2. Deficiency Diseases, Biology, Science, Civil Services Examination UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Deficiency Diseases

 

 

 

Names

 

Disease

 

 

 

Comments

 

 

Vitamin A

 

Xerophtalmia

Lachrimal glands stop producing tears leading to blindness.

 

(retinol)

 

Dermatosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thiamine

 

Beri Beri

Extreme weakness, swelling, pain in legs, loss of appetite,

 

(Vitamin B1)

 

 

 

enlarged heart, headache & shortness of breath

 

Riboflavin

 

Ariboflavinosis

Blurred vision, burning of the eye & tongue, cracking of skin

 

(Vitamin B2)

 

 

 

at angle of mouth

 

 

 

Niacin

 

Pellagra

Tip & lateral margins of tongue, mouth & gums become red,

 

(Nicotinamide)

 

 

 

swollen & develop ulcers

 

 

 

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pantothenic Acid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biotin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cobalamin

 

Perinicious  or

Reduction of Haemoglobin due to disturbance in formation of

 

(Vitamin B12)

 

Megaloblastic

RBC.

 

 

 

 

 

Anemia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Folic Acid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin C

 

Scurvy

Pain in joints, loss of weight, gums become spongy & bleed.

 

(Ascorbic acid)

 

 

 

Teeth loose & fragile.

 

 

 

Vitamin D

 

Rickets

Occurs in Children. Softness & deformities of bones.

 

(cholecalciferol)

 

Osteomalacia

Bones susceptible to fracture.

 

 

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potassium

 

Hypokalemia

Rise in heart beat rate. Kidney damage.

 

 

Sodium

 

Hyponatremia

Low blood pressure.

 

 

 

Proteins

 

Kwashiorkar

Potbelly due to retention of water by the cells (Oedema).

 

 

 

Diseases Caused By Microorganisms

 

 

Virus

Bacteria

 

Protozoas

 

Fungi

Worms

 

Small Pox

Sore throat

 

Malaria

 

Ringworm

Taeniasis

 

Chicken Pox

Diptheria

 

Amoebic dysentry

 

Athlete’s Foot

Schistosomiasis

 

Common Cold

Pneumonia

 

Trypanosomiasis

 

Madura Toot

Bilharziasis

 

Influenza/Flu

Tuberculosis

 

Oriental Sore

 

Dhobie Itch

Ancylostormiasis

 

Measles

Plague

 

Kala Azar

 

 

Hook Worm

 

Mumps

Tetanus

 

Giardiasis or

 

 

Ascariasis

 

Encephalitis

Typhoid

 

Diarrhoea

 

 

Enterobiasis

 

Poliomyelitus

Cholera

 

Vaginitis

 

 

Pinworm disease

 

Rabies

Bacillary Dysentry

 

 

 

Filariasis

 

Dengue

Whooping Cough

 

 

 

Elephantiasis

 

Herpes

Gonorrhea

 

 

 

 

 

 

AIDS

Leprosy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Botulism

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trpanosomiasis is also known as sleeping sickness (tse-tse fly).

 

 

Taeniasis is transmitted through eating pork.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genetic Diseases

 

 

1.

Albinism

Absence of pigment melanin in the skin. Cause by a recessive gene

 

 

 

that blocks the conversion of amino acid tyrosine to melanin.

 

2.

Cri-du-chat syndrome

Caused by deformity of chromosome 5. Infants cry like mewing of

 

 

 

cat, small head.

 

 

3.

Cystic Fibrosis

Results  because  of  recessive  autosomal  gene.  Cause  abnormal

 

 

 

pancreatic functions & generally leads to early death

 

 

4.

Down Syndrome

Also called Mongolism. Chromosome 21 occurs in triplicate (trisomy)

 

 

 

rather than duplicate. Affected individuals carry 47 chromosomes are

 

 

 

greatly retard mentally & physically.

 

 

5.

Edwards Syndrome

Trisomy of chromosome 18. Infants die before 6 months.

 

6.

Fabry’s Disease

Caused  by  recessive  X-linked  gene  that  affects  metabolism  of

 

 

 

glycosphingolipids. These lipids deposit in hear, kidneys & eyes.

 

7.

Galactosemia

Recessive autosomal gene causes defect in the enzyme utilizing the

 

 

 

sugar galactose. Causes high level of galactose leading to cataracts &

 

 

 

brain damage.

 

 

8.

Haemophilia

Sex linked recessive gene. Bleeding can be stopped by injecting a

 

 

 

protein (factor VIII)

 

 

9.

Huntington’s Disease

Caused  by  dominant  autosomal  gene  which  leads  to  progressive

 

 

 

deterioration of the nervous system. Develops at an age of 30 to 40

 

 

 

years causing loss of control of limbs.

 

 

10.

Klinefelter Syndrome

Improper  development  of  testes  due  to  addition  X  chromosome

 

 

 

(XXY). Permanent sterility.

 

 

11.

Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

Sex  linked  recessive  trait  resulting  into  the  development  of

 

 

 

involuntary movements, mental retardation & kidney damage.

 

12.

Marfan Syndrome

Autosomal  dominant  resulting  in  abnormalities  of  body  parts

 

 

 

especially eyes & fingers.

 

 

13.

Muscular Dystrophy

Sex  linked  recessive  disease  developing  during  1-6  years.  Patient

 

 

 

becomes confined to wheel chair by 12 year of age. People die before

 

 

 

20.

 

 

14.

Patau Syndrome

Trisomy of chromosome 13. Die within 3 months of birth.

 

15.

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Recessive autosomal gene results into lack of an enzyme essential for

 

 

 

the metabolism of amino acid phenylalanine. As a result the amino

 

 

 

acid accumulates in the brain causing damage. It detected soon it can

 

 

 

be prevented by feeding the child on low Phenylalanine.

 

16.

Sickle Cell Anemia

Caused by abnormal haemoglobin molecule due to recessive gene in

 

 

 

homozygous condition resulting in sickling of RBCs.

 

17.

Tay Sachs Disease

Caused by autosomal recessive gene. Leads to progressive mental

 

 

 

degradation resulting in death by the age of 2-3 years.

 

18.

Thalassemia

Also called Cooley’s Anaemia. Occurs mostly in children & is nearly

 

 

 

fatal. Controlled by a recessive gene which causes severe anaemia.

 

19.

Turner Syndrome

Affected individuals are phenotypically females but have rudimentary

 

 

 

sex  organs  &  mammary  glands.  Results  from  lack  of  an  X

 

 

 

chromosome, that is the comliment of XO with 45 chromosomes (45,

 

 

 

XO).

 

 

20.

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Extremely sensitive to UV radiation. Sunlight causes lesions which

 

 

 

frequently become cancerous.

 

 

Hormones

 

Gland

Hormone

 

Effect

 

Pituitary/Hypophysis

Growth Hormone or

Growth of long bones, muscles.

 

Anterior Lobe

Somatotrophic hormone (STH).

 

 

 

 

 

Thyroid Stimulating Hor. (TSH)

 

 

 

 

 

Adreno Corticotrophic hormone

Influences the production of corticosteroids

 

 

(ACTH)

by adrenal cortex involved in defending body

 

 

 

against physiological stress.

 

 

Follicle Stimulating hormone

Growth  &  maturation  of  follicles  in  the

 

 

(FSH)

ovary,  production  of  female  sex  hormone

 

 

 

Estrogen  &  maturation  of  spermatozoa  in

 

 

 

males.

 

 

 

 

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates  interstitial  cells  in  the  testis  to

 

 

 

produce

testosterone.

Causes   ovulation.

 

 

 

Release of estrogen & formulation of corpus

 

 

 

luteum in female.

 

 

 

Prolactin or Luteotrophic

Helps  to  maintain  pregnancy.  Stimualate

 

 

Hormone (LH)

mammary glands to secrete milk.

 

Middle Lobe

Melanophore stimulating

Associated  with  melaonophyte  which  give

 

 

Hormone (MSH)

skin its colour

 

 

Posterior Lobe

Vasopressin or Anti-diuretic

Controls  water  reabsorption  in  the  kidney

 

 

Hormone

tubule.

 

 

 

 

Oxytocin

Causes   uterine   contractions   &   active

 

 

 

expulsion of milk during & after birth.

 

Hypothalamus

Releasing Hormone (RH) for

Production  of  all  the  anterior  pituitary

 

 

each anterior pituitary hormone:

hormone is controlled by messages from the

 

 

GH-RH, TSH-RH, ACTH-RH,

hypothalamus    via

hypophyseal    portal

 

 

FSH-RH & likewise

vessels.

 

 

 

Thyroid

Thyroxine

BMR. Influences heat production.

 

 

Calcitonin

Calcium level in blood

 

 

Parathyroids

Parathormone

Raises blood calcium level

 

Adrenals

Aldosterone

Regulates sodium and potassium levels in the

 

 

 

blood to control blood pressure

 

 

Hydrocortisone

Plays key role in stress response; increases

 

 

 

blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores;

 

 

 

reduces inflammatation

 

 

 

Epinephrine or Adrenalin

Increases blood pressure, heart and metabolic

 

 

 

rate,  and  blood  sugar  levels;  dilates  blood

 

 

 

vessels. Also released during exercise

 

 

Norepinephrine/ Noradrenalin

Increases  blood  pressure  and  heart  rate;

 

 

 

constricts blood vessels

 

 

Thymus

Thymosin

Development of white blood cells

 

Pancreas or Islets of

Insulin

Lower the blood sugar level

 

Langerhans

Glucagon

Increse the blood sugar level.

 

Ovaries

Estrogen

Secondary sexual characteristics.

 

 

Progesterone

Prepares   Endometrium   (inner   lining   of

 

 

 

Uterus)

& maintains it during pregnancy

 

Classification of Hormones

Amines

Peptide hormones

Steroids/ sterols

Lipids

Adrenaline

Acth Or Corticotropin)

Cortisol

Prostaglandins

Dopamine

Vasopressin

Aldosterone

Leukotrienes

Noradrenaline

Calcitonin

Testosterone

Prostacyclin

Melatonin

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (Crh)

Androstenedione

Thromboxane

Serotonin

Erythropoietin (Epo)

Oestrogen

 

Thyroxine

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (Fsh)

Estradiol

 

Triiodothyronine

Gastrin

Progesterone

 

 

Glucagon

Progestins

 

 

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Gnrh)

Calcitriol

 

 

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH)

(Sterol)

 

 

Growth Hormone (GH Or Hgh)

 

 

 

Insulin

 

 

 

Leptin

 

 

 

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

 

 

 

Oxytocin

 

 

 

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

 

 

 

Prolactin (PRL)

 

 

 

Possible Combinations of Blood Groups

 

 

Male

 

Female

 

Blood group of Children not possible

 

 

 

 

A

 

A

 

B & AB

 

 

 

 

 

A

 

B

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

A

 

AB

 

O

 

 

 

 

 

A

 

O

 

B or AB

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

B

 

A, AB

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

AB

 

O

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

O

 

A, AB

 

 

 

 

 

AB

 

AB

 

O

 

 

 

 

 

AB

 

O

 

O, AB

 

 

 

 

 

O

 

O

 

A, B, AB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plant Diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Fungi

 

Bacterial Diseases

Viral Diseases

 

 

 

Late blight of Potato

Paddy blight

Tobacco Mosaic

 

 

 

Downy Mildew

Brown rot of Potato

Bunchy top of Banana

 

 

 

Loose smut of Wheat

Ring rot of Potato

Leaf curl

 

 

 

Smut of Bajra

Tundu disease of wheat

Potato leaf roll

 

 

 

Bunt of rice

Citrus canker

 

 

 

 

 

Coffee rust

 

Crown Gall of fruits

 

 

 

 

 

Black/Brown rust

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red rot of sugarcane

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wilt of cotton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ergot of Bajra

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foot rot of Paddy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pollution Linked Diseases

Heavy Metal

Human Impacts

Mercury

Kidney damage, ulcers, death if in the form of methyl mercury, Minamata disease

Lead

Kidney  damage,  metabolic  interference,  central  and  peripheral  nervous  system

 

toxicity, depressed biosynthesis of protein and red blood cells, irritability, anemia

Cadmium

Renal disease. Various cancers

Arsenic

Hyperkeratosis,   hyperpigmentation,   skin   tumors   and   cancer,   damage   to

 

gastrointestinal tract and liver

Aluminum

Linked to Alzheimer's disease, anemia, softening of bones, senile dementia

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