NCERT Textbook :The World Population

# NCERT Textbook :The World Population | Geography for UPSC CSE PDF Download

``` Page 1

Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they, who are the actual resources and  make
use of the country’s other resources and decide
its policies. Ultimately a country is known by
its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Reprint 2024-25
Page 2

Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they, who are the actual resources and  make
use of the country’s other resources and decide
its policies. Ultimately a country is known by
its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 8 8 8 8 8
DENSITY OF POPULATION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population
Density of Population =
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. I. I. I. I. Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: Water is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available. Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of
the world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads
and industries. The mountainous and
hilly areas hinder the development of
transport network and hence initially do
not favour agricultural and industrial
development.  So, these areas tend to be
less populated. The Ganga plains are
among the most densely populated
areas of the world while the mountains
zones in the Himalayas are scarcely
populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. II. II. II. II. Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think of
some of the unpleasant aspects of city life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Reprint 2024-25
Page 3

Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they, who are the actual resources and  make
use of the country’s other resources and decide
its policies. Ultimately a country is known by
its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 8 8 8 8 8
DENSITY OF POPULATION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population
Density of Population =
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. I. I. I. I. Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: Water is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available. Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of
the world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads
and industries. The mountainous and
hilly areas hinder the development of
transport network and hence initially do
not favour agricultural and industrial
development.  So, these areas tend to be
less populated. The Ganga plains are
among the most densely populated
areas of the world while the mountains
zones in the Himalayas are scarcely
populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. II. II. II. II. Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think of
some of the unpleasant aspects of city life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Reprint 2024-25
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
population. For example, if we deduct  the
population of India 2001 (102.70 crore) from
population of 2011 (121.02 crore) then we
shall get the growth of population (18.15
crores) in actual numbers.
Growth Rate of Population : This is the
change of population expressed in
percentage.
Natural Growth of Population: This is the
population increased by difference between
births and deaths in a particular region
between two points of time.
Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths
Actual Growth of Population : This is
Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out
Migration
Positive Growth of Population: This
happens when the birth rate is more than
the death rate between two points of time
or when people from other countries migrate
permanently to a region.
Negative Growth of Population: If the
population decreases between two points
of time it is known as negative growth of
population. It occurs when the birth rate falls
below the death rate or people migrate to
other countries.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population
change – births, deaths and migration.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as
number of live births in a year per thousand of
population. It is calculated as:
B
CBR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; B = live
births during the year; P= Estimated mid year
population of the area.
Death rate plays an active role in
population change. Population growth occurs
not only by increasing births rate but also due
to decreasing death rate. Crude Death Rate
(CDR) is a simple method of measuring
mortality of any area. CDR is expressed in terms
of number of deaths in a particular year per
thousand of population in a particular region.
CDR is calculated as:
D
CDR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.
By and large mortality rates are affected
by  the region’s demographic structure, social
advancement and levels of its economic
development.
Migration
Apart from birth and death there is another way
by which the population size changes.
Reprint 2024-25
Page 4

Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they, who are the actual resources and  make
use of the country’s other resources and decide
its policies. Ultimately a country is known by
its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 8 8 8 8 8
DENSITY OF POPULATION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population
Density of Population =
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. I. I. I. I. Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: Water is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available. Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of
the world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads
and industries. The mountainous and
hilly areas hinder the development of
transport network and hence initially do
not favour agricultural and industrial
development.  So, these areas tend to be
less populated. The Ganga plains are
among the most densely populated
areas of the world while the mountains
zones in the Himalayas are scarcely
populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. II. II. II. II. Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think of
some of the unpleasant aspects of city life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Reprint 2024-25
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
population. For example, if we deduct  the
population of India 2001 (102.70 crore) from
population of 2011 (121.02 crore) then we
shall get the growth of population (18.15
crores) in actual numbers.
Growth Rate of Population : This is the
change of population expressed in
percentage.
Natural Growth of Population: This is the
population increased by difference between
births and deaths in a particular region
between two points of time.
Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths
Actual Growth of Population : This is
Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out
Migration
Positive Growth of Population: This
happens when the birth rate is more than
the death rate between two points of time
or when people from other countries migrate
permanently to a region.
Negative Growth of Population: If the
population decreases between two points
of time it is known as negative growth of
population. It occurs when the birth rate falls
below the death rate or people migrate to
other countries.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population
change – births, deaths and migration.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as
number of live births in a year per thousand of
population. It is calculated as:
B
CBR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; B = live
births during the year; P= Estimated mid year
population of the area.
Death rate plays an active role in
population change. Population growth occurs
not only by increasing births rate but also due
to decreasing death rate. Crude Death Rate
(CDR) is a simple method of measuring
mortality of any area. CDR is expressed in terms
of number of deaths in a particular year per
thousand of population in a particular region.
CDR is calculated as:
D
CDR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.
By and large mortality rates are affected
by  the region’s demographic structure, social
advancement and levels of its economic
development.
Migration
Apart from birth and death there is another way
by which the population size changes.
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 10
35
15
High Fluctuating
Stage
I
Stage
II
Stage
III
CBR/CDR
Natural
Increase in
Population
BR
DR
Rainforest
tribes
Peru Sri Lanka
Kenya
Japan
USA
Time
Present
World
examples
Low Fluctuating
Expanding
Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory
When people move from one place to
another, the place they move from is called the
Place of Origin and the place they move to is
called the Place of Destination.  The place of
origin shows a decrease in population while  the
population increases in the place of destination.
Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous
effort to achieve a better balance between
population and resources.
Migration may be permanent, temporary
or seasonal. It may take place from rural to
rural areas, rural to urban areas, urban to
urban areas and urban to rural areas.
Do you realise that the same person is both
an immigrant and an emigrant?
Immigration: Migrants who move into a new
place are called Immigrants.
Emigration: Migrants who move out of a
place are called Emigrants.
Can you think of reasons why people
migrate?
People migrate for a better economic and
social life. There are two sets of factors that
influence migration.
The Push factors make the place of origin
seem less attractive for reasons like
unemployment, poor living conditions,
political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural
disasters, epidemics and socio-economic
backwardness.
The Pull factors make the place of
destination seem more attractive than the place
of origin for reasons like better job opportunities
and living conditions, peace and stability,
security of life and property and pleasant
climate.
Human population increased more than ten times in
the past 500 hundred years.
In the twentieth century itself the population has
increased four times.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
Demographic transition theory can be used to
describe and predict the future population of
any area. The theory tells us that population of
any region changes from high births and high
deaths to low births and low deaths as society
progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to
urban industrial and literate society. These
changes occur in stages which are collectively
known as the demographic cycle.
Rural,
Agrarian
Urban,
Industrial
Demographic
Transition
Fig. 2.2 explains the three-staged model
of Demographic Transition Theory:
The first stage has high fertility and
high mortality because people reproduce
more to compensate for the deaths due to
epidemics and variable food supply. The
population growth is slow and most of the
people are engaged in agriculture where
large families are an asset. Life expectancy
is low, people are mostly illiterate and have
low levels of technology. Two hundred years
ago all the countries of the world were in
this stage.
Reprint 2024-25
Page 5

Unit-II
Chapter-2
The World Population
Distribution, Density and
Growth
Not gold but only (Wo)men can make
a people great and strong.
(Wo)men who for truth and
honour’s sake, stand fast and suffer
long  (Wo)men who toil while others
sleep – who dare while others flee –
they build a nation’s pillars deep and
lift it to the sky.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The people of a country are its real wealth. It
is they, who are the actual resources and  make
use of the country’s other resources and decide
its policies. Ultimately a country is known by
its people.
It is important to know how many women
and men a country has, how many children are
born each year, how many people die and how?
Whether they live in cities or villages, can they
read or write and what work do they do?  These
are what you will study about in this unit.
The world at the beginning of 21
st
century
recorded the presence of over 6 billion
population. We shall discuss the patterns of
their distribution and density here.
Why do people prefer to live in certain
regions and not in others?
The population of the world is unevenly
distributed. The remark of George B. Cressey
about the population of Asia that “Asia has many
places where people are few and few place where
people are very many” is true about the pattern
of population distribution of the world also.
PATTERNS  OF  POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION IN THE WORLD
Patterns of population distribution and density
help us to understand the demographic
characteristics of any area. The term population
distribution refers to the way people are spaced
over the earth’s surface. Broadly, 90 per cent of
the world population lives in about 10 per cent
of its land area.
The 10 most populous countries of the
world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s
population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located
in Asia. Identify these six countries of Asia.
Fig. 2.1: Most Populous Countries
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 8 8 8 8 8
DENSITY OF POPULATION
Each unit of land has limited capacity to
support people living on it.  Hence, it is
necessary to understand the ratio between the
numbers of people to the size of land.  This ratio
is the density of population. It is usually
measured in persons per sq km
Population
Density of Population =
Area
For example, area of Region X is 100 sq
km and the population is 1,50,000 persons.
The density of population is calculated as:
1,50,000
Density
100
=
= 1,500 person/sq km
What does this tell you about Region X?
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
I. I. I. I. I. Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors Geographical Factors
(i) Availability of water: Water is the most
important factor for life. So, people prefer
to live in areas where fresh water is easily
available. Water is used for drinking,
bathing and cooking – and also for cattle,
crops, industries and navigation.  It is
because of this that river valleys are among
the most densely populated areas of
the world.
(ii) Landforms: People prefer living on flat
plains and gentle slopes.  This is because
such areas are favourable for the
production of crops and to build roads
and industries. The mountainous and
hilly areas hinder the development of
transport network and hence initially do
not favour agricultural and industrial
development.  So, these areas tend to be
less populated. The Ganga plains are
among the most densely populated
areas of the world while the mountains
zones in the Himalayas are scarcely
populated.
(iii) Climate: An extreme climate such as very
hot or cold deserts are uncomfortable for
human habitation. Areas with a
comfortable climate, where there is not
much seasonal variation attract more
people.  Areas with very heavy rainfall or
extreme and harsh climates have low
population. Mediterranean regions were
inhabited from early periods in history due
to their pleasant climate.
(iv) Soils: Fertile soils are important for
agricultural and allied activities. Therefore,
areas which have fertile loamy soils have
more people living on them as these can
support intensive agriculture. Can you
name some areas in India which are thinly
populated due to poor soils?
II. II. II. II. II. Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors Economic Factors
(i) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits
attract industries.  Mining and industrial
activities generate employment.  So, skilled
and semi–skilled workers move to these
areas and make them densely populated.
Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is
one such good example.
(ii) Urbanisation: Cities offer better
employment opportunities, educational
and medical facilities, better means of
transport and communication.  Good civic
amenities and the attraction of city life draw
people to the cities. It leads to rural to
urban migration and cities grow in size.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract
large number of migrants every year.
Yet city life can be very taxing…. think of
some of the unpleasant aspects of city life.
(iii) Industrialisation: Industrial belts provide
job opportunities and attract large
numbers of people.  These include not just
factory workers but also transport
operators, shopkeepers, bank employees,
doctors, teachers and other service
providers. The Kobe-Osaka region of
Reprint 2024-25
The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth     9
Japan is thickly populated because of the
presence of a number of industries.
III. Social and Cultural Factors
Some places attract more people because they
have religious or cultural significance.  In the
same way – people tend to move away from
places where there is social and political
unrest. Many a times governments offer
incentives to people to live in sparsely
populated areas or move away from
overcrowded places.  Can you think of some
POPULATION GROWTH
The population growth or population change
refers to the change in number of inhabitants of
a territory during a specific period of time. This
change may be positive as well as negative. It
can be expressed either in terms of absolute
numbers or in terms of percentage. Population
change in an area is an important indicator of
economic development, social upliftment and
historical and cultural background of the region.
Some Basic Concepts of
Population Geography
Growth of Population : Change of
population in particular area between two
points of time is known as growth of
population. For example, if we deduct  the
population of India 2001 (102.70 crore) from
population of 2011 (121.02 crore) then we
shall get the growth of population (18.15
crores) in actual numbers.
Growth Rate of Population : This is the
change of population expressed in
percentage.
Natural Growth of Population: This is the
population increased by difference between
births and deaths in a particular region
between two points of time.
Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths
Actual Growth of Population : This is
Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out
Migration
Positive Growth of Population: This
happens when the birth rate is more than
the death rate between two points of time
or when people from other countries migrate
permanently to a region.
Negative Growth of Population: If the
population decreases between two points
of time it is known as negative growth of
population. It occurs when the birth rate falls
below the death rate or people migrate to
other countries.
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population
change – births, deaths and migration.
The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as
number of live births in a year per thousand of
population. It is calculated as:
B
CBR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CBR = Crude Birth Rate; B = live
births during the year; P= Estimated mid year
population of the area.
Death rate plays an active role in
population change. Population growth occurs
not only by increasing births rate but also due
to decreasing death rate. Crude Death Rate
(CDR) is a simple method of measuring
mortality of any area. CDR is expressed in terms
of number of deaths in a particular year per
thousand of population in a particular region.
CDR is calculated as:
D
CDR 1000
P
? ?
Here, CDR=Crude Death Rate; D= Number
of deaths; P=Estimated mid-year population of
that year.
By and large mortality rates are affected
by  the region’s demographic structure, social
advancement and levels of its economic
development.
Migration
Apart from birth and death there is another way
by which the population size changes.
Reprint 2024-25
Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography Fundamentals of Human Geography 10
35
15
High Fluctuating
Stage
I
Stage
II
Stage
III
CBR/CDR
Natural
Increase in
Population
BR
DR
Rainforest
tribes
Peru Sri Lanka
Kenya
Japan
USA
Time
Present
World
examples
Low Fluctuating
Expanding
Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory Fig. 2.2: Demographic Transition Theory
When people move from one place to
another, the place they move from is called the
Place of Origin and the place they move to is
called the Place of Destination.  The place of
origin shows a decrease in population while  the
population increases in the place of destination.
Migration may be interpreted as a spontaneous
effort to achieve a better balance between
population and resources.
Migration may be permanent, temporary
or seasonal. It may take place from rural to
rural areas, rural to urban areas, urban to
urban areas and urban to rural areas.
Do you realise that the same person is both
an immigrant and an emigrant?
Immigration: Migrants who move into a new
place are called Immigrants.
Emigration: Migrants who move out of a
place are called Emigrants.
Can you think of reasons why people
migrate?
People migrate for a better economic and
social life. There are two sets of factors that
influence migration.
The Push factors make the place of origin
seem less attractive for reasons like
unemployment, poor living conditions,
political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural
disasters, epidemics and socio-economic
backwardness.
The Pull factors make the place of
destination seem more attractive than the place
of origin for reasons like better job opportunities
and living conditions, peace and stability,
security of life and property and pleasant
climate.
Human population increased more than ten times in
the past 500 hundred years.
In the twentieth century itself the population has
increased four times.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
Demographic transition theory can be used to
describe and predict the future population of
any area. The theory tells us that population of
any region changes from high births and high
deaths to low births and low deaths as society
progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to
urban industrial and literate society. These
changes occur in stages which are collectively
known as the demographic cycle.
Rural,
Agrarian
Urban,
Industrial
Demographic
Transition
Fig. 2.2 explains the three-staged model
of Demographic Transition Theory:
The first stage has high fertility and
high mortality because people reproduce
more to compensate for the deaths due to
epidemics and variable food supply. The
population growth is slow and most of the
people are engaged in agriculture where
large families are an asset. Life expectancy
is low, people are mostly illiterate and have
low levels of technology. Two hundred years
ago all the countries of the world were in
this stage.
Reprint 2024-25
The World Population: The World Population: The World Population: The World Population: The World Population: D D D D Distribution, Density and Growth istribution, Density and Growth istribution, Density and Growth istribution, Density and Growth istribution, Density and Growth                     11
Fertility remains high in the beginning of
second stage but it declines with time. This is
accompanied by reduced mortality rate.
Improvements in sanitation and health
conditions lead to decline in mortality. Because
of this gap the net addition to population
is high.
In the last stage, both fertility and
mortality decline considerably. The
population is either stable or grows slowly.
The population becomes urbanised, literate
and has high technical know- how and
deliberately controls the family size.
This shows that human beings are
extremely flexible and are able to adjust
their fertility.
In the present day, different countries are
at different stages of demographic transition.
POPULATION CONTROL MEASURES
Family planning is the spacing or preventing
services is a significant factor in limiting
population growth and improving women’s
health. Propaganda, free availability of
contraceptives and tax disincentives for large
families are some of the measures which can
help population control.
Thomas Malthus in his theory (1798)
stated that the number of people would
increase faster than the food supply. Any
further increase would result in a population
crash caused by famine, disease and war. The
preventive checks are better than the physical
checks. For the sustainability of our resources,
the world will have to control the rapid
population increase.
EXERCISES EXERCISES EXERCISES EXERCISES EXERCISES
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of
population?
(a) Africa (c) Asia
(b) South America (d) North America
(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?
(a) The Atacama (c) Equatorial region
(b) South-east Asia (d) Polar regions
(iii) Which one of the following is not a push factor ?
(a) Water shortage (c) Unemployment
(b) Medical/educational facilities (d) Epidemics
(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact ?
(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past
500 years.
(b) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition?
(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of
population.
Reprint 2024-25
```

## Geography for UPSC CSE

180 videos|471 docs|221 tests

## FAQs on NCERT Textbook :The World Population - Geography for UPSC CSE

 1. What is the current world population?
Ans. As per the latest estimates, the current world population is around 7.9 billion.
 2. What factors contribute to the growth of the world population?
Ans. The growth of the world population is influenced by various factors such as improved medical facilities, better sanitation, advancements in agriculture, and increase in life expectancy.
 3. What are the consequences of overpopulation?
Ans. Overpopulation can lead to various consequences such as depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, increased pollution, and shortage of food and water supply.
 4. Can the world population be controlled?
Ans. The world population can be controlled through measures such as birth control, family planning, and education about the consequences of overpopulation. However, these measures require the cooperation of individuals, communities, and governments.
 5. How can we ensure sustainable development with a growing population?
Ans. Sustainable development can be ensured with a growing population by adopting eco-friendly practices, reducing waste and pollution, conserving natural resources, and promoting renewable energy sources. Additionally, education and awareness programs can help in creating a more responsible and environmentally conscious population.

## Geography for UPSC CSE

180 videos|471 docs|221 tests

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