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 Page 1


In this chapter you will read 
about some of the key elements 
that influence the working of a 
democratic government. These 
include people’s participation, 
the resolution of conflict and 
equality and justice.
Chapter 4
Key Elements of a
Democratic Government
S
outh Africa is a country that has 
people of several races. There are 
black people who belong to South 
Africa, whites who came there to settle, 
and Indians who came as labourers 
and traders.
Maya Naidoo, an eleven-year old 
South African girl living in the town 
of Johannesburg, was helping her 
mother clear up her old boxes. She 
found a scrapbook full of pictures and  
newspaper articles. There were many 
pictures of a young schoolboy of around 
fifteen years of age. When she asked  
her mother who the boy was, she was 
told that he was called, Hector Pieterson. 
He had been shot by the police. Maya 
was shocked. “Why?” she asked.
Her mother explained that South 
Africa was earlier governed by  
apartheid laws. Apartheid means 
separation on the basis of race. South 
African people were divided into white, 
black, Indian and coloured races. 
According to the law, these races were 
not allowed to mingle with each other, 
to live near each other or even to use 
common facilities.
Maya could not believe her ears. 
Maya’s mother sounded angry when 
she spoke about life under apartheid. 
She told Maya that in those days  
South Africa
India
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   35 08-10-2021   10:48:04
2022-23
Page 2


In this chapter you will read 
about some of the key elements 
that influence the working of a 
democratic government. These 
include people’s participation, 
the resolution of conflict and 
equality and justice.
Chapter 4
Key Elements of a
Democratic Government
S
outh Africa is a country that has 
people of several races. There are 
black people who belong to South 
Africa, whites who came there to settle, 
and Indians who came as labourers 
and traders.
Maya Naidoo, an eleven-year old 
South African girl living in the town 
of Johannesburg, was helping her 
mother clear up her old boxes. She 
found a scrapbook full of pictures and  
newspaper articles. There were many 
pictures of a young schoolboy of around 
fifteen years of age. When she asked  
her mother who the boy was, she was 
told that he was called, Hector Pieterson. 
He had been shot by the police. Maya 
was shocked. “Why?” she asked.
Her mother explained that South 
Africa was earlier governed by  
apartheid laws. Apartheid means 
separation on the basis of race. South 
African people were divided into white, 
black, Indian and coloured races. 
According to the law, these races were 
not allowed to mingle with each other, 
to live near each other or even to use 
common facilities.
Maya could not believe her ears. 
Maya’s mother sounded angry when 
she spoke about life under apartheid. 
She told Maya that in those days  
South Africa
India
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   35 08-10-2021   10:48:04
2022-23
36 / Social and Political Life
whites spoke. Hector and other school 
students were being forced to learn this 
language but they wanted to learn their 
own language, Zulu.  The South African 
police beat up the protestors mercilessly  
and  shot  at  the  crowd. One of their 
bullets killed Hector. This was on 16 
June 1976.
The African National Congress, a group 
of people who led the struggle against 
apartheid, and their most well known 
leader, Nelson Mandela fought the 
apartheid system for several years.  
Finally, they succeeded and in 1994 
South Africa became a democratic 
country in which people of all races 
were considered equal.
What were Hector and his classmates 
protesting about?
List five ways in which the non-whites 
were discriminated against:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Do you think it is important for all 
persons to be treated equally? Why?
Let us now try to understand what 
a democratic government means to all 
of us.
PARTICIPATION
Why do we have regular elections? 
You’ve already read in the previous 
chapter that people make the decisions 
in a democracy. Through voting 
in elections people elect leaders to 
represent them. These representatives 
take decisions on behalf of the people. 
hospitals were separate and so were 
ambulances. An ambulance meant for 
white people would always be well 
equipped while one meant for black 
people was not.  There were separate 
trains and buses. Even the busstops 
were different for black and white 
people.
Non-whites were not allowed to 
vote. The best land in the country was 
reserved for the white people, and non- 
whites had to live on the worst available 
land. Thus blacks and coloured people 
were not considered to be equal to 
whites.
One black township was the South 
Western Township (Soweto). Hector 
Pieterson lived here and he and his 
classmates joined the protest against 
learning the Afrikaans language in 
school. This was the language that the 
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   36 08-10-2021   10:48:05
2022-23
Page 3


In this chapter you will read 
about some of the key elements 
that influence the working of a 
democratic government. These 
include people’s participation, 
the resolution of conflict and 
equality and justice.
Chapter 4
Key Elements of a
Democratic Government
S
outh Africa is a country that has 
people of several races. There are 
black people who belong to South 
Africa, whites who came there to settle, 
and Indians who came as labourers 
and traders.
Maya Naidoo, an eleven-year old 
South African girl living in the town 
of Johannesburg, was helping her 
mother clear up her old boxes. She 
found a scrapbook full of pictures and  
newspaper articles. There were many 
pictures of a young schoolboy of around 
fifteen years of age. When she asked  
her mother who the boy was, she was 
told that he was called, Hector Pieterson. 
He had been shot by the police. Maya 
was shocked. “Why?” she asked.
Her mother explained that South 
Africa was earlier governed by  
apartheid laws. Apartheid means 
separation on the basis of race. South 
African people were divided into white, 
black, Indian and coloured races. 
According to the law, these races were 
not allowed to mingle with each other, 
to live near each other or even to use 
common facilities.
Maya could not believe her ears. 
Maya’s mother sounded angry when 
she spoke about life under apartheid. 
She told Maya that in those days  
South Africa
India
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   35 08-10-2021   10:48:04
2022-23
36 / Social and Political Life
whites spoke. Hector and other school 
students were being forced to learn this 
language but they wanted to learn their 
own language, Zulu.  The South African 
police beat up the protestors mercilessly  
and  shot  at  the  crowd. One of their 
bullets killed Hector. This was on 16 
June 1976.
The African National Congress, a group 
of people who led the struggle against 
apartheid, and their most well known 
leader, Nelson Mandela fought the 
apartheid system for several years.  
Finally, they succeeded and in 1994 
South Africa became a democratic 
country in which people of all races 
were considered equal.
What were Hector and his classmates 
protesting about?
List five ways in which the non-whites 
were discriminated against:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Do you think it is important for all 
persons to be treated equally? Why?
Let us now try to understand what 
a democratic government means to all 
of us.
PARTICIPATION
Why do we have regular elections? 
You’ve already read in the previous 
chapter that people make the decisions 
in a democracy. Through voting 
in elections people elect leaders to 
represent them. These representatives 
take decisions on behalf of the people. 
hospitals were separate and so were 
ambulances. An ambulance meant for 
white people would always be well 
equipped while one meant for black 
people was not.  There were separate 
trains and buses. Even the busstops 
were different for black and white 
people.
Non-whites were not allowed to 
vote. The best land in the country was 
reserved for the white people, and non- 
whites had to live on the worst available 
land. Thus blacks and coloured people 
were not considered to be equal to 
whites.
One black township was the South 
Western Township (Soweto). Hector 
Pieterson lived here and he and his 
classmates joined the protest against 
learning the Afrikaans language in 
school. This was the language that the 
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   36 08-10-2021   10:48:05
2022-23
Key Elements of a Democratic Government / 37 
In doing so it is assumed that they will 
keep in mind the voices and interests 
of the people.
Discuss
Look at some newspapers and 
discuss some elections that you 
may have read about. Why do you 
think elections are required after a 
fixed period?
All governments are elected for fixed 
periods. In India this period is five 
years. Once elected, governments can 
stay in power only for that period. If 
they want to continue to be in power 
then they have to be re-elected by the 
people. This is a moment when people 
can sense their power in a democracy. 
In this way the power of the government 
gets limited by regular elections.
Other ways of participating
Elections are usually held once in five 
years. Besides voting there are other 
ways of participating in the process 
of government. People participate by 
taking an interest in the working of 
the government and by criticising it 
when required. In August 2005, when 
a particular government increased the 
money people had to pay for electricity, 
people expressed their disapproval 
very sharply. They took out rallies and 
also organised a signature campaign. 
The government tried to explain and 
defend its decision but finally listened 
to the people’s opinion and withdrew 
the increase. The government had 
to change its decision because it is 
responsible to the people.
What approval or disapproval is 
being expressed here?
Not bad! One of the taps in the nearby 
village must be getting water!
Letters to the editor
Take Action
It is worrying to know that 
the tiger population in India is 
falling. Tigers are being  
hunted and killed by poachers 
for their skins. The  
government has not taken the 
issue of poaching seriously 
enough. It must take action 
immediately, arrest the 
poachers and implement the 
laws protecting the tiger. If  
this does not happen the tiger 
will become an extinct animal 
in the next ten years.
 Sohan Pal
Guwahati, Assam
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   37 08-10-2021   10:48:06
2022-23
Page 4


In this chapter you will read 
about some of the key elements 
that influence the working of a 
democratic government. These 
include people’s participation, 
the resolution of conflict and 
equality and justice.
Chapter 4
Key Elements of a
Democratic Government
S
outh Africa is a country that has 
people of several races. There are 
black people who belong to South 
Africa, whites who came there to settle, 
and Indians who came as labourers 
and traders.
Maya Naidoo, an eleven-year old 
South African girl living in the town 
of Johannesburg, was helping her 
mother clear up her old boxes. She 
found a scrapbook full of pictures and  
newspaper articles. There were many 
pictures of a young schoolboy of around 
fifteen years of age. When she asked  
her mother who the boy was, she was 
told that he was called, Hector Pieterson. 
He had been shot by the police. Maya 
was shocked. “Why?” she asked.
Her mother explained that South 
Africa was earlier governed by  
apartheid laws. Apartheid means 
separation on the basis of race. South 
African people were divided into white, 
black, Indian and coloured races. 
According to the law, these races were 
not allowed to mingle with each other, 
to live near each other or even to use 
common facilities.
Maya could not believe her ears. 
Maya’s mother sounded angry when 
she spoke about life under apartheid. 
She told Maya that in those days  
South Africa
India
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   35 08-10-2021   10:48:04
2022-23
36 / Social and Political Life
whites spoke. Hector and other school 
students were being forced to learn this 
language but they wanted to learn their 
own language, Zulu.  The South African 
police beat up the protestors mercilessly  
and  shot  at  the  crowd. One of their 
bullets killed Hector. This was on 16 
June 1976.
The African National Congress, a group 
of people who led the struggle against 
apartheid, and their most well known 
leader, Nelson Mandela fought the 
apartheid system for several years.  
Finally, they succeeded and in 1994 
South Africa became a democratic 
country in which people of all races 
were considered equal.
What were Hector and his classmates 
protesting about?
List five ways in which the non-whites 
were discriminated against:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Do you think it is important for all 
persons to be treated equally? Why?
Let us now try to understand what 
a democratic government means to all 
of us.
PARTICIPATION
Why do we have regular elections? 
You’ve already read in the previous 
chapter that people make the decisions 
in a democracy. Through voting 
in elections people elect leaders to 
represent them. These representatives 
take decisions on behalf of the people. 
hospitals were separate and so were 
ambulances. An ambulance meant for 
white people would always be well 
equipped while one meant for black 
people was not.  There were separate 
trains and buses. Even the busstops 
were different for black and white 
people.
Non-whites were not allowed to 
vote. The best land in the country was 
reserved for the white people, and non- 
whites had to live on the worst available 
land. Thus blacks and coloured people 
were not considered to be equal to 
whites.
One black township was the South 
Western Township (Soweto). Hector 
Pieterson lived here and he and his 
classmates joined the protest against 
learning the Afrikaans language in 
school. This was the language that the 
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   36 08-10-2021   10:48:05
2022-23
Key Elements of a Democratic Government / 37 
In doing so it is assumed that they will 
keep in mind the voices and interests 
of the people.
Discuss
Look at some newspapers and 
discuss some elections that you 
may have read about. Why do you 
think elections are required after a 
fixed period?
All governments are elected for fixed 
periods. In India this period is five 
years. Once elected, governments can 
stay in power only for that period. If 
they want to continue to be in power 
then they have to be re-elected by the 
people. This is a moment when people 
can sense their power in a democracy. 
In this way the power of the government 
gets limited by regular elections.
Other ways of participating
Elections are usually held once in five 
years. Besides voting there are other 
ways of participating in the process 
of government. People participate by 
taking an interest in the working of 
the government and by criticising it 
when required. In August 2005, when 
a particular government increased the 
money people had to pay for electricity, 
people expressed their disapproval 
very sharply. They took out rallies and 
also organised a signature campaign. 
The government tried to explain and 
defend its decision but finally listened 
to the people’s opinion and withdrew 
the increase. The government had 
to change its decision because it is 
responsible to the people.
What approval or disapproval is 
being expressed here?
Not bad! One of the taps in the nearby 
village must be getting water!
Letters to the editor
Take Action
It is worrying to know that 
the tiger population in India is 
falling. Tigers are being  
hunted and killed by poachers 
for their skins. The  
government has not taken the 
issue of poaching seriously 
enough. It must take action 
immediately, arrest the 
poachers and implement the 
laws protecting the tiger. If  
this does not happen the tiger 
will become an extinct animal 
in the next ten years.
 Sohan Pal
Guwahati, Assam
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   37 08-10-2021   10:48:06
2022-23
38 / Social and Political Life
There are many ways in which 
people express their views and make 
governments understand what actions 
they should take. These include 
dharnas, rallies, strikes, signature 
campaigns etc. Things that are unfair 
and unjust are also brought forward. 
Newspapers, magazines and TV also 
play a role in discussing government 
issues and responsibilities.
If a country’s people are alert and 
interested in how the country is run,  
the democratic character of the 
government of that country will be 
stronger.
So the next time we see a rally 
winding through the streets of our  
cities and towns or villages we should 
pause to find out what the rally is 
about, who is participating in it, and 
what they are protesting about. This 
will help to give us a sense of how our 
government works.
NEED TO RESOLVE CONFLICT
In Maya’s story you read about how 
conflicts  can  often  lead  to  violence 
and death because one group decides 
that it is all right to use force to  
prevent the other group from  
protesting.
Read the story again: Do you 
think the police shooting 
of Hector could have been 
avoided?  How?
Conflicts occur when people of 
different cultures, religions, regions or 
economic backgrounds do not get along 
with each other, or when some among 
them feel they are being discriminated 
against. People may use violent means 
to settle their differences. This leads to 
fear and tension among others living in 
an area. The government is responsible 
for helping to resolve conflicts.
Let’s read about some of the 
conflicts in our society and the role of 
the government in resolving them.
While it is true that a democracy 
allows people to participate, it is also 
true that not all sections of people are 
actually able to do so. Another way for 
people to participate is by organising 
themselves into social movements 
that seek to challenge the government 
and its functioning. Members of the 
minority community, dalits, adivasis, 
women and others are often able to 
participate in this manner.
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   38 08-10-2021   10:48:07
2022-23
Page 5


In this chapter you will read 
about some of the key elements 
that influence the working of a 
democratic government. These 
include people’s participation, 
the resolution of conflict and 
equality and justice.
Chapter 4
Key Elements of a
Democratic Government
S
outh Africa is a country that has 
people of several races. There are 
black people who belong to South 
Africa, whites who came there to settle, 
and Indians who came as labourers 
and traders.
Maya Naidoo, an eleven-year old 
South African girl living in the town 
of Johannesburg, was helping her 
mother clear up her old boxes. She 
found a scrapbook full of pictures and  
newspaper articles. There were many 
pictures of a young schoolboy of around 
fifteen years of age. When she asked  
her mother who the boy was, she was 
told that he was called, Hector Pieterson. 
He had been shot by the police. Maya 
was shocked. “Why?” she asked.
Her mother explained that South 
Africa was earlier governed by  
apartheid laws. Apartheid means 
separation on the basis of race. South 
African people were divided into white, 
black, Indian and coloured races. 
According to the law, these races were 
not allowed to mingle with each other, 
to live near each other or even to use 
common facilities.
Maya could not believe her ears. 
Maya’s mother sounded angry when 
she spoke about life under apartheid. 
She told Maya that in those days  
South Africa
India
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   35 08-10-2021   10:48:04
2022-23
36 / Social and Political Life
whites spoke. Hector and other school 
students were being forced to learn this 
language but they wanted to learn their 
own language, Zulu.  The South African 
police beat up the protestors mercilessly  
and  shot  at  the  crowd. One of their 
bullets killed Hector. This was on 16 
June 1976.
The African National Congress, a group 
of people who led the struggle against 
apartheid, and their most well known 
leader, Nelson Mandela fought the 
apartheid system for several years.  
Finally, they succeeded and in 1994 
South Africa became a democratic 
country in which people of all races 
were considered equal.
What were Hector and his classmates 
protesting about?
List five ways in which the non-whites 
were discriminated against:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Do you think it is important for all 
persons to be treated equally? Why?
Let us now try to understand what 
a democratic government means to all 
of us.
PARTICIPATION
Why do we have regular elections? 
You’ve already read in the previous 
chapter that people make the decisions 
in a democracy. Through voting 
in elections people elect leaders to 
represent them. These representatives 
take decisions on behalf of the people. 
hospitals were separate and so were 
ambulances. An ambulance meant for 
white people would always be well 
equipped while one meant for black 
people was not.  There were separate 
trains and buses. Even the busstops 
were different for black and white 
people.
Non-whites were not allowed to 
vote. The best land in the country was 
reserved for the white people, and non- 
whites had to live on the worst available 
land. Thus blacks and coloured people 
were not considered to be equal to 
whites.
One black township was the South 
Western Township (Soweto). Hector 
Pieterson lived here and he and his 
classmates joined the protest against 
learning the Afrikaans language in 
school. This was the language that the 
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   36 08-10-2021   10:48:05
2022-23
Key Elements of a Democratic Government / 37 
In doing so it is assumed that they will 
keep in mind the voices and interests 
of the people.
Discuss
Look at some newspapers and 
discuss some elections that you 
may have read about. Why do you 
think elections are required after a 
fixed period?
All governments are elected for fixed 
periods. In India this period is five 
years. Once elected, governments can 
stay in power only for that period. If 
they want to continue to be in power 
then they have to be re-elected by the 
people. This is a moment when people 
can sense their power in a democracy. 
In this way the power of the government 
gets limited by regular elections.
Other ways of participating
Elections are usually held once in five 
years. Besides voting there are other 
ways of participating in the process 
of government. People participate by 
taking an interest in the working of 
the government and by criticising it 
when required. In August 2005, when 
a particular government increased the 
money people had to pay for electricity, 
people expressed their disapproval 
very sharply. They took out rallies and 
also organised a signature campaign. 
The government tried to explain and 
defend its decision but finally listened 
to the people’s opinion and withdrew 
the increase. The government had 
to change its decision because it is 
responsible to the people.
What approval or disapproval is 
being expressed here?
Not bad! One of the taps in the nearby 
village must be getting water!
Letters to the editor
Take Action
It is worrying to know that 
the tiger population in India is 
falling. Tigers are being  
hunted and killed by poachers 
for their skins. The  
government has not taken the 
issue of poaching seriously 
enough. It must take action 
immediately, arrest the 
poachers and implement the 
laws protecting the tiger. If  
this does not happen the tiger 
will become an extinct animal 
in the next ten years.
 Sohan Pal
Guwahati, Assam
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   37 08-10-2021   10:48:06
2022-23
38 / Social and Political Life
There are many ways in which 
people express their views and make 
governments understand what actions 
they should take. These include 
dharnas, rallies, strikes, signature 
campaigns etc. Things that are unfair 
and unjust are also brought forward. 
Newspapers, magazines and TV also 
play a role in discussing government 
issues and responsibilities.
If a country’s people are alert and 
interested in how the country is run,  
the democratic character of the 
government of that country will be 
stronger.
So the next time we see a rally 
winding through the streets of our  
cities and towns or villages we should 
pause to find out what the rally is 
about, who is participating in it, and 
what they are protesting about. This 
will help to give us a sense of how our 
government works.
NEED TO RESOLVE CONFLICT
In Maya’s story you read about how 
conflicts  can  often  lead  to  violence 
and death because one group decides 
that it is all right to use force to  
prevent the other group from  
protesting.
Read the story again: Do you 
think the police shooting 
of Hector could have been 
avoided?  How?
Conflicts occur when people of 
different cultures, religions, regions or 
economic backgrounds do not get along 
with each other, or when some among 
them feel they are being discriminated 
against. People may use violent means 
to settle their differences. This leads to 
fear and tension among others living in 
an area. The government is responsible 
for helping to resolve conflicts.
Let’s read about some of the 
conflicts in our society and the role of 
the government in resolving them.
While it is true that a democracy 
allows people to participate, it is also 
true that not all sections of people are 
actually able to do so. Another way for 
people to participate is by organising 
themselves into social movements 
that seek to challenge the government 
and its functioning. Members of the 
minority community, dalits, adivasis, 
women and others are often able to 
participate in this manner.
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   38 08-10-2021   10:48:07
2022-23
Key Elements of a Democratic Government / 39 
The Indian Constitution lays 
down the basic rules or laws 
that have to be followed by 
everyone. These laws are for both 
the government and the people. 
Conflicts and differences have 
to be resolved according to these 
laws. We will read more about 
this in later classes.
Religious processions and 
celebrations can sometimes lead 
to conflicts. For example, the route 
a procession takes may lead to a 
conflict. The government, particularly 
the police, play an important role in 
getting representatives of concerned 
communities to meet and try  
and arrive at a solution. At times there 
is fear that violence may erupt, with 
people throwing stones or trying to 
disrupt the procession. The police is 
responsible for ensuring that violence 
does not take place.
Rivers too can become a source 
of conflict between states. A river 
may begin in one state, flow through  
another and end in a third. The  
sharing of river water between  
different states that the river goes 
through is becoming an issue of 
conflict. For example, you may have 
heard about the Cauvery water  
dispute between Karnataka and  
Tamil Nadu. The water stored in  
Krishna Raja Sagara dam in  
Karnataka is used for irrigating a 
number of districts and for meeting 
the needs of the city of Bengaluru. The 
water stored in Mettur dam in Tamil 
Nadu is used for crops grown in the 
delta region of that state.
A conflict arises because both dams 
are on the same river. The downstream 
dam in Tamil Nadu can only be filled  
up if water is released from the 
upstream one located in Karnataka. 
Therefore, both states can’t get as 
much water as they need for people in 
their states. This leads to conflict. The 
central government has to step in and 
see that a fair distribution is worked 
out for both states.
Quiet  flows  the  Cauvery  despite  being  at  the  centre  of 
heated conflict between two states for the last 30 years.
Unit_II Ch 4.indd   39 08-10-2021   10:48:07
2022-23
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Key Elements of a Democratic Government - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What are the key elements of a democratic government?
Ans. The key elements of a democratic government are as follows: 1. People's Participation: In a democratic government, the people have the right to participate in the decision-making process. 2. Rule of Law: The government must follow the laws and regulations of the land. 3. Separation of Powers: The powers of the government are divided into three branches- the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. 4. Protection of Minority Rights: The government must safeguard the rights of minorities and prevent any discrimination against them. 5. Free and Fair Elections: Elections must be conducted in a free and fair manner, and every citizen must have the right to vote.
2. Why is people's participation important in a democratic government?
Ans. People's participation is important in a democratic government because it ensures that all decisions are made with the consent of the people. It gives citizens a voice in the decision-making process and allows them to hold their representatives accountable. It also promotes transparency and accountability in the government.
3. What is the role of the judiciary in a democratic government?
Ans. The judiciary in a democratic government plays an important role in interpreting and enforcing the laws of the land. It acts as a check on the power of the executive and the legislature. The judiciary also ensures that the fundamental rights of citizens are protected and that justice is served.
4. How does a democratic government protect the rights of minorities?
Ans. In a democratic government, the rights of minorities are protected through various measures such as: 1. Constitutional safeguards: The constitution provides for certain protections for minorities such as the right to equality and non-discrimination. 2. Affirmative action: The government may take affirmative action to ensure that minorities have equal opportunities in education, employment, and other areas. 3. Minority representation: The government may reserve seats in the legislature and other bodies for members of minority communities. 4. Anti-discrimination laws: The government may enact laws that prohibit discrimination against minorities in various areas such as employment, housing, and education.
5. What is the significance of free and fair elections in a democratic government?
Ans. Free and fair elections are a cornerstone of democracy. They ensure that citizens have a voice in the decision-making process and that their representatives are accountable to them. Elections also promote transparency and accountability in the government and help to prevent the abuse of power. Through elections, citizens can choose their leaders and hold them accountable for their actions.
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