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 Page 1


394 MATHEMATICS
vThe mathematical experience of the student is incomplete if he never had
the opportunity to solve a problem invented by himself. – G. POLYA v
12.1  Introduction
In earlier classes, we have discussed systems of linear
equations and their applications in day to day problems. In
Class XI, we have studied linear inequalities and systems
of linear inequalities in two variables and their solutions by
graphical method. Many applications in mathematics
involve systems of inequalities/equations. In this chapter,
we shall apply the systems of linear inequalities/equations
to solve some real life problems of the type as given below:
A furniture dealer deals in only two items–tables and
chairs. He has Rs 50,000 to invest and has storage space
of at most 60 pieces. A table costs Rs 2500 and a chair
Rs 500. He estimates that from the sale of one table, he
can make a profit of Rs 250 and that from the sale of one
chair a profit of Rs 75. He wants to know how many tables and chairs he should buy
from the available money so as to maximise his total profit, assuming that he can sell all
the items which he buys.
Such type of problems which seek to maximise (or, minimise) profit (or, cost) form
a general class of problems called optimisation problems. Thus, an optimisation
problem may involve finding maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum use of
resources etc.
A special but a very important class of optimisation problems is linear programming
problem. The above stated optimisation problem is an example of linear programming
problem. Linear programming problems are of much interest because of their wide
applicability in industry, commerce, management science etc.
In this chapter, we shall study some linear programming problems and their solutions
by graphical method only, though there are many other methods also to solve such
problems.
Chapter 12
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
L. Kantorovich
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


394 MATHEMATICS
vThe mathematical experience of the student is incomplete if he never had
the opportunity to solve a problem invented by himself. – G. POLYA v
12.1  Introduction
In earlier classes, we have discussed systems of linear
equations and their applications in day to day problems. In
Class XI, we have studied linear inequalities and systems
of linear inequalities in two variables and their solutions by
graphical method. Many applications in mathematics
involve systems of inequalities/equations. In this chapter,
we shall apply the systems of linear inequalities/equations
to solve some real life problems of the type as given below:
A furniture dealer deals in only two items–tables and
chairs. He has Rs 50,000 to invest and has storage space
of at most 60 pieces. A table costs Rs 2500 and a chair
Rs 500. He estimates that from the sale of one table, he
can make a profit of Rs 250 and that from the sale of one
chair a profit of Rs 75. He wants to know how many tables and chairs he should buy
from the available money so as to maximise his total profit, assuming that he can sell all
the items which he buys.
Such type of problems which seek to maximise (or, minimise) profit (or, cost) form
a general class of problems called optimisation problems. Thus, an optimisation
problem may involve finding maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum use of
resources etc.
A special but a very important class of optimisation problems is linear programming
problem. The above stated optimisation problem is an example of linear programming
problem. Linear programming problems are of much interest because of their wide
applicability in industry, commerce, management science etc.
In this chapter, we shall study some linear programming problems and their solutions
by graphical method only, though there are many other methods also to solve such
problems.
Chapter 12
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
L. Kantorovich
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         395
12.2  Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
We begin our discussion with the above example of furniture dealer which will further
lead to a mathematical formulation of the problem in two variables. In this example, we
observe
(i) The dealer can invest his money in buying tables or chairs or combination thereof.
Further he would earn different profits by following different investment
strategies.
(ii) There are certain overriding conditions or constraints viz., his investment is
limited to a maximum of Rs 50,000 and so is his storage space which is for a
maximum of 60 pieces.
Suppose he decides to buy tables only and no chairs, so he can buy 50000 ÷ 2500,
i.e., 20 tables. His profit in this case will be Rs (250 × 20), i.e., Rs 5000.
Suppose he chooses to buy chairs only and no tables. With his capital of Rs 50,000,
he can buy 50000 ÷ 500, i.e. 100 chairs. But he can store only 60 pieces. Therefore, he
is forced to buy only 60 chairs which will give him a total profit of Rs (60 × 75), i.e.,
Rs 4500.
There are many other possibilities, for instance, he may choose to buy 10 tables
and 50 chairs, as he can store only 60 pieces. Total profit in this case would be
Rs (10 × 250 + 50 × 75), i.e., Rs 6250 and so on.
We, thus, find that the dealer can invest his money in different ways and he would
earn different profits by following different investment strategies.
Now the problem is : How should he invest his money in order to get maximum
profit? To answer this question, let us try to formulate the problem mathematically.
12.2.1 Mathematical formulation of the problem
Let x be the number of tables and y be the number of chairs that the dealer buys.
Obviously, x and y must be non-negative, i.e.,
0 ... (1)
(Non-negative constraints)
... (2) 0
x
y
= 
 
=
 
The dealer is constrained by the maximum amount he can invest (Here it is
Rs 50,000) and by the maximum number of items he can store (Here it is 60).
Stated mathematically,
2500x + 500y = 50000 (investment constraint)
or 5x + y = 100 ... (3)
and x + y = 60  (storage constraint) ... (4)
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


394 MATHEMATICS
vThe mathematical experience of the student is incomplete if he never had
the opportunity to solve a problem invented by himself. – G. POLYA v
12.1  Introduction
In earlier classes, we have discussed systems of linear
equations and their applications in day to day problems. In
Class XI, we have studied linear inequalities and systems
of linear inequalities in two variables and their solutions by
graphical method. Many applications in mathematics
involve systems of inequalities/equations. In this chapter,
we shall apply the systems of linear inequalities/equations
to solve some real life problems of the type as given below:
A furniture dealer deals in only two items–tables and
chairs. He has Rs 50,000 to invest and has storage space
of at most 60 pieces. A table costs Rs 2500 and a chair
Rs 500. He estimates that from the sale of one table, he
can make a profit of Rs 250 and that from the sale of one
chair a profit of Rs 75. He wants to know how many tables and chairs he should buy
from the available money so as to maximise his total profit, assuming that he can sell all
the items which he buys.
Such type of problems which seek to maximise (or, minimise) profit (or, cost) form
a general class of problems called optimisation problems. Thus, an optimisation
problem may involve finding maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum use of
resources etc.
A special but a very important class of optimisation problems is linear programming
problem. The above stated optimisation problem is an example of linear programming
problem. Linear programming problems are of much interest because of their wide
applicability in industry, commerce, management science etc.
In this chapter, we shall study some linear programming problems and their solutions
by graphical method only, though there are many other methods also to solve such
problems.
Chapter 12
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
L. Kantorovich
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         395
12.2  Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
We begin our discussion with the above example of furniture dealer which will further
lead to a mathematical formulation of the problem in two variables. In this example, we
observe
(i) The dealer can invest his money in buying tables or chairs or combination thereof.
Further he would earn different profits by following different investment
strategies.
(ii) There are certain overriding conditions or constraints viz., his investment is
limited to a maximum of Rs 50,000 and so is his storage space which is for a
maximum of 60 pieces.
Suppose he decides to buy tables only and no chairs, so he can buy 50000 ÷ 2500,
i.e., 20 tables. His profit in this case will be Rs (250 × 20), i.e., Rs 5000.
Suppose he chooses to buy chairs only and no tables. With his capital of Rs 50,000,
he can buy 50000 ÷ 500, i.e. 100 chairs. But he can store only 60 pieces. Therefore, he
is forced to buy only 60 chairs which will give him a total profit of Rs (60 × 75), i.e.,
Rs 4500.
There are many other possibilities, for instance, he may choose to buy 10 tables
and 50 chairs, as he can store only 60 pieces. Total profit in this case would be
Rs (10 × 250 + 50 × 75), i.e., Rs 6250 and so on.
We, thus, find that the dealer can invest his money in different ways and he would
earn different profits by following different investment strategies.
Now the problem is : How should he invest his money in order to get maximum
profit? To answer this question, let us try to formulate the problem mathematically.
12.2.1 Mathematical formulation of the problem
Let x be the number of tables and y be the number of chairs that the dealer buys.
Obviously, x and y must be non-negative, i.e.,
0 ... (1)
(Non-negative constraints)
... (2) 0
x
y
= 
 
=
 
The dealer is constrained by the maximum amount he can invest (Here it is
Rs 50,000) and by the maximum number of items he can store (Here it is 60).
Stated mathematically,
2500x + 500y = 50000 (investment constraint)
or 5x + y = 100 ... (3)
and x + y = 60  (storage constraint) ... (4)
Rationalised 2023-24
396 MATHEMATICS
The dealer wants to invest in such a way so as to maximise his profit, say, Z which
stated as a function of x and y is given by
Z = 250x + 75y (called objective function) ... (5)
Mathematically, the given problems now reduces to:
Maximise Z = 250x + 75y
subject to the constraints:
5x + y = 100
x + y = 60
x = 0,  y = 0
So, we have to maximise the linear function Z subject to certain conditions determined
by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. There are also some other
problems where we have to minimise a linear function subject to certain conditions
determined by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. Such problems
are called Linear Programming Problems.
Thus, a Linear Programming Problem is one that is concerned with finding the
optimal value (maximum or minimum value) of  a linear function (called objective
function) of several variables (say x and y), subject to the conditions that the variables
are non-negative and satisfy a set of linear inequalities (called linear constraints).
The term linear implies that all the mathematical relations used in the problem are
linear relations while the term programming refers to the method of determining a
particular programme or plan of action.
Before we proceed further, we now formally define some terms (which have been
used above) which we shall be using in the linear programming problems:
Objective function Linear function Z = ax + by, where a, b are constants, which has
to be maximised or minimized is called a linear objective function.
In the above example, Z = 250x + 75y is a linear objective function. V ariables x and
y are called decision variables.
Constraints The linear inequalities or equations or restrictions on the variables of a
linear programming problem are called constraints. The conditions x = 0, y = 0 are
called non-negative restrictions. In the above example, the set of inequalities (1) to (4)
are constraints.
Optimisation problem A problem which seeks to maximise or minimise a linear
function (say of two variables x and y) subject to certain constraints as determined by
a set of linear inequalities is called an optimisation problem. Linear programming
problems are special type of optimisation problems. The above problem of investing a
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


394 MATHEMATICS
vThe mathematical experience of the student is incomplete if he never had
the opportunity to solve a problem invented by himself. – G. POLYA v
12.1  Introduction
In earlier classes, we have discussed systems of linear
equations and their applications in day to day problems. In
Class XI, we have studied linear inequalities and systems
of linear inequalities in two variables and their solutions by
graphical method. Many applications in mathematics
involve systems of inequalities/equations. In this chapter,
we shall apply the systems of linear inequalities/equations
to solve some real life problems of the type as given below:
A furniture dealer deals in only two items–tables and
chairs. He has Rs 50,000 to invest and has storage space
of at most 60 pieces. A table costs Rs 2500 and a chair
Rs 500. He estimates that from the sale of one table, he
can make a profit of Rs 250 and that from the sale of one
chair a profit of Rs 75. He wants to know how many tables and chairs he should buy
from the available money so as to maximise his total profit, assuming that he can sell all
the items which he buys.
Such type of problems which seek to maximise (or, minimise) profit (or, cost) form
a general class of problems called optimisation problems. Thus, an optimisation
problem may involve finding maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum use of
resources etc.
A special but a very important class of optimisation problems is linear programming
problem. The above stated optimisation problem is an example of linear programming
problem. Linear programming problems are of much interest because of their wide
applicability in industry, commerce, management science etc.
In this chapter, we shall study some linear programming problems and their solutions
by graphical method only, though there are many other methods also to solve such
problems.
Chapter 12
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
L. Kantorovich
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         395
12.2  Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
We begin our discussion with the above example of furniture dealer which will further
lead to a mathematical formulation of the problem in two variables. In this example, we
observe
(i) The dealer can invest his money in buying tables or chairs or combination thereof.
Further he would earn different profits by following different investment
strategies.
(ii) There are certain overriding conditions or constraints viz., his investment is
limited to a maximum of Rs 50,000 and so is his storage space which is for a
maximum of 60 pieces.
Suppose he decides to buy tables only and no chairs, so he can buy 50000 ÷ 2500,
i.e., 20 tables. His profit in this case will be Rs (250 × 20), i.e., Rs 5000.
Suppose he chooses to buy chairs only and no tables. With his capital of Rs 50,000,
he can buy 50000 ÷ 500, i.e. 100 chairs. But he can store only 60 pieces. Therefore, he
is forced to buy only 60 chairs which will give him a total profit of Rs (60 × 75), i.e.,
Rs 4500.
There are many other possibilities, for instance, he may choose to buy 10 tables
and 50 chairs, as he can store only 60 pieces. Total profit in this case would be
Rs (10 × 250 + 50 × 75), i.e., Rs 6250 and so on.
We, thus, find that the dealer can invest his money in different ways and he would
earn different profits by following different investment strategies.
Now the problem is : How should he invest his money in order to get maximum
profit? To answer this question, let us try to formulate the problem mathematically.
12.2.1 Mathematical formulation of the problem
Let x be the number of tables and y be the number of chairs that the dealer buys.
Obviously, x and y must be non-negative, i.e.,
0 ... (1)
(Non-negative constraints)
... (2) 0
x
y
= 
 
=
 
The dealer is constrained by the maximum amount he can invest (Here it is
Rs 50,000) and by the maximum number of items he can store (Here it is 60).
Stated mathematically,
2500x + 500y = 50000 (investment constraint)
or 5x + y = 100 ... (3)
and x + y = 60  (storage constraint) ... (4)
Rationalised 2023-24
396 MATHEMATICS
The dealer wants to invest in such a way so as to maximise his profit, say, Z which
stated as a function of x and y is given by
Z = 250x + 75y (called objective function) ... (5)
Mathematically, the given problems now reduces to:
Maximise Z = 250x + 75y
subject to the constraints:
5x + y = 100
x + y = 60
x = 0,  y = 0
So, we have to maximise the linear function Z subject to certain conditions determined
by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. There are also some other
problems where we have to minimise a linear function subject to certain conditions
determined by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. Such problems
are called Linear Programming Problems.
Thus, a Linear Programming Problem is one that is concerned with finding the
optimal value (maximum or minimum value) of  a linear function (called objective
function) of several variables (say x and y), subject to the conditions that the variables
are non-negative and satisfy a set of linear inequalities (called linear constraints).
The term linear implies that all the mathematical relations used in the problem are
linear relations while the term programming refers to the method of determining a
particular programme or plan of action.
Before we proceed further, we now formally define some terms (which have been
used above) which we shall be using in the linear programming problems:
Objective function Linear function Z = ax + by, where a, b are constants, which has
to be maximised or minimized is called a linear objective function.
In the above example, Z = 250x + 75y is a linear objective function. V ariables x and
y are called decision variables.
Constraints The linear inequalities or equations or restrictions on the variables of a
linear programming problem are called constraints. The conditions x = 0, y = 0 are
called non-negative restrictions. In the above example, the set of inequalities (1) to (4)
are constraints.
Optimisation problem A problem which seeks to maximise or minimise a linear
function (say of two variables x and y) subject to certain constraints as determined by
a set of linear inequalities is called an optimisation problem. Linear programming
problems are special type of optimisation problems. The above problem of investing a
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         397
given sum by the dealer in purchasing chairs and tables is an example of an optimisation
problem as well as of a linear programming problem.
W e will now discuss how to find solutions to a linear programming problem. In this
chapter, we will be concerned only with the graphical method.
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear programming problems
In Class XI, we have learnt how to graph a system of linear inequalities involving two
variables x and y and to find its solutions graphically. Let us refer to the problem of
investment in tables and chairs discussed in Section 12.2. W e will now solve this problem
graphically.  Let us graph the constraints stated as linear inequalities:
5x + y = 100 ... (1)
x + y = 60 ... (2)
x = 0 ... (3)
y = 0 ... (4)
The graph of this system (shaded region) consists of the points common to all half
planes determined by the inequalities (1) to (4) (Fig 12.1). Each point in this region
represents a feasible choice open to the dealer for investing in tables and chairs. The
region, therefore, is called the feasible region for the problem. Every point of this
region is called a feasible solution to the problem. Thus, we have,
Feasible region The common region determined by all the constraints including
non-negative constraints x, y = 0 of a linear programming problem is called the feasible
region (or solution region) for the problem. In Fig 12.1, the region OABC (shaded) is
the feasible region for the problem. The region other than feasible region is called an
infeasible region.
Feasible solutions Points within and on the
boundary of the feasible region represent
feasible solutions of the constraints. In
Fig 12.1, every point within and on the
boundary of the feasible region OABC
represents feasible solution to the problem.
For example, the point (10, 50) is a feasible
solution of the problem and so are the points
(0, 60), (20, 0) etc.
Any point outside the feasible region is
called an  infeasible solution. For example,
the point (25, 40) is an infeasible solution of
the problem.
Fig 12.1
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


394 MATHEMATICS
vThe mathematical experience of the student is incomplete if he never had
the opportunity to solve a problem invented by himself. – G. POLYA v
12.1  Introduction
In earlier classes, we have discussed systems of linear
equations and their applications in day to day problems. In
Class XI, we have studied linear inequalities and systems
of linear inequalities in two variables and their solutions by
graphical method. Many applications in mathematics
involve systems of inequalities/equations. In this chapter,
we shall apply the systems of linear inequalities/equations
to solve some real life problems of the type as given below:
A furniture dealer deals in only two items–tables and
chairs. He has Rs 50,000 to invest and has storage space
of at most 60 pieces. A table costs Rs 2500 and a chair
Rs 500. He estimates that from the sale of one table, he
can make a profit of Rs 250 and that from the sale of one
chair a profit of Rs 75. He wants to know how many tables and chairs he should buy
from the available money so as to maximise his total profit, assuming that he can sell all
the items which he buys.
Such type of problems which seek to maximise (or, minimise) profit (or, cost) form
a general class of problems called optimisation problems. Thus, an optimisation
problem may involve finding maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum use of
resources etc.
A special but a very important class of optimisation problems is linear programming
problem. The above stated optimisation problem is an example of linear programming
problem. Linear programming problems are of much interest because of their wide
applicability in industry, commerce, management science etc.
In this chapter, we shall study some linear programming problems and their solutions
by graphical method only, though there are many other methods also to solve such
problems.
Chapter 12
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
L. Kantorovich
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         395
12.2  Linear Programming Problem and its Mathematical Formulation
We begin our discussion with the above example of furniture dealer which will further
lead to a mathematical formulation of the problem in two variables. In this example, we
observe
(i) The dealer can invest his money in buying tables or chairs or combination thereof.
Further he would earn different profits by following different investment
strategies.
(ii) There are certain overriding conditions or constraints viz., his investment is
limited to a maximum of Rs 50,000 and so is his storage space which is for a
maximum of 60 pieces.
Suppose he decides to buy tables only and no chairs, so he can buy 50000 ÷ 2500,
i.e., 20 tables. His profit in this case will be Rs (250 × 20), i.e., Rs 5000.
Suppose he chooses to buy chairs only and no tables. With his capital of Rs 50,000,
he can buy 50000 ÷ 500, i.e. 100 chairs. But he can store only 60 pieces. Therefore, he
is forced to buy only 60 chairs which will give him a total profit of Rs (60 × 75), i.e.,
Rs 4500.
There are many other possibilities, for instance, he may choose to buy 10 tables
and 50 chairs, as he can store only 60 pieces. Total profit in this case would be
Rs (10 × 250 + 50 × 75), i.e., Rs 6250 and so on.
We, thus, find that the dealer can invest his money in different ways and he would
earn different profits by following different investment strategies.
Now the problem is : How should he invest his money in order to get maximum
profit? To answer this question, let us try to formulate the problem mathematically.
12.2.1 Mathematical formulation of the problem
Let x be the number of tables and y be the number of chairs that the dealer buys.
Obviously, x and y must be non-negative, i.e.,
0 ... (1)
(Non-negative constraints)
... (2) 0
x
y
= 
 
=
 
The dealer is constrained by the maximum amount he can invest (Here it is
Rs 50,000) and by the maximum number of items he can store (Here it is 60).
Stated mathematically,
2500x + 500y = 50000 (investment constraint)
or 5x + y = 100 ... (3)
and x + y = 60  (storage constraint) ... (4)
Rationalised 2023-24
396 MATHEMATICS
The dealer wants to invest in such a way so as to maximise his profit, say, Z which
stated as a function of x and y is given by
Z = 250x + 75y (called objective function) ... (5)
Mathematically, the given problems now reduces to:
Maximise Z = 250x + 75y
subject to the constraints:
5x + y = 100
x + y = 60
x = 0,  y = 0
So, we have to maximise the linear function Z subject to certain conditions determined
by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. There are also some other
problems where we have to minimise a linear function subject to certain conditions
determined by a set of linear inequalities with variables as non-negative. Such problems
are called Linear Programming Problems.
Thus, a Linear Programming Problem is one that is concerned with finding the
optimal value (maximum or minimum value) of  a linear function (called objective
function) of several variables (say x and y), subject to the conditions that the variables
are non-negative and satisfy a set of linear inequalities (called linear constraints).
The term linear implies that all the mathematical relations used in the problem are
linear relations while the term programming refers to the method of determining a
particular programme or plan of action.
Before we proceed further, we now formally define some terms (which have been
used above) which we shall be using in the linear programming problems:
Objective function Linear function Z = ax + by, where a, b are constants, which has
to be maximised or minimized is called a linear objective function.
In the above example, Z = 250x + 75y is a linear objective function. V ariables x and
y are called decision variables.
Constraints The linear inequalities or equations or restrictions on the variables of a
linear programming problem are called constraints. The conditions x = 0, y = 0 are
called non-negative restrictions. In the above example, the set of inequalities (1) to (4)
are constraints.
Optimisation problem A problem which seeks to maximise or minimise a linear
function (say of two variables x and y) subject to certain constraints as determined by
a set of linear inequalities is called an optimisation problem. Linear programming
problems are special type of optimisation problems. The above problem of investing a
Rationalised 2023-24
LINEAR PROGRAMMING         397
given sum by the dealer in purchasing chairs and tables is an example of an optimisation
problem as well as of a linear programming problem.
W e will now discuss how to find solutions to a linear programming problem. In this
chapter, we will be concerned only with the graphical method.
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear programming problems
In Class XI, we have learnt how to graph a system of linear inequalities involving two
variables x and y and to find its solutions graphically. Let us refer to the problem of
investment in tables and chairs discussed in Section 12.2. W e will now solve this problem
graphically.  Let us graph the constraints stated as linear inequalities:
5x + y = 100 ... (1)
x + y = 60 ... (2)
x = 0 ... (3)
y = 0 ... (4)
The graph of this system (shaded region) consists of the points common to all half
planes determined by the inequalities (1) to (4) (Fig 12.1). Each point in this region
represents a feasible choice open to the dealer for investing in tables and chairs. The
region, therefore, is called the feasible region for the problem. Every point of this
region is called a feasible solution to the problem. Thus, we have,
Feasible region The common region determined by all the constraints including
non-negative constraints x, y = 0 of a linear programming problem is called the feasible
region (or solution region) for the problem. In Fig 12.1, the region OABC (shaded) is
the feasible region for the problem. The region other than feasible region is called an
infeasible region.
Feasible solutions Points within and on the
boundary of the feasible region represent
feasible solutions of the constraints. In
Fig 12.1, every point within and on the
boundary of the feasible region OABC
represents feasible solution to the problem.
For example, the point (10, 50) is a feasible
solution of the problem and so are the points
(0, 60), (20, 0) etc.
Any point outside the feasible region is
called an  infeasible solution. For example,
the point (25, 40) is an infeasible solution of
the problem.
Fig 12.1
Rationalised 2023-24
398 MATHEMATICS
Optimal (feasible) solution: Any point in the feasible region that gives the optimal
value (maximum or minimum) of the objective function is called an optimal solution.
Now, we see that every point in the feasible region OABC satisfies all the constraints
as given in (1) to (4), and since there are infinitely many points, it is not evident how
we should go about finding a point that gives a maximum value of the objective function
Z = 250x + 75y. To handle this situation, we use the following theorems which are
fundamental in solving linear programming problems. The proofs of these theorems
are beyond the scope of the book.
Theorem 1 Let R be the feasible region (convex polygon) for a linear programming
problem and let Z = ax + by be the objective function. When Z has an optimal value
(maximum or minimum), where the variables x and y are subject to constraints described
by linear inequalities, this optimal value must occur at a corner point* (vertex) of the
feasible region.
Theorem 2 Let R be the feasible region for a linear programming problem, and let
Z = ax + by be the objective function. If R is bounded**, then the objective function
Z has both a maximum and a minimum value on R and each of these occurs at a
corner point (vertex) of R.
Remark If R is unbounded, then a maximum or a minimum value of the objective
function may not exist. However, if it exists, it must occur at a corner point of R.
(By Theorem 1).
In the above example, the corner points (vertices) of the bounded (feasible) region
are: O, A, B and C and it is easy to find their coordinates as (0, 0), (20, 0), (10, 50) and
(0, 60) respectively. Let us now compute the values of Z at these points.
We have
* A corner point of a feasible region is a point in the region which is the intersection of two boundary lines.
** A feasible region of a system of linear inequalities is said to be bounded if it can be enclosed within a
circle. Otherwise, it is called unbounded. Unbounded means that the feasible region does extend
indefinitely in any direction.
Vertex of the Corresponding value
Feasible Region of Z (in Rs)
O (0,0) 0
C (0,60) 4500
B (10,50) 6250
A (20,0) 5000
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook - Linear Programming - NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12) - CTET & State TET

1. What is linear programming?
Ans. Linear programming is a mathematical optimization technique used to maximize or minimize a linear objective function subject to a set of linear constraints. It is used to find the best possible solution among a set of feasible solutions.
2. How is linear programming used in real-life applications?
Ans. Linear programming is widely used in various real-life applications such as supply chain management, production planning, financial portfolio optimization, resource allocation, and transportation planning. It helps businesses in making optimal decisions to maximize profits or minimize costs.
3. What are the basic components of a linear programming problem?
Ans. A linear programming problem consists of three main components: the objective function, the decision variables, and the constraints. The objective function defines the goal to be optimized, the decision variables represent the unknown quantities to be determined, and the constraints impose restrictions on the values of the decision variables.
4. Can linear programming be used for non-linear problems?
Ans. No, linear programming is specifically designed to solve linear problems where the objective function and constraints are linear. Non-linear problems involve non-linear equations and require different optimization techniques such as nonlinear programming or heuristic methods.
5. What are the limitations of linear programming?
Ans. Linear programming has certain limitations. It assumes that the relationships between variables are linear, which may not always be true in real-life situations. Additionally, it requires the problem to be well-defined and solvable using mathematical models. Furthermore, it may not provide an optimal solution in cases where there are multiple equally good solutions or in situations with complex constraints.
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