Defined as 'an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life'.
Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment.
1. According to the form in which they persist after release into the environment.
2. According to their existence in nature.
3. According to their nature of disposal.
4. According to origin
Aggravated because of four developments:
Increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization
Contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances
Major air pollutants and their sources
1. Carbon monoxide (CO)
2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) Principle greenhouse gas
3. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
Present in petrol, diesel, lead batteries, paints, hair dye products, etc.
Affects children in particular. Cause nervous system damage and digestive problems and, in some cases, cause cancer.
6. Nitrogen oxide (Knox)
7. Suspended particulate matter (SPM)
8. Sulphur dioxide (S02)
i) Volatile organic compounds
The main indoor sources are perfumes, hair sprays, furniture polish, glues, air fresheners, moth repellents, wood preservatives, and other products.
ii) Biological pollutants
It includes pollen from plants, mite, and hair from pets, fungi, parasites, and some bacteria.
Mainly from carpets, particle boards, and insulation foam. It causes irritation to the eyes and nose and allergies.
It is a gas that is emitted naturally by the soil. Due to modern houses having poor ventilation, it is confined inside the house and causes lung cancers.
Ash is produced whenever combustion of solid material takes place.
1. Aluminium silicate (enlarge amounts)
2. Silicon dioxide (Si02) and
3. Calcium oxide (Ca0).
Fly ash particles are oxide rich and consist of silica, alumina, oxides of iron, calcium, and magnesium and toxic heavy metals like lead, arsenic, cobalt, and coppers
Policy measures of MoEF:
(1) National Air Quality Monitoring Programme
In India, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has been executing a nationwide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP).
The National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) is undertaken in India
(i) To determine status and trends of ambient air quality;
(ii) To ascertain the compliance of NAAQS;
(iii) To identify non-attainment cities;
(iv)To understand the natural process of cleaning in the atmosphere; and
(v) To undertake preventive and corrective measures.
Annual average concentration of SOx levels are within the prescribed National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were notified in the year 1982, duly revised in 1994 based on health criteria and land uses. The NAAQS have been revisited and revised in November 2009 for 12 pollutants, which include. Sulphur dioxide (S02), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter having size less than 10 micron (PM10),particulate matter having size less than 2.5micron (PM2.5), ozone, lead, carbon monoxide (CO), arsenic, nickel, benzene, ammonia, and. Benzopyrene.
Addition of certain substances to the water such as organic, inorganic, Biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it Becomes unfit for use.
Putrescibility is the process of decomposition of organic matter present in water by microorganisms using oxygen.
Water having DO (dissolved oxygen) content below 8.0 mg/L may be Considered as contaminated. Water having DO content below. 4.0 mg/L is considered to be highly polluted.
Water pollution by organic wastes is measured in terms of Biochemical Oxygen Demand-(BOD). BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by bacteria in decomposing the organic wastes present in water.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a slightly better mode used to measure pollution load in water. It is the measure of oxygen equivalent of the requirement of oxidation of total organic matter (i.e. biodegradable and non- biodegradable) present in water.
A crippling deformity called Minamata disease due to consumption of fish captured from mercury contaminated Minamata Bay.
Water contaminated with cadmium can cause itai itai disease also called ouch-ouch disease (a painful disease of bones and joints) and cancer of lungs and liver.
The compounds of lead cause anaemia, headache, loss of muscle power and bluish line around the gum
Excess nitrate in drinking water reacts with haemoglobin to form non -functional met haemoglobin, and impairs oxygen transport. This condition is called met haemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome.
Over exploitation of ground water may lead to leaching of arsenic from soil and rock sources and contaminate ground water. Chronic exposure to arsenic causes black foot disease. It also causes diarrhoea,-peripheral neuritis, hyperkeratosis and also lung and skin cancer.
Industrial waste includes chemicals such as mercury, lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, cyanides, thiocynates, chromates, acids, alkalis, organic substances etc.
Four R's: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
Sound is measured in decibels (dB). An increase of about 10 dB is approximately double the increase in loudness.
A person's hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period of time.
The World Health Organization recommends that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 db.
Ambient Noise Level Monitoring - Noise Pollution (Control and Regulation) Rules, 2000 define ambient noise levels for various areas as follows-
A. Industrial Area—75DB to 70Db (Day time-6am to 10pm and night time 10pm to 6am ...75 is day time and 70 is night time)
B. Commercial Area--65 to 55
C. Residential Area--55 to 45
D. Silence Zone-- 50 to 40
In Phase II another 35 monitoring stations will be installed in the same seven cities.
Phase III will cover installing 90 stations in 18 other cities.
Phase-III cities are Kanpur, Pune, Surat, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, Indore, Bhopal, Ludhiana, Guwahati, Dehradun, Thiruvananthapuram, Bhubaneswar, Patna, Gandhi agar, Ranchi, Amritsar and Raipur.
Silence Zone is an area comprising not less than 100 metres around hospitals, educational institutions, courts, religious places or any other t area declared as such by a competent authority.
RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION
Non-ionising radiations affect only those components which absorb them and have low penetrability. They include short-wave radiations such as ultraviolet rays, which forms a part of solar radiation. Sunburns is due to these radiation Ionising radiations have high penetration power & cause breakage of macro molecules
They include X-rays, cosmic rays and atomic radiations - (radiations emitted by radioactive elements
Alpha particles, can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin.
Beta particles can penetrate through skin, while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal.
Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through, reaching far, and can only be blocked by a very thick, strong, massive piece of concrete radium-224, uranium-238, thorium-232, potassium-40, carbon-14, etc.
The nuclear arms use uranium-235 and plutonium-239 for fission and hydrogen or lithium as fusion material
The radio nuclides with long half-time are the chief source of environmental radioactive pollution.
E — WASTE
E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods
Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005
In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.
The discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials does not include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges0
Conventional plastics have been associated with reproductive problems in both humans and wildlife.
Dioxin (highly carcinogenic and toxic) by-product of the manufacturing process is one of the chemicals believed to be passed on through breast milk to the nursing infant.
Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin and also furan into the atmosphere.
Pyrolysis-It is a process of combustion in absence of oxygen or the material burnt under controlled atmosphere of oxygen. It is an alternative to incineration. The gas and liquid thus obtained can be used as fuels.
Waste Minimization Circles (WMC)
Helps Small and Medium Industrial Clusters in waste minimization in their industrial plants. Assisted by the World Bank with the Ministry of Environment and Forests acting as the nodal ministry. Being implemented with the assistance of National Productivity Council (NPC), New Delhi.
Aims to realise the objectives of the Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution (1992), which states that the government should educate citizens about environmental risks, the economic and health dangers of resource degradation and the real economic cost of natural resources.
The use of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) to degrade the environmental contaminants into less toxic forms.
Is use of plants to remove contaminants from soil and water.
Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 making EIA mandatory for 29 categories of developmental projects. One more item was added to the list in January, 2000. Environmental impact assessment statutory for 30 activities
Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has categorized the developmental projects in two categories, i.e., Category A and Category B
Ministry of Environment & Forests
Category A' projects are appraised at national level by expert appraisal committee
India has constituted the State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) and State Level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) to decentralize the environmental clearance process
The objective of EIA is to foresee and address potential environmental problems/ concerns at an early stage of project planning and design.
The EIA notification establishes four stages for obtaining Environmental Clearance.
2. Scoping and consideration of alternatives Baseline data collection
3. Impact prediction
4. Assessment of alternatives, delineation of mitigation measures and environmental impact statement
5. Public hearing
6. Environment Management Plan Decision making
7. Monitoring the clearance conditions
Screening- It is only for Categories B
Screening Criteria are based upon:
• Scales of investment; • Type of development; and, • Location of development
B1 Categories project require Environmental Impact Assessment while B2 category projects are exempted from EIA.
State Level Expert Appraisal Committee determine about project categories