15. Climate Change
- It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time
- Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming.
- UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”
Climate Change Mitigation
- Alternative Energy sources
- Renewable energy
- Nuclear Power
- Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels
- Energy efficiency and conservation
- Transport and urban planning
- Building design
- Reforestation and avoid deforestation
- Eliminating waste methane
- Greenhouse gas remediation
- Carbon air capture
- Carbon capture and storage
- Societal control
- Sustainable life-style
- An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20thcentury
- 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20thcentury.
- Caused by greenhouse gases
- Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance)
- Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the levels of Co2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 390 ppm.
- 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP
- tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change
- Nobel Prize in 2007
- The IPCC does not carry out its own original research, nor does it do the work of monitoring climate or related phenomena itself.
- A main activity of the IPCC is publishing special reports on topics relevant to the implementation of the (UNFCCC)
- Till now, it has released four assessment reports (1990, 1995, 2001, 2007)
- Fifth assessment report is due in 2014
1992 at the Rio Summit.
194 members. Secretariat at Bonn.
Parties to UNFCCC are classified as:
- Annex I countries – industrialized countries and economies in transition
- Annex II countries – developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries
- Developing countries.
The Berlin Mandate
2000 COP6 /2001 COP6
CDM and Joint Implementation adopted at Bonn
Delhi Declaration: Calls for efforts by developed countries to transfer technology and minimize the impact of climate change on developing countries
Bali Action Plan
Durban, South Africa
Tarawa Climate Change Conference
- In the lead up to COP16, the leaders of the world’s most climate-change vulnerable countries met in Kiribati in November 2010
- Ambo Declaration was adopted
- It calls for more and immediate action to be undertaken to address the causes and adverse impacts of climate change.
COP-16 President: Patricia Espinosa, Mexico’s foreign secretary
COP-17 will be held in Durban
- Forestry issues and reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) plus
- The developed countries are pushing for transparency from countries where they will fund climate change mitigation.
- The assessment of carbon emission mitigation for developing countries is right now through domestic communication but is subject to international consultation and analysis. This push for transparency is a major contentious issue.
- Fast-track finance: $ 30 bn had been committed at CoP-15. A large part of this funding is yet to come through.
- The outcome of the summit was an agreement, not a binding treaty, which calls on rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions as pledged in the Copenhagen Accord, and for developing countries to plan to reduce their emissions, to limit global warming to less than 2 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels.
- There should be no gap between the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, which expires in December 2012, and the second phase.
- The agreement calls on the developed countries to “raise the level of ambition of the emission reductions to be achieved by them individually or jointly, with a view to reducing their aggregate level of emission of greenhouse gases”
- Allows flexibility in choosing the base year for setting emission reduction targets
- Emissions trading and the project based mechanism under the KP shall continue to be available to Annex 1 parties as a means to meet their quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives.
- The agreements recognize that in all climate change related action, human rights must be respected. They also recognise the need to engage with a broad range of stakeholders, including youth and persons with disability, and call for gender equality and effective participation of women and indigenous people in effective action on all aspects of climate change.
- The BASIC group softened the three demands it had before the talks began
- Necessity of a second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol
- Need to accelerate disbursement under the fast start finance in the form of new and additional resources through a multilaterally supervised mechanism
- Continued dialogue on IPRs as part of the technology development and transfer issues.
- REDD is a part of the package and proposed mitigation actions include conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests.
- REDD is a set of steps designed to use market/financial incentives in order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and forest degradation. Its original objective is to reduce GHGs but it can deliver ‘co-benefits’ such as biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation
- REDD+ calls for activities with serious implication directed towards the local communities, indigenous people and forests which relate to reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation. It goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks
- A Cancun Adaptation Framework has been proposed to strengthen and address implementation of action, and various kinds of assessments, apart from R&D and host of other issues.
- Green Climate Fund The fund will be designed by a transitional committee, with 15 members from the developed countries and 25 from the developing nations.
- Pledge by the developed countries to provide $100 bn annually till 2020.
- UNFCCC secretary-general Christian Figures emphasised that the main achievement of the Cancun meet has been to restore some degree of faith in the multilateral process.
- The agreements don’t mention any reduction targets.
- Though the agreements recognize the need to reduce the GHG emissions and curb the increase in global average temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, in the absence of any firm target, this could be an inadequate and vague provision
- Bolivia has rejected the agreement, saying that it won’t support agreement without binding emission cuts.
- In a sense, the summit was both a major step forward as well as a failure
- It was a step forward because in recent years climate change negotiations had stumbled and this meeting helped overcome that
- It was a failure because it failed to reach an agreement for binding restrictions that are required to avert global warming.
- There was no agreement on how to extend the Kyoto Protocol, or how the $100 billion a year for the Green Climate Fund will be raised or whether developing countries should have binding emissions reductions.
Convention on Biodiversity
- Opened for signature at the Earth Summit in 1992 and entered into force on December 29, 1993
- There are 193 parties. Its secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada.
- US has signed but not ratified the treaty.
- It is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals:
- conservation of biodiversity
- sustainable use of biodiversity
- fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources
- Its overall objective is to encourage actions which will lead to sustainable future
- CBD covers biodiversity at all levels: ecosystems, species and genetic resources
- It also covers biotechnology through the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
- Its governing body is the Conference of Parties (COP). They meet every two years
- The Ecosystem Approach, an integrated strategy for the management of resources, is the framework for action under the Convention
- Precautionary principle: it states that where there is threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such threat.
- 2010 is the International Year of Biodiversity.
COP-10 of CBD
- Held at Nagoya, Japan in October 2010.
- It achieved three inter-linked goals
- Adoption of a new ten year strategic plan to save biodiversity
- Resource mobilization strategy to increase official development assistance for biodiversity
- A new international protocol on access to and sharing the benefits from the use of the genetic resources of the planet (Nagoya Protocol)
- Japan Biodiversity Fund was established
- COP-11 will take place in 2012 in India
- Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization
- The protocol creates a framework that balances access to genetic resources on the basis of prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms with a fair and equitable sharing
- Expected to enter into force in 2012
- The Strategic Plan of CBD, which aims to arrest biodiversity loss throughout the world by 2020, will be called the Aichi Target. <Aichi is the prefecture in which Nagoya is situated>
- The Strategic Plan of the CBD or the ‘Aichi Target’ adopted by the meeting include 20 headline targets, organised under five strategic goals that address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss, reduce the pressures on biodiversity, safeguard biodiversity at all levels, enhance the benefits provided by biodiversity, and provide for capacity building.
- The Aichi target will be the overarching framework on biodiversity not only for the biodiversity-related conventions, but for the entire UN system.
- Some targets
- 17 pc inland and 10 pc marine ecosystem
- Conserving coral reefs
- Restore 15 pc of degraded areas
- Halve or bring to zero the rate of loss of natural habitats including forests
- Target is that by 2020, at least 17 pc of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 pc of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem are conserved
- The conservation is to be done through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
The Kyoto Protocol has put in place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases. Although the Protocol places maximum responsibility of reducing emissions on the developed countries by committing them to specific emission targets, the three mechanisms are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of the globe will have the same desired effect on the atmosphere, and also that some developed countries might find it easier and more cost effective to support emissions reductions in other developed or developing countries rather than at home. These mechanisms thus provide flexibility to the Annexure I countries, helping them to meet their emission reduction obligations. Let us take a look at what these mechanisms are.
What are the three flexibility mechanisms put in place of the Kyoto Protocol for reducing GHG emission?
- The three mechanisms are joint implementation. Emissions Trading and Clean Development
What is Joint Implementation?
- Through the Joint Implementation, any Annex I country can invest in emission reduction projects (referred to as joint Implementation Project) in any other Annex I country as an alternative to reducing emissions domestically.
- Two early examples are change from a wet to a dry process at a Ukraine cement works, reducing energy consumption by 53 percent by 2008-2012; and rehabilitation of a Bulgarian hydropower project, with a 267,000 ton reduction of C02 equivalent during 2008-2012.
What is Clean Development Mechanism?
- The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows-‘l developed country with an emission reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement an emission reduction project in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. In exchange for the amount of reduction In emission thus achieved, the investing gets carbon credits which it can offset against its Kyoto targets. The developing country gains a Step towards sustainable development.
- To get a CDM project registered and implemented, the investing country’ has to first take approval from the designated national authority in the host country, establish “Additionally”, define baselines and get the project validated by a third party agency, called a Designated Operational Entity (DOE). The Executive Body of CDM registers the project and issues credits, called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), or carbon credits, where each unit is equivalent to the reduction of one metric tonne of. C02 or its equivalent. There are more than 4200 CDM projects in the pipeline as on 14.3.2010. The expected CERs till the end of2012 is 2,900,000,000
What is “Additionally” in a CDM project?
- The feature of “additionally” is a crucial element of a CDM project it means that the industrialized country that is seeking to establish the CDM project in the developing country and earns carbon credits from it has to establish that the planned carbon reductions would not have occurred on its own, in the absence of the CDM project. They have to establish a baseline of the project. Which is the emission level that would have been there in the absence of the project. The difference between this baseline level and the (lower) emission level achieved as a result of the project is the carbon credit due to the investing country
What are some of the concerns regarding CDM?
- The risk of “false Credits” is a cause for concern with regard to CDM projects. If a project does not actually offer an additionally and the reduction in emission would have happened anyway Even without the project.
CoP15 (Copenhagen Summit)
- Main aim was to establish a global climate agreement for the period from 2012 when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires
- The conference did not achieve any binding agreement for long term action
- A ‘political accord’ was negotiated by approximately 25 parties
- Collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources, including forestry and investments through international institutions to a tune of $30 bn for the period 2010-12.
- Copenhagen Accord
- Not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to a binding successor to the Kyoto Protocol
- Annex 1 parties would commit to economy-wide emissions targets for 2020 to be submitted by 31 Jan 2010. Delivery of reductions and finance by developed countries will be measured , reported and verified (MRV) in accordance with COP guidelines
- Non-annex 1 countries would implement Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions to slow their carbon emissions
- Commits $30 bn for 2010-12
- Copenhagen Green Climate Fund
- The accord shall be assessed in 2015
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a set of steps designed to use market/financial incentives in order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and forest degradation. Its original objective is to reduce greenhouse gases but it can deliver “co-benefits” such as biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.
REDD+ is being criticised by indigenous people and activists because it is designed to give more control over indigenous people’s forests to state forest departments, miners, companies etc resulting in violation of rights, loss of livelihoods etc.
REDD is presented as an “offset” scheme of the carbon markets and thus, will produce carbon credits. Forest degradation accounts for 15% of greenhouse gas emissions, about the same as transportation sector. Mitigation cannot be achieved without the inclusion of forests in an international regime. Hence, it is expected to play a crucial role in a future successor agreement to Kyoto Protocol.
Important Environmental Treaties
Aarhus Convention on Access to information for public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters
Aarhus is a Danish city
Adopted at the fourth ministerial conference in the ‘Environment for
Europe’ process Links environmental rights and human rights
India – No
Vienna Convention for the protection of Ozone layer
Does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs
At Vienna Conference
Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone layer
It is a protocol to the Vienna Convention
“perhaps the single most successful international agreement” –
196 states ratified
Includes CFCs, HCFCs
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their disposal
Particularly to prevent waste transfer from Developed to LDCs
Signed but not ratified: Afghanistan, Haiti, US
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in international trade
Rotterdam is a city in Netherlands
Endosulfan is proposed to be added to the list
Stockholm Convention on persistence organic pollutants
On the ban on the import into Africa and the Control of movement of
Hazardous waste within Africa
Negotiated by 12 nations of Organisation of African Unity at
The CBD Framework
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Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by
living modified organisms resulting from modern technology. The
Protocol applies to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and
use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also
into account risks to human health
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CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. AkaWashington Convention
Under IUCN. Trade in specimen should not threaten the survival of
plants and animals. Only one species under it ‘Spix Macaw’ has become
extinct in the wild.
Convention on Migratory Species aka Bonn Convention
To conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species
Antarctic Treaty System
12 original members. HQ: Buenos Aires. India joined in 1983. Sets aside
Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity there. First
arms control treaty during the cold war.
International Whaling Commission
Signed in Washington. Moratorium on whaling adopted in 1986.
Following countries havnt adopted the moratorium: Norway,
UN Convention to Combat Desertification
1994 (on the basis of Agenda 21)/1996
First and only internationally legally binding framework set up to
address the problem of desertification.
2006: Int. Year of Deserts and Desertification.
Non-parties: Iraq, Montenegro, Vatican
Meetings: 1st – Rome 1997, 9th – Buenos Aires, 2009
- Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’
- “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation”
- Three pillars of sustainable development (Bruntland)
- Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development>
- These three pillars are of equal importance
- SD is about a value system. It is not a scientific formula.
- Thinking beyond pure self-gratification to awareness that harm to one will eventually be harm to all.
- Interconnectedness and interdependence of all things
- All three pillars have equal importance. Focus on only one of them will unbalance the whole
- SD is a necessity, not a luxury that we can afford to miss.
Questioning Development <too detailed; at times peripheral. Be choosy>
- Current practices must change
- Should shatter the ‘development’ myth. Simply economic growth will not create more jobs and more wealth for all.
- Steady-state economics. Economic growth is measured in terms of how much we produce and consume, and what we destroy in the process need not be included in the calculations.
- 20% of the world consumes 80% of its resources
- According to UNDP, consumption of goods and services in 1997 was twice that in 1975 and six times more than in 1950.
- An estimated 1 billion people still do not have the means to meet their basic needs.
- Inequalities are increasing. The assets of world’s three richest men are greater than the combined national product of 48 poorest countries.
- Higher crime rates are associated with wider income gaps
- Jobless growth.
- Under-nutrition is still a huge problem among children
Economic Growth and Sustainability
- Over-consumption has led to depletion of resources
- Main environmental threats
- Depletion of resources
- Global warming
- Expansion of waste arising from production and consumption
- Population pressure
- Loss of biodiversity and extinction of species.
- Green National Income Account
- Conventional national income accounting does not capture the environmental degradation due to production and consumption
- This omission leads to misrepresentation of improvements in social welfare
- Since there is no market for many environmental resources, it is difficult to place monetary values on them
- Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare: adjusts the national income to make an allowance for defensive spending (i.e. that incurred in cleaning up for pollution and other forms of environmental damage)
- Economic Sustainability
- Calls for reforms in the manner that we conduct our economic activity
- Removing unfair trade barriers and subsidies that harm the environment
- Upholding the polluter pays principle
- Tax not on labour but on consumption <already there in the form of indirect taxes>
- Pricing products in terms of value they have deducted from the common natural base
- Increase resource productivity
- Sustainable agriculture
- Use of practices and methods to maintain/enhance the economic viability of agricultural production, natural resource base, and other ecosystems which are influenced by agricultural activities
- Minimizing the adverse impact on the natural resources base
- Flexible farming systems to manage the risks associated with climate and markets
- Sustainable forest management
- ‘Forest Principle’ adopted at the 1992 Rio Summit
- In 2007, GA adopted the Non Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests. The instrument is the first of its kind and is committed to promote SFM by bringing all stakeholders together
- Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe defined SFM as the attainment of balance between societies’s increasing demands for forest products and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity.
- Forest managers must assess and integrate a wide array of sometimes conflicting factors to produce sound forest plans
- Ecosystems approach has been adopted by the CBD. The CBD definition of Ecosystems Approach is known as the Malawi Principles.
- Ecosystems Approach is a strategy of management of land, water and living resources in a way that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Focused on use of scientific methodologies for each level of biological organisation and their interaction.
- SFM was recognised by the parties to CBD in 2004 to be a concrete means of applying the Ecosystems Approach to forest ecosystems
- Objectives of SFM
- Maintain environmental stability through preservation of ecological balance that has been adversely affected due to the depletion of forest cover
- Preserve the natural heritage of the country
- Improve productivity of forests
- Protecting through cooperation with local communities on the principle of Joint Forest Management
- One of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world
- National Forest Policy 1988 emphasizes environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance
- Existing infrastructure for forest protection is inadequate
- Surveys not carried out in many areas. Question of tribal rights
- Protect from forest fires
- Integrated Forest Protection Scheme
- 10th FYP. In all States and UTs
- Formed by merger of two 9th FYP schemes: ‘Forest Fire Control and Management’ and ‘Bridging of Infrastructure Gaps in the Forestry Sector in the North Eastern Region and Sikkim’
- Infrastructure development: survey and demarcation, strengthening the infrastructure for Forest Protection Division
- Forest fire control and management
- Implementing agencies
- Central Component: Forest Protection Division, MoEF; Forest Survey of India, Dehradun; Central institutions like Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (Dehradun), IIFM (Bhopal) etc shall be involved
- State Component: Forest dept of the concerned state/UT
- Fairness in the access to and benefits from the Earth’s resources
- Impact of poverty on environment/Environment and poverty are related issues
- Diverting resources to non-productive areas
- Health and SD
- Environment and public health are inter-related
- Agenda 21 was adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) [Earth Summit] in 1992
- It also places particular emphasis on the need to take health considerations into account in planning for SD
- Need for holistic approach
Water and SD
- Agriculture consumes nearly 70 pc of water consumption worldwide, industry -22 pc and household activities – 8 pc [WDR, 2010]
- Geographical distribution of water: just nine countries account for 60 pc of all available freshwater supplies
- Industrial use takes about 60 pc of water in rich countries and 10 pc in the rest.
- Use of sea water
- Judicial use of freshwater
- Development of salt-resistant crops
SD in a globalising world
- Globalisation is increasing the gap between the rich and the poor
- It has to be steered so that it serves not only the commercial interests but social needs of development
- Mechanisms to safeguard trade and livelihoods, especially in developing countries, must be evolved and negotiated to make globalisation an effective vehicle of SD
- Industrialised countries must continue to assist the developing countries as well as promote trade
- Environment and social causes must not be used selectively to erect trade barriers against developing countries
Wetland Conservation Programme
Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water.
Essential as: control floods, water treatment, recharging of water sources, reduce sediments, check soil erosion, bulwark against encroachment by the sea, winter resort for birds and important for flora and fauna. They also provide a variety of resources
Ramsar Convention: mangroves, corals, estuaries, bays, creeks, flood plains, sea grasses, lakes etc included
A programme on conservation of wetlands was initiated in 1987 with the basic objective of identification of wetlands of national importance, assessment of wetland resources, promotion of R&D activities and formulation and implementation of management action plans
A steering committee in each state headed by the Chief Secretary consists of members from all departments related to the wetland conservation in the state. Successful model.
India is a member of the Standing Committee of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971
Make use of the traditional knowledge of the people living near the wetlands for its conservation along with the engineering solutions
Monitor the impact of implementation of management action plans
Wetlands of India under Ramsar Convention
Name State Remark
1. Ashtamudi WL Kerala
2. Bhitarkanika Mangroves Orissa
3. Bhoj WL MP
4. Chilka Lake Orissa 2nd largest in India: 116500 ha
5. Deepor Beel Assam
6. East Calcutta WL WB
7. Harike Lake Punjab
8. Kanjli Punjab
9. Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan
10. Kolleru Lake AP
11. Loktak Lake Manipur
12. Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary TN
13. Pong Dam Lake HP
14. Ropar Punjab
15. Sambhar Lake Rajasthan
16. Sasthamkotta Lake Kerala
17. Tsomoriri J&K
18. Vembanad-Kol WL Kerala Largest in India: 151250 ha
19. Wular Lake J&K
20. Chandratal HP 2nd Smallest: 49 ha
21. Renuka HP Smallest: 20 ha
22. Rudrasagar Tripura
23. Upper Ganga UP Total area of these 26 wetlands: 677131 ha
24. Hokarsar (Hokera) J&K Kerala has the highest area under wetlands
25. Surinsar & Mansar J&K J&K has the largest number of wetlands (4)
26. Gharana (2010) J&K
The Montreux Record. Sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance which are considered to have undergone, to be undergoing, or to be likely to undergo change in their ecological character brought about by human action may be placed on the Montreux Record and may benefit from the application of the Ramsar Advisory Mission and other forms of technical assistance.
Keoladeo national park and Loktak Lake from India are included in the list
The primary purpose of the “Changwon Declaration on human well-being and wetlands”,adopted by Resolution X.3 of the recent meeting of the Conference of the Parties, “is to transmit key messages concerning wetland-related issues to the many stakeholders and decision-makers beyond the Ramsar community who are relevant to the conservation and wise use of wetlands, to inform their actions and decision-making”
National Parks and Sanctuaries in Rajasthan
Name of National Parks/ Wild Life Sanctuary
Keoladeo National Park
Ranthambore National Park
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Bandh Baratha WL Sanctuary
Bassi WL Sanctuary
Bhensrodgarh WL Sanctuary
Darrah Game Sanctuary
Desert WL Sanctuary
Fulwari ki Nal WL Sanctuary
Jaisamand WL Sanctuary
Jamwa Ramgarh WL Sanctuary
Jawahar Sagar WL Sanctuary
Keladevi WL Sanctuary
Kesarbagh WL Sanctuary
Kumbalgarh WL Sanctuary
Mount Abu WL Sanctuary
Nahargarh WL Sanctuary
National Chambal WL Sanctuary
Kota, S.Madhopur, Bundi, Dholpur, Karauli
Ramgarh Vishdhari WL Sanctuary
Ramsagar WL Sanctuary
Sajjangarh WL Sanctuary
Sariska WL Sanctuary
Sawai Manshingh WL Sanctuary
Shergarh WL Sanctuary
Sitamata WL Sanctuary
Tal Chappar WL Sanctuary
Todagarh Rawali WLSanctuary
Van Vihar WL Sanctuary
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