an equation is called a
differential equation.
In general, an equation involving  derivative (derivatives) of the dependent variable
with respect to independent variable (variables) is called a differential equation.
A differential equation involving derivatives of the dependent variable with respect
to only one independent variable is called an ordinary differential equation, e.g.,
3
2
2
2
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0  is an ordinary differential equation .... (5)
Of course, there are differential equations involving derivatives with respect to
more than one independent variables, called partial differential equations but at this
stage we shall confine ourselves to the study of ordinary differential equations only.
Now onward, we will use the term ‘differential equation’ for ‘ordinary differential
equation’.
A
Note
1. We shall prefer to use the following notations for derivatives:
2 3
2 3
, ,
dy d y d y
y y y
dx dx dx
' ' ' ''' = = =
2. For derivatives of higher order, it will be inconvenient  to use so many dashes
as supersuffix therefore, we use the notation y
n
for nth order derivative
n
n
d y
dx
.
9.2.1.  Order of a differential equation
Order of a differential equation is defined as the order of the highest order derivative of
the dependent variable with respect to the independent variable involved in the given
differential equation.
Consider the following differential equations:
dy
dx
= e
x
... (6)
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3

MATHEMATICS 300
vHe who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind
seeks for the most part in vain. – D. HILBERT v
9.1  Introduction
In Class XI and in Chapter 5 of the present book, we
discussed how to differentiate a given function f with respect
to an independent variable, i.e., how to find f '(x) for a given
function f at each x in its domain of definition. Further, in
the chapter on Integral Calculus, we discussed  how to find
a function f whose derivative is the function g, which may
also be formulated as follows:
For a given function g, find a function f such that
dy
dx
= g(x), where y = f(x)                   ... (1)
An equation of the form (1) is known as a differential
equation. A formal definition will be given later.
These equations arise in a variety of applications, may it be in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Anthropology, Geology,  Economics etc. Hence, an indepth study of differential
equations has assumed prime importance in all modern scientific investigations.
In this chapter, we will study some basic concepts related to differential equation,
general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of differential
equations, some methods to solve a first order - first degree differential equation and
some applications of differential equations in different areas.
9.2  Basic Concepts
We are already familiar with the equations of the type:
x
2
– 3x + 3 = 0 ... (1)
sin x + cos x = 0 ... (2)
x + y = 7 ... (3)
Chapter 9
DIFFERENTIAL  EQUATIONS
Henri Poincare
(1854-1912 )
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 301
Let us consider the equation:
dy
x y
dx
+
= 0 ... (4)
W e see that equations (1), (2) and (3) involve independent and/or dependent variable
(variables) only but equation (4) involves variables as well as derivative of the dependent
variable y with respect to the independent variable x. Such an equation is called a
differential equation.
In general, an equation involving  derivative (derivatives) of the dependent variable
with respect to independent variable (variables) is called a differential equation.
A differential equation involving derivatives of the dependent variable with respect
to only one independent variable is called an ordinary differential equation, e.g.,
3
2
2
2
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0  is an ordinary differential equation .... (5)
Of course, there are differential equations involving derivatives with respect to
more than one independent variables, called partial differential equations but at this
stage we shall confine ourselves to the study of ordinary differential equations only.
Now onward, we will use the term ‘differential equation’ for ‘ordinary differential
equation’.
A
Note
1. We shall prefer to use the following notations for derivatives:
2 3
2 3
, ,
dy d y d y
y y y
dx dx dx
' ' ' ''' = = =
2. For derivatives of higher order, it will be inconvenient  to use so many dashes
as supersuffix therefore, we use the notation y
n
for nth order derivative
n
n
d y
dx
.
9.2.1.  Order of a differential equation
Order of a differential equation is defined as the order of the highest order derivative of
the dependent variable with respect to the independent variable involved in the given
differential equation.
Consider the following differential equations:
dy
dx
= e
x
... (6)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 302
2
2
d y
y
dx
+ = 0 ... (7)
3
3 2
2
3 2
d y d y
x
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+
? ? ? ?
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (8)
The equations (6), (7) and (8) involve the highest derivative of first, second and
third order respectively . Therefore, the order of these equations are 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
9.2.2  Degree of a differential equation
To study the degree of a differential equation, the key point is that the differential
equation must be a polynomial equation in derivatives, i.e., y', y?, y?' etc. Consider the
following differential equations:
2
3 2
3 2
2
d y d y dy
y
dx dx dx
? ?
+ - +
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (9)
2
2
sin
dy dy
y
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+ -
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
= 0 ... (10)
sin
dy dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (11)
W e observe that equation (9) is a polynomial equation in y?',  y? and y', equation (10)
is a polynomial equation in y' (not a polynomial in y though). Degree of such differential
equations can be defined. But equation (11) is not a polynomial equation in y' and
degree of such a differential equation can not be defined.
By the degree of a differential equation, when it is a polynomial equation in
derivatives, we mean the highest power (positive integral index) of the highest order
derivative involved in the given differential equation.
In view of the above definition, one may observe that differential equations (6), (7),
(8) and (9) each are of degree one, equation (10) is of degree two while the degree of
differential equation (11) is not defined.
A
Note   Order and degree (if defined) of a differential equation are always
positive integers.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4

MATHEMATICS 300
vHe who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind
seeks for the most part in vain. – D. HILBERT v
9.1  Introduction
In Class XI and in Chapter 5 of the present book, we
discussed how to differentiate a given function f with respect
to an independent variable, i.e., how to find f '(x) for a given
function f at each x in its domain of definition. Further, in
the chapter on Integral Calculus, we discussed  how to find
a function f whose derivative is the function g, which may
also be formulated as follows:
For a given function g, find a function f such that
dy
dx
= g(x), where y = f(x)                   ... (1)
An equation of the form (1) is known as a differential
equation. A formal definition will be given later.
These equations arise in a variety of applications, may it be in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Anthropology, Geology,  Economics etc. Hence, an indepth study of differential
equations has assumed prime importance in all modern scientific investigations.
In this chapter, we will study some basic concepts related to differential equation,
general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of differential
equations, some methods to solve a first order - first degree differential equation and
some applications of differential equations in different areas.
9.2  Basic Concepts
We are already familiar with the equations of the type:
x
2
– 3x + 3 = 0 ... (1)
sin x + cos x = 0 ... (2)
x + y = 7 ... (3)
Chapter 9
DIFFERENTIAL  EQUATIONS
Henri Poincare
(1854-1912 )
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 301
Let us consider the equation:
dy
x y
dx
+
= 0 ... (4)
W e see that equations (1), (2) and (3) involve independent and/or dependent variable
(variables) only but equation (4) involves variables as well as derivative of the dependent
variable y with respect to the independent variable x. Such an equation is called a
differential equation.
In general, an equation involving  derivative (derivatives) of the dependent variable
with respect to independent variable (variables) is called a differential equation.
A differential equation involving derivatives of the dependent variable with respect
to only one independent variable is called an ordinary differential equation, e.g.,
3
2
2
2
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0  is an ordinary differential equation .... (5)
Of course, there are differential equations involving derivatives with respect to
more than one independent variables, called partial differential equations but at this
stage we shall confine ourselves to the study of ordinary differential equations only.
Now onward, we will use the term ‘differential equation’ for ‘ordinary differential
equation’.
A
Note
1. We shall prefer to use the following notations for derivatives:
2 3
2 3
, ,
dy d y d y
y y y
dx dx dx
' ' ' ''' = = =
2. For derivatives of higher order, it will be inconvenient  to use so many dashes
as supersuffix therefore, we use the notation y
n
for nth order derivative
n
n
d y
dx
.
9.2.1.  Order of a differential equation
Order of a differential equation is defined as the order of the highest order derivative of
the dependent variable with respect to the independent variable involved in the given
differential equation.
Consider the following differential equations:
dy
dx
= e
x
... (6)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 302
2
2
d y
y
dx
+ = 0 ... (7)
3
3 2
2
3 2
d y d y
x
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+
? ? ? ?
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (8)
The equations (6), (7) and (8) involve the highest derivative of first, second and
third order respectively . Therefore, the order of these equations are 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
9.2.2  Degree of a differential equation
To study the degree of a differential equation, the key point is that the differential
equation must be a polynomial equation in derivatives, i.e., y', y?, y?' etc. Consider the
following differential equations:
2
3 2
3 2
2
d y d y dy
y
dx dx dx
? ?
+ - +
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (9)
2
2
sin
dy dy
y
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+ -
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
= 0 ... (10)
sin
dy dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (11)
W e observe that equation (9) is a polynomial equation in y?',  y? and y', equation (10)
is a polynomial equation in y' (not a polynomial in y though). Degree of such differential
equations can be defined. But equation (11) is not a polynomial equation in y' and
degree of such a differential equation can not be defined.
By the degree of a differential equation, when it is a polynomial equation in
derivatives, we mean the highest power (positive integral index) of the highest order
derivative involved in the given differential equation.
In view of the above definition, one may observe that differential equations (6), (7),
(8) and (9) each are of degree one, equation (10) is of degree two while the degree of
differential equation (11) is not defined.
A
Note   Order and degree (if defined) of a differential equation are always
positive integers.
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 303
Example 1 Find the order and degree, if defined, of each of the following differential
equations:
(i)
cos 0
dy
x
dx
- =
(ii)
2
2
2
0
d y dy dy
xy x y
dx dx dx
? ?
+ - =
? ?
? ?
(iii)
2
0
y
y y e
'
' '' + + =
Solution
(i) The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is
dy
dx
, so its
order is one. It is a polynomial equation in y' and the highest power raised to
dy
dx
is one, so its degree is one.
(ii) The highest order derivative present in the given differential equation is
2
2
d y
dx
, so
its order is two. It is a polynomial equation in
2
2
d y
dx
and
dy
dx
and the highest
power raised to
2
2
d y
dx
is one, so its degree is one.
(iii) The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is y''', so its
order is three. The given differential equation is not a polynomial equation in its
derivatives and so its degree is not defined.
EXERCISE 9.1
Determine order and degree (if defined) of differential equations given in Exercises
1 to 10.
1.
4
4
sin( ) 0
d y
y
dx
''' + =
2. y' + 5y = 0 3.
4
2
2
3 0
ds d s
s
dt dt
? ?
+ =
? ?
? ?
4.
2
2
2
cos 0
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
? ?
+ =
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
5.
2
2
cos3 sin3
d y
x x
dx
= +
6.
2
( ) y' ''
+ (y?)
3
+ (y')
4
+ y
5
= 0 7. y''' + 2y? + y' = 0
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5

MATHEMATICS 300
vHe who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind
seeks for the most part in vain. – D. HILBERT v
9.1  Introduction
In Class XI and in Chapter 5 of the present book, we
discussed how to differentiate a given function f with respect
to an independent variable, i.e., how to find f '(x) for a given
function f at each x in its domain of definition. Further, in
the chapter on Integral Calculus, we discussed  how to find
a function f whose derivative is the function g, which may
also be formulated as follows:
For a given function g, find a function f such that
dy
dx
= g(x), where y = f(x)                   ... (1)
An equation of the form (1) is known as a differential
equation. A formal definition will be given later.
These equations arise in a variety of applications, may it be in Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Anthropology, Geology,  Economics etc. Hence, an indepth study of differential
equations has assumed prime importance in all modern scientific investigations.
In this chapter, we will study some basic concepts related to differential equation,
general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of differential
equations, some methods to solve a first order - first degree differential equation and
some applications of differential equations in different areas.
9.2  Basic Concepts
We are already familiar with the equations of the type:
x
2
– 3x + 3 = 0 ... (1)
sin x + cos x = 0 ... (2)
x + y = 7 ... (3)
Chapter 9
DIFFERENTIAL  EQUATIONS
Henri Poincare
(1854-1912 )
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 301
Let us consider the equation:
dy
x y
dx
+
= 0 ... (4)
W e see that equations (1), (2) and (3) involve independent and/or dependent variable
(variables) only but equation (4) involves variables as well as derivative of the dependent
variable y with respect to the independent variable x. Such an equation is called a
differential equation.
In general, an equation involving  derivative (derivatives) of the dependent variable
with respect to independent variable (variables) is called a differential equation.
A differential equation involving derivatives of the dependent variable with respect
to only one independent variable is called an ordinary differential equation, e.g.,
3
2
2
2
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0  is an ordinary differential equation .... (5)
Of course, there are differential equations involving derivatives with respect to
more than one independent variables, called partial differential equations but at this
stage we shall confine ourselves to the study of ordinary differential equations only.
Now onward, we will use the term ‘differential equation’ for ‘ordinary differential
equation’.
A
Note
1. We shall prefer to use the following notations for derivatives:
2 3
2 3
, ,
dy d y d y
y y y
dx dx dx
' ' ' ''' = = =
2. For derivatives of higher order, it will be inconvenient  to use so many dashes
as supersuffix therefore, we use the notation y
n
for nth order derivative
n
n
d y
dx
.
9.2.1.  Order of a differential equation
Order of a differential equation is defined as the order of the highest order derivative of
the dependent variable with respect to the independent variable involved in the given
differential equation.
Consider the following differential equations:
dy
dx
= e
x
... (6)
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 302
2
2
d y
y
dx
+ = 0 ... (7)
3
3 2
2
3 2
d y d y
x
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+
? ? ? ?
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (8)
The equations (6), (7) and (8) involve the highest derivative of first, second and
third order respectively . Therefore, the order of these equations are 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
9.2.2  Degree of a differential equation
To study the degree of a differential equation, the key point is that the differential
equation must be a polynomial equation in derivatives, i.e., y', y?, y?' etc. Consider the
following differential equations:
2
3 2
3 2
2
d y d y dy
y
dx dx dx
? ?
+ - +
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (9)
2
2
sin
dy dy
y
dx dx
? ? ? ?
+ -
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
= 0 ... (10)
sin
dy dy
dx dx
? ?
+
? ?
? ?
= 0 ... (11)
W e observe that equation (9) is a polynomial equation in y?',  y? and y', equation (10)
is a polynomial equation in y' (not a polynomial in y though). Degree of such differential
equations can be defined. But equation (11) is not a polynomial equation in y' and
degree of such a differential equation can not be defined.
By the degree of a differential equation, when it is a polynomial equation in
derivatives, we mean the highest power (positive integral index) of the highest order
derivative involved in the given differential equation.
In view of the above definition, one may observe that differential equations (6), (7),
(8) and (9) each are of degree one, equation (10) is of degree two while the degree of
differential equation (11) is not defined.
A
Note   Order and degree (if defined) of a differential equation are always
positive integers.
Rationalised 2023-24
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 303
Example 1 Find the order and degree, if defined, of each of the following differential
equations:
(i)
cos 0
dy
x
dx
- =
(ii)
2
2
2
0
d y dy dy
xy x y
dx dx dx
? ?
+ - =
? ?
? ?
(iii)
2
0
y
y y e
'
' '' + + =
Solution
(i) The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is
dy
dx
, so its
order is one. It is a polynomial equation in y' and the highest power raised to
dy
dx
is one, so its degree is one.
(ii) The highest order derivative present in the given differential equation is
2
2
d y
dx
, so
its order is two. It is a polynomial equation in
2
2
d y
dx
and
dy
dx
and the highest
power raised to
2
2
d y
dx
is one, so its degree is one.
(iii) The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is y''', so its
order is three. The given differential equation is not a polynomial equation in its
derivatives and so its degree is not defined.
EXERCISE 9.1
Determine order and degree (if defined) of differential equations given in Exercises
1 to 10.
1.
4
4
sin( ) 0
d y
y
dx
''' + =
2. y' + 5y = 0 3.
4
2
2
3 0
ds d s
s
dt dt
? ?
+ =
? ?
? ?
4.
2
2
2
cos 0
d y dy
dx dx
? ?
? ?
+ =
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
5.
2
2
cos3 sin3
d y
x x
dx
= +
6.
2
( ) y' ''
+ (y?)
3
+ (y')
4
+ y
5
= 0 7. y''' + 2y? + y' = 0
Rationalised 2023-24
MATHEMATICS 304
8. y' + y = e
x
9. y? + (y')
2
+ 2y = 0 10. y? + 2y' + sin y = 0
11. The degree of the differential equation
3
2
2
2
sin 1 0
d y dy dy
dx dx dx
? ?
? ? ? ?
+ + + =
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
is
(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) not defined
12. The order of the differential equation
2
2
2
2 3 0
d y dy
x y
dx dx
- + = is
(A) 2 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) not defined
9.3.  General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
In earlier Classes, we have solved the equations of the type:
x
2
+ 1 = 0 ... (1)
sin
2
x – cos x = 0 ... (2)
Solution of equations (1) and (2) are numbers, real or complex, that will satisfy the
given equation i.e., when that number is substituted for the unknown x in the given
equation, L.H.S. becomes equal to the R.H.S..
Now consider the differential equation
2
2
0
d y
y
dx
+ = ... (3)
In contrast to the first two equations, the solution of this differential equation is a
function f that will satisfy it i.e., when the function f is substituted for the unknown y
(dependent variable) in the given differential equation, L.H.S. becomes equal to R.H.S..
The curve y = f (x) is called the solution curve (integral curve) of the given
differential equation. Consider the function given by
y = f (x) = a sin (x + b), ... (4)
where a, b ? R. When this function and its derivative are substituted in equation (3),
L.H.S. = R.H.S.. So it is a solution of the differential equation (3).
Let a and b be given some particular values say a = 2 and
4
b
p
= , then we get a
function y = f
1
(x) = 2sin
4
x
p ? ?
+
? ?
? ?
... (5)
When this function and its derivative are substituted in equation (3) again
L.H.S. = R.H.S.. Therefore f
1
is also a solution of equation (3).
Rationalised 2023-24
```

## NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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## FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Differential Equations - NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12) - CTET & State TET

 1. What is a differential equation?
Ans. A differential equation is an equation that relates an unknown function to its derivatives. It involves one or more derivatives of the unknown function and is commonly used to describe physical and mathematical phenomena.
 2. What are the types of differential equations?
Ans. There are several types of differential equations, including ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). ODEs involve derivatives with respect to a single independent variable, while PDEs involve derivatives with respect to multiple independent variables.
 3. How are differential equations used in real-life applications?
Ans. Differential equations have numerous real-life applications, such as modeling population growth, predicting the spread of diseases, analyzing electrical circuits, solving mechanical problems, and describing fluid dynamics. They provide mathematical tools to understand and predict various phenomena in the natural and physical sciences.
 4. What are the methods to solve a differential equation?
Ans. Several methods can be used to solve differential equations, depending on their type and complexity. Some common methods include separation of variables, integrating factors, substitution, power series, Laplace transforms, and numerical methods such as Euler's method or the Runge-Kutta method.
 5. How can I prepare for exams on differential equations?
Ans. To prepare for exams on differential equations, it is essential to understand the fundamental concepts and techniques used to solve them. Practice solving different types of differential equations, work through examples from textbooks or study guides, and solve past exam questions. Additionally, reviewing theorems and properties related to differential equations will help in gaining a comprehensive understanding of the subject.

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