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 Page 1


Q1: What happens at the synapse between two neurons? 
 
Answer: Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron 
of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of 
impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. 
Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron. 
 
In toto, synapse performs the following tasks: 
1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.  
2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.  
3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.  
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and how it functions. 
 
Q2: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? 
 
Answer: Cerebellum. 
 
 
Q3: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)? 
 
Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory 
impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, 
sight and so on. 
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. 
The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with 
information that is already stored in the brain.  
 
Q4: List the functions performed by Cerebrum. 
 
Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions: 
1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.  
2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.  
3. It controls all involuntary functions.  
Q5: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. 
 
Answer: Cerebrum  
Three regions of Brain 
Page 2


Q1: What happens at the synapse between two neurons? 
 
Answer: Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron 
of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of 
impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. 
Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron. 
 
In toto, synapse performs the following tasks: 
1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.  
2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.  
3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.  
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and how it functions. 
 
Q2: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? 
 
Answer: Cerebellum. 
 
 
Q3: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)? 
 
Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory 
impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, 
sight and so on. 
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. 
The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with 
information that is already stored in the brain.  
 
Q4: List the functions performed by Cerebrum. 
 
Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions: 
1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.  
2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.  
3. It controls all involuntary functions.  
Q5: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. 
 
Answer: Cerebrum  
Three regions of Brain 
 
 
Q6: What are the functions of cerebellum? 
 
Answer: 
1. Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.  
2. Coordinates muscular movement.  
3. Controls posture of the body.  
 
Q7: How brain is protected inside a human body? 
 
Answer: Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-
filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) for absorbing shock and buoyancy. 
 
Q8: What is the role of the brain in reflex action? 
 
Answer: Brain has no role to play in creation of reflex action response. Instead spinal cord is the 
control centre of a reflex action. In fact brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed. 
 
Q9: What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions? 
 
Answer: It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body 
(through effectors) to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal cord. 
 
Examples of reflex actions: 
1. Closing eyes when bright light falls on the eyes.  
2. Knee-jerk  
3. Withdraw Hands when pricked by a pin.  
4. Choking stimulates cough reflex  
5. Withdraw hand or leg when it touches an hot object.  
6. Women knitting a sweater while watching TV (conditioned reflex).  
Q10: What are the different types of reflexes? 
 
Answer: There are two types of reflexes: 
? Unconditioned reflexes  
? Conditioned reflexes  
Page 3


Q1: What happens at the synapse between two neurons? 
 
Answer: Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron 
of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of 
impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. 
Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron. 
 
In toto, synapse performs the following tasks: 
1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.  
2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.  
3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.  
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and how it functions. 
 
Q2: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? 
 
Answer: Cerebellum. 
 
 
Q3: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)? 
 
Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory 
impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, 
sight and so on. 
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. 
The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with 
information that is already stored in the brain.  
 
Q4: List the functions performed by Cerebrum. 
 
Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions: 
1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.  
2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.  
3. It controls all involuntary functions.  
Q5: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. 
 
Answer: Cerebrum  
Three regions of Brain 
 
 
Q6: What are the functions of cerebellum? 
 
Answer: 
1. Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.  
2. Coordinates muscular movement.  
3. Controls posture of the body.  
 
Q7: How brain is protected inside a human body? 
 
Answer: Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-
filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) for absorbing shock and buoyancy. 
 
Q8: What is the role of the brain in reflex action? 
 
Answer: Brain has no role to play in creation of reflex action response. Instead spinal cord is the 
control centre of a reflex action. In fact brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed. 
 
Q9: What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions? 
 
Answer: It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body 
(through effectors) to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal cord. 
 
Examples of reflex actions: 
1. Closing eyes when bright light falls on the eyes.  
2. Knee-jerk  
3. Withdraw Hands when pricked by a pin.  
4. Choking stimulates cough reflex  
5. Withdraw hand or leg when it touches an hot object.  
6. Women knitting a sweater while watching TV (conditioned reflex).  
Q10: What are the different types of reflexes? 
 
Answer: There are two types of reflexes: 
? Unconditioned reflexes  
? Conditioned reflexes  
Unconditioned or Unconditional reflexes are those which are inherited. Our brain does not learn these 
reflexes. E.g. when we touch a hot plate, we immediately moves away our hand. 
 
Conditioned reflexes are those which our brain has learned by repeating the action number of times. 
e.g. a typist is typing a letter without looking at the typewriter keys. 
 
Q11: What is reflex arc? 
 
Answer: The structural and functional unit that carries our reflex action is called a reflex arc. It 
consists of: 
? A receptor  
? sensory nerve (afferent)  
? Spinal Cord and Inter-neuron  
? motor nerve (efferent)  
? effector  
 
Q12: What are plant hormones? 
 
Answer: Plant hormones or phytohormones are naturally-occurring organic substances used as 
chemical coordinators in plants. These are synthesized in one part of the plant body (in minute 
quantities) and are translocated to other parts when required. 
The five major types of phytohormones are: 
? auxins: promote cell division, bending of shoot towards the source of light.  
? gibberellins: stimulate stem elongation.  
? cytokinins: promote cell division.  
? abscisic acid: inhibit growth ,closing of stomata ,seed dormancy.  
? ethylene( gas hormone): promotes fruit ripening and growth.  
 
Q13: Who coined the term phytohormones? 
 
Answer: Thimann in 1948. 
 
Q14: How is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from the movement of a 
shoot towards light?  
 
Answer: The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant, (e.g. Mimosa pudica or touch-me-not) occurs 
in response to touch or contact stimuli. It is a growth independent movement (nastic movement). 
 
The movement of shoot towards light is called photo-tropism. This type of movement is directional 
and is growth dependent.  
 
 
Q15: Write differences between nastic and tropic movements 
 
Answer: 
Sno. Nastic Movements Tropic Movements 
1. Growth  Growth Independent movements  Growth Dependent movements 
2.Time of Action  Immediate Slow 
3. Response to Stimulus non-directional directional 
4. Reason for action change in turgor cell division 
5. Alternate name nastics tropism 
6. Examples 
folding of leaves of  
touch-me-not(mimosa), 
phototropism, geotropism, 
hydrotropism, chemotropism 
Page 4


Q1: What happens at the synapse between two neurons? 
 
Answer: Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron 
of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of 
impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. 
Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron. 
 
In toto, synapse performs the following tasks: 
1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.  
2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.  
3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.  
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and how it functions. 
 
Q2: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? 
 
Answer: Cerebellum. 
 
 
Q3: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)? 
 
Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory 
impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, 
sight and so on. 
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. 
The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with 
information that is already stored in the brain.  
 
Q4: List the functions performed by Cerebrum. 
 
Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions: 
1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.  
2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.  
3. It controls all involuntary functions.  
Q5: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. 
 
Answer: Cerebrum  
Three regions of Brain 
 
 
Q6: What are the functions of cerebellum? 
 
Answer: 
1. Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.  
2. Coordinates muscular movement.  
3. Controls posture of the body.  
 
Q7: How brain is protected inside a human body? 
 
Answer: Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-
filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) for absorbing shock and buoyancy. 
 
Q8: What is the role of the brain in reflex action? 
 
Answer: Brain has no role to play in creation of reflex action response. Instead spinal cord is the 
control centre of a reflex action. In fact brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed. 
 
Q9: What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions? 
 
Answer: It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body 
(through effectors) to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal cord. 
 
Examples of reflex actions: 
1. Closing eyes when bright light falls on the eyes.  
2. Knee-jerk  
3. Withdraw Hands when pricked by a pin.  
4. Choking stimulates cough reflex  
5. Withdraw hand or leg when it touches an hot object.  
6. Women knitting a sweater while watching TV (conditioned reflex).  
Q10: What are the different types of reflexes? 
 
Answer: There are two types of reflexes: 
? Unconditioned reflexes  
? Conditioned reflexes  
Unconditioned or Unconditional reflexes are those which are inherited. Our brain does not learn these 
reflexes. E.g. when we touch a hot plate, we immediately moves away our hand. 
 
Conditioned reflexes are those which our brain has learned by repeating the action number of times. 
e.g. a typist is typing a letter without looking at the typewriter keys. 
 
Q11: What is reflex arc? 
 
Answer: The structural and functional unit that carries our reflex action is called a reflex arc. It 
consists of: 
? A receptor  
? sensory nerve (afferent)  
? Spinal Cord and Inter-neuron  
? motor nerve (efferent)  
? effector  
 
Q12: What are plant hormones? 
 
Answer: Plant hormones or phytohormones are naturally-occurring organic substances used as 
chemical coordinators in plants. These are synthesized in one part of the plant body (in minute 
quantities) and are translocated to other parts when required. 
The five major types of phytohormones are: 
? auxins: promote cell division, bending of shoot towards the source of light.  
? gibberellins: stimulate stem elongation.  
? cytokinins: promote cell division.  
? abscisic acid: inhibit growth ,closing of stomata ,seed dormancy.  
? ethylene( gas hormone): promotes fruit ripening and growth.  
 
Q13: Who coined the term phytohormones? 
 
Answer: Thimann in 1948. 
 
Q14: How is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from the movement of a 
shoot towards light?  
 
Answer: The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant, (e.g. Mimosa pudica or touch-me-not) occurs 
in response to touch or contact stimuli. It is a growth independent movement (nastic movement). 
 
The movement of shoot towards light is called photo-tropism. This type of movement is directional 
and is growth dependent.  
 
 
Q15: Write differences between nastic and tropic movements 
 
Answer: 
Sno. Nastic Movements Tropic Movements 
1. Growth  Growth Independent movements  Growth Dependent movements 
2.Time of Action  Immediate Slow 
3. Response to Stimulus non-directional directional 
4. Reason for action change in turgor cell division 
5. Alternate name nastics tropism 
6. Examples 
folding of leaves of  
touch-me-not(mimosa), 
phototropism, geotropism, 
hydrotropism, chemotropism 
Sno. Nastic Movements Tropic Movements 
opening and closing of stomata 
 
Q16: What will happen when plant is exposed to unidirectional light? 
 
Answer: Stem bends towards unidirectional flow of light. It is called phototropism. 
 
Q17: What is chemotropism? 
 
Answer: Directional movement of a plant/ or its part in response to chemicals is called chemotropism. 
e.g. growth of the pollen tube towards the ovule is a chemotropic movement due to which fertilization 
of flower takers place. 
 
Q18: Give examples of geotropism. 
 
Answer: 
1. Roots move in the direction of gravity (positive +ve getropism)  
2. Shoots move (up) against direction of gravity (negative -v geotropism)  
Q19: Why do mammals like humans need an endocrinal system? 
or 
Q: What are the limitations of nervous system in human body? How it is overcome? 
 
Answer: Nervous system in human body works or communicates using nerve impulses which are 
form of electrical impulses. Electrical impulses are an excellent means of communication in human 
body but they have following limitations: 
1. They reach only those cells that are connected by nervous tissue, not each and every cell 
in the animal body.  
2. Cells cannot continually create and transmit electrical impulses. once an electrical impulse is 
generated in a cell and transmitted, the cell will take some time to reset its mechanisms 
before it can generate and transmit a new impulse.  
Due to above said limitations most multicellular organisms use another means of communication 
between cells, namely, chemical communication i.e. hormone or endocrine system. It is slower than 
nerve cells but potentially reach all cells of the body. 
 
Q20: How does chemical coordination take place in animals? 
 
Answer: Hormones act as chemical coordinators in animals. Hormone is the chemical messenger that 
regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by ductless glands into blood 
stream and reach their target site. 
 
Q21: Who coined the term hormone? 
 
Answer: Bayliss and Starling. Both of discovered the peptide hormone called secretin in human 
intestine. 
 
Q22: What will happen if intake of iodine in our diet is low? 
or 
Q: Why is the use of iodised salt advised? 
 
Answer: It is advised to used iodised salt to prevent goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland). Iodine is 
required for the proper functioning of thyroid. Iodine stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin 
hormone. This hormone regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in our body. 
 
Q23: Name the hormone secreted by an endocrine gland during emergency? Name the gland 
which secretes this hormone.  
Page 5


Q1: What happens at the synapse between two neurons? 
 
Answer: Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron 
of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of 
impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. 
Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron. 
 
In toto, synapse performs the following tasks: 
1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.  
2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.  
3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.  
Watch the you tube video explaining what is the Synapse structure and how it functions. 
 
Q2: Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? 
 
Answer: Cerebellum. 
 
 
Q3: How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)? 
 
Answer: The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory 
impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, 
sight and so on. 
Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. 
The for-brain interprets it along with with information received from other receptors as well as with 
information that is already stored in the brain.  
 
Q4: List the functions performed by Cerebrum. 
 
Answer: The cerebrum performs the following functions: 
1. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.  
2. It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.  
3. It controls all involuntary functions.  
Q5: Which is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. 
 
Answer: Cerebrum  
Three regions of Brain 
 
 
Q6: What are the functions of cerebellum? 
 
Answer: 
1. Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.  
2. Coordinates muscular movement.  
3. Controls posture of the body.  
 
Q7: How brain is protected inside a human body? 
 
Answer: Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-
filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) for absorbing shock and buoyancy. 
 
Q8: What is the role of the brain in reflex action? 
 
Answer: Brain has no role to play in creation of reflex action response. Instead spinal cord is the 
control centre of a reflex action. In fact brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed. 
 
Q9: What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions? 
 
Answer: It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body 
(through effectors) to a stimulus. It is monitored through spinal cord. 
 
Examples of reflex actions: 
1. Closing eyes when bright light falls on the eyes.  
2. Knee-jerk  
3. Withdraw Hands when pricked by a pin.  
4. Choking stimulates cough reflex  
5. Withdraw hand or leg when it touches an hot object.  
6. Women knitting a sweater while watching TV (conditioned reflex).  
Q10: What are the different types of reflexes? 
 
Answer: There are two types of reflexes: 
? Unconditioned reflexes  
? Conditioned reflexes  
Unconditioned or Unconditional reflexes are those which are inherited. Our brain does not learn these 
reflexes. E.g. when we touch a hot plate, we immediately moves away our hand. 
 
Conditioned reflexes are those which our brain has learned by repeating the action number of times. 
e.g. a typist is typing a letter without looking at the typewriter keys. 
 
Q11: What is reflex arc? 
 
Answer: The structural and functional unit that carries our reflex action is called a reflex arc. It 
consists of: 
? A receptor  
? sensory nerve (afferent)  
? Spinal Cord and Inter-neuron  
? motor nerve (efferent)  
? effector  
 
Q12: What are plant hormones? 
 
Answer: Plant hormones or phytohormones are naturally-occurring organic substances used as 
chemical coordinators in plants. These are synthesized in one part of the plant body (in minute 
quantities) and are translocated to other parts when required. 
The five major types of phytohormones are: 
? auxins: promote cell division, bending of shoot towards the source of light.  
? gibberellins: stimulate stem elongation.  
? cytokinins: promote cell division.  
? abscisic acid: inhibit growth ,closing of stomata ,seed dormancy.  
? ethylene( gas hormone): promotes fruit ripening and growth.  
 
Q13: Who coined the term phytohormones? 
 
Answer: Thimann in 1948. 
 
Q14: How is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from the movement of a 
shoot towards light?  
 
Answer: The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant, (e.g. Mimosa pudica or touch-me-not) occurs 
in response to touch or contact stimuli. It is a growth independent movement (nastic movement). 
 
The movement of shoot towards light is called photo-tropism. This type of movement is directional 
and is growth dependent.  
 
 
Q15: Write differences between nastic and tropic movements 
 
Answer: 
Sno. Nastic Movements Tropic Movements 
1. Growth  Growth Independent movements  Growth Dependent movements 
2.Time of Action  Immediate Slow 
3. Response to Stimulus non-directional directional 
4. Reason for action change in turgor cell division 
5. Alternate name nastics tropism 
6. Examples 
folding of leaves of  
touch-me-not(mimosa), 
phototropism, geotropism, 
hydrotropism, chemotropism 
Sno. Nastic Movements Tropic Movements 
opening and closing of stomata 
 
Q16: What will happen when plant is exposed to unidirectional light? 
 
Answer: Stem bends towards unidirectional flow of light. It is called phototropism. 
 
Q17: What is chemotropism? 
 
Answer: Directional movement of a plant/ or its part in response to chemicals is called chemotropism. 
e.g. growth of the pollen tube towards the ovule is a chemotropic movement due to which fertilization 
of flower takers place. 
 
Q18: Give examples of geotropism. 
 
Answer: 
1. Roots move in the direction of gravity (positive +ve getropism)  
2. Shoots move (up) against direction of gravity (negative -v geotropism)  
Q19: Why do mammals like humans need an endocrinal system? 
or 
Q: What are the limitations of nervous system in human body? How it is overcome? 
 
Answer: Nervous system in human body works or communicates using nerve impulses which are 
form of electrical impulses. Electrical impulses are an excellent means of communication in human 
body but they have following limitations: 
1. They reach only those cells that are connected by nervous tissue, not each and every cell 
in the animal body.  
2. Cells cannot continually create and transmit electrical impulses. once an electrical impulse is 
generated in a cell and transmitted, the cell will take some time to reset its mechanisms 
before it can generate and transmit a new impulse.  
Due to above said limitations most multicellular organisms use another means of communication 
between cells, namely, chemical communication i.e. hormone or endocrine system. It is slower than 
nerve cells but potentially reach all cells of the body. 
 
Q20: How does chemical coordination take place in animals? 
 
Answer: Hormones act as chemical coordinators in animals. Hormone is the chemical messenger that 
regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by ductless glands into blood 
stream and reach their target site. 
 
Q21: Who coined the term hormone? 
 
Answer: Bayliss and Starling. Both of discovered the peptide hormone called secretin in human 
intestine. 
 
Q22: What will happen if intake of iodine in our diet is low? 
or 
Q: Why is the use of iodised salt advised? 
 
Answer: It is advised to used iodised salt to prevent goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland). Iodine is 
required for the proper functioning of thyroid. Iodine stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin 
hormone. This hormone regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in our body. 
 
Q23: Name the hormone secreted by an endocrine gland during emergency? Name the gland 
which secretes this hormone.  
 
Answer: Adrenaline hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands. It helps to regulate heart beat, blood 
pressure, metabolism in the times of stress or emergency to cope up with the situation. 
 
Q24: How does adrenaline affects heart during emergency? 
or 
Q: How does our body respond when adrenaline is secreted into the blood? 
 
Answer: During emergency situations, adrenaline hormone is released to blood stream in large 
quantities. It increases the heartbeat and hence supplies more oxygen to the muscles. The increase 
in breathing rate also increases due to contractions of diaphragm and rib muscles. It raises the blood 
pressure and thus enable the body to cope up with any stress or emergency. 
 
Q25: Which hormone is injected to a diabetic patient and why? 
or 
Q: Why are some patients of diabetes treated by giving injections of insulin? 
Answer: Diabetes is a condition in which sugar level in blood is very high. Insulin hormone is released 
by pancreas glands which regulates the blood sugar level. In diabetic patients, pancreas has stopped 
releasing insulin hormone. If it is not secreted in proper amounts, the sugar level in the blood rises 
causing many harmful effects. Due to this reason diabetic patients are treated by giving injections of 
insulin. 
 
Q26 : How does our body maintain blood sugar level? 
 
Answer: The timing and amount of hormone released are regulated by feedback mechanisms. When 
the sugar levels in blood rise, they are detected by the cells of the pancreas which respond by 
producing more insulin. As the blood sugar level falls, insulin secretion is reduced. 
 
Q27: Where adrenal glands are located? 
 
Answer: Adrenal glands are like caps just above the kidneys. 
 
Q28: What is hyperglycemia? 
 
Answer: Hyperglycemia refers to high sugar level in blood. In general diabetic patients has 
hyperglycemia due to insufficient release of insulin hormone. 
 
Q29: Where thyroid gland is located? 
 
Answer: Thyroid gland is situated in front of the neck below larynx. 
 
Q30: Which endocrine gland is called master gland? Why? 
 
Answer: Pituitary gland (pea shape, present in mid-brain) is considered as master endocrine gland. It 
is said so because it controls almost all other endocrine glands. 
 
Q31: Why is pancreas a dual gland? 
 
Answer: Pancreas is a dual gland because it acts as both endocrine and exocrine gland. As 
endocrine it secretes hormones like insulin, glucagen. As an exocrine glands, it releases enzymes like 
trypsin, lypase, amylase etc. 
 
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FAQs on Control & Coordination : NCERT Solution, Class 10 Science

1. What is the role of control and coordination in living organisms?
Ans. Control and coordination play a crucial role in living organisms as they help in maintaining homeostasis, responding to external stimuli, and allowing proper functioning of different body systems. It involves the integration of various sensory inputs, processing of information, and generating appropriate responses to maintain an internal balance.
2. How does the nervous system help in control and coordination?
Ans. The nervous system is responsible for control and coordination in the body. It consists of specialized cells called neurons that transmit electrical signals or nerve impulses. These impulses travel through the nerve cells to different parts of the body, allowing communication between various organs and tissues. The nervous system helps in responding to stimuli, coordinating movements, and maintaining body functions.
3. What are the different types of coordination in living organisms?
Ans. There are two main types of coordination in living organisms: nervous coordination and chemical coordination. Nervous coordination involves the transmission of nerve impulses through the nervous system, which allows quick and immediate responses to stimuli. Chemical coordination, on the other hand, involves the release of hormones by endocrine glands into the bloodstream. These hormones travel to target cells or organs and regulate various bodily functions over a longer duration.
4. How does the human brain control and coordinate various activities of the body?
Ans. The human brain is the control center of the body and coordinates various activities through the nervous system. It receives sensory information from different parts of the body, processes it, and generates appropriate responses. The brain consists of different regions that are responsible for specific functions such as memory, speech, motor control, etc. These regions communicate with each other and with the rest of the body through nerve impulses, ensuring proper control and coordination.
5. What happens when there is a disruption in control and coordination in living organisms?
Ans. Disruption in control and coordination can lead to various issues in living organisms. It can result in impaired sensory perception, loss of motor control, difficulty in maintaining homeostasis, and altered physiological functions. For example, disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or hormonal imbalances can affect the control and coordination systems, leading to symptoms like tremors, memory loss, or irregularities in body functions. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to restore normal control and coordination.
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