3. Medieval History - Indian History UPSC Notes | EduRev

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North India

Ghadvalas

Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur

Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand

*Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman

Paramaras of Malwa

Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja*

Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari

Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan)

Kalachuris of Tripuri

Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karna* (Rajshekhara)

Chalukyas/Solankis of Gujarat

Bhima I & *Jayasimha Siddharaja*

Kashmir

Avantivarman (supplanted Karkota dynasty to which

 

belonged Lalitaditya Muktapida.

 

East & the North East

Bengal (Sena dynasty)

Lakshmanasena (last Hindu ruler of Bengal)

Orissa

 

Avantavarman Chodaganga (Mother daughter of Rajendra

Chola) of Eastern Gangas & Narsimha I (sun temple)

Assam (Ahoms)

Ahoms, a Shan tribe settled in mid 13th Century.

 

Deccan & the South

Chalukyas of Kalyani

*Vikramaditya VI* (Introduced Chalukya-Vikram era)

 

Bilhana’s Vikramanankadevacharita is based on him

Yadavas of Devagiri

Bhillama V*, *Simhana*

Kakatiyas of Warangal

Ganapati (ruled for 60 years)

Cholas

Vijayalaya*, Rajaraja the Great, *Rajendra I*, Rajadhiraja,

Rajendra II, Kulottunga I

Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra

Nrpakama*, Vishnuvardhan, Ballala II & Ballala III

Pandyas

*Jatavarman Sundara.Pandya I*

 

Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)

Slave Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty

 

1206-10

Qutubuddin Aibak.

1412-20

Khizr Khan

1210-36

Shamsuddin Iltutmish

1420-33

Mubarak Shah

1237-41

Razia Sultana

1433-43

Muhammad Shah

1241-46

Bahram Shah & Masud Shah

1443-51

Alauddin Alam Shah

1246-66

Nasirruddin Mahmud

Lodhi Dynasty

 

1266-86

Balban

1451-89

Bahlul Lodhi

1286-90

Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimur

1489-1517

Sikander Lodhi

Khalji Dynasty

1517-26

Ibrahim Lodhi

1290-96

Jallaluddin Khalji

 

 

1296-1316

Allauddin Khalji

 

 

1316-20

Mubarak Shah & Khusrau khan

 

 

Tughlaq Dynasty

 

 

1320-25

Ghiasuddin Tughlaq

 

 

1325-51

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

 

 

1351-88

Firuz Shah Tughlaq

 

 

1388-94

Mohammad Khan, Ghiasuddin Tughlaq Shah II,

 

 

 

Abu Baqr, Nasiruddin Muhammad, Humayun

 

 

1394-12

Nasirrudin Mahmud Tughlaq

 

 

 

Delhi Sultanate

Slave

Qutbuddin

Aibak

Died while playing Chaugan. Aram Shah (short period)

 

Shamsuddin

Iltutmish

He defeated Yalduz of Ghazni & Qubacha of Multan. Captured the

fort  of  Ranthambor,  Lakhnauti.  Organized  the  iqta  system  (land

assignment) & currency (introduced copper tanka & silver jital).

 

Razia Sultana

Married  Malik  Altunia  (Governor  of  Bhatinda).  Turkish  Aamirs

played  the dominant  role  &  after Razia,  they enthroned  Bahram

Shah, Masud Shah & Nasiruddin Mahmud in that order.

 

Balban (Ulugh

Khan)

Balban  was  Turkish  slave  of  Iltutmish.  He  poisoned  his  master

Nasiruddin Mahmud. Killed the rebel governor of Bengal, Tughril

Khan.  He  revived  the  practice  of  sijda  (prostration)  &  paibos

(kissing monarch’s feet).

Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimurs had short duration.

Khalji

Jalaluddin Khalji

Descended at the age of seventy. Later Alauddin murdered his uncle

& father in law Jalaluddin & seized the throne.

 

Alauddin Khalji

Lay  seige  to  Ranthambor  which  was  under  redoubtable  Hammir

Deva  which  continued  till  one  year.  Later  Chittor  under  Ratan

Singh (wife Padmini) fell & was renamed Kizhrabad. Malik Kafur

Campaigned against Kaktiyas (Warangal), Hoysalas (Dwarasamudra) & Pandyas. Mubarak Shah (son) & Khusrau khan had short rule.

Kharaj  (land  tax  –  50%),  Charai,  Gharii  (dwelling  tax).  First  to

introduce permanent standing army, dagh &   chehra. Afghans &

Sultan’s Indian officers rose to prominence.

Tughlaq

Ghiyasuddin

Tughlaq

Earlier called Ghazi Malik. Ghiasuddin had repelled mongol attack

under khaljis before ascending throne. Attaked Kaktiyas & Bengal

succesfully. Founded third city of Delhi – Tughlaqabad.

 

Muhammad bin

Tughlaq

Open consorting with Hindus & Jogis. Killed Ulemas, qazis who

rose in rebellion. Shifted capital to Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad),

token currency (bronze coin-jittal). Shifted to Swargadwari during

famine. At his death Barani commented, ‘at last the people got rid

of him & he got rid of the people’. First sultan to visit the shrine of

Moinuddin Chisti. Disciple of Shaikh Alauddin & Jinaprabha Suri.

 

Firuz Shah

Tughlaq

Not a military leader. Conqured Thatta, Orissa (uprooted Jagannath

idol),  Nagarkot.  Distributed  iqtas, made  them heritable increased

salaries.   Founded   Fatehabad,   Hissar,   Firuzpur,   Jaunpur   &

Firuzabad. Built canals. Influence of Ulema revived. First muslim

ruler to impose Jaziya on Brahmins but abolished Ghari & Charai.

Visited  the  shrine  of  Salar  Masud  Ghazi  &  became  fanatical.

Removed   paintings   from   palace.   Got   many   sanskirt   works

translated in Persian

 

South India

Vijaynagar

Harihara &

Bukka

These brothers were released by Muhammad Tughlaq & they laid

the foundation of Vijaynagar empire (Sangama dynasty)

 

Deva Raya I

Succeded  his  father  Harihara  II.  Lead  a  crushing  defeat  against

Sultan  Firuz  Shah  Bahmani.  Constuction  of  dam  across  the

Tungabhadra. Italian, Nicolo de Conti came during his period.

 

Deva Raya II

Sometimes called Immadi Deva Raya. One of the greatest Sultan.

Bahamani

Firuz Shah

Bahman

Great king. Lost to Deva Raya I & abdicated throne in favour of his

brother Ahmad Shah I who transferred Bahmani Kingdom capital

from  Gulbarga  to  Bidar.  Later  with  the  help  of  Iranian  prime

minister Mahmud Gawan, Ahmad Shah I expanded considerably.

Later Bhahmani kingdom got divied into five regions – Golconda,

Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar & Bidar.

Tuluva

*Kishna Deva

Raya*

After Deva Raya II came Suluva dyansty, which was replaced by

Tuluva dynasty whose geatest ruler was Krishna Deva Raya. Ablest

of Vijaynagar soverigns. After him Rama Raja succeded.

 

Delhi Sultanate Continued

Timur

Invastion

Timur 1398 AD

During the reign of Mahmud Tughlaq who fled the city. He

assigned Delhi to Khizr Khan & hence Sayyid dynasty was born.

Sayyids

Khizr Khan

Khizr Khan’s reign as well as that of his successors, Mubarak Shah,

Muhammad Shah & Alauddin Alam Shah was spent trying to

control the rebellious leaders (esp. Khokhars led by Jasrath).

Lodis

Bahlul Lodi

First dynasty to be headed by Afghans. Principal event of Bahlul

Lodi’s life was the annexation of Juanpur kingdom.

 

Sikander Lodi

Contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat & Rana Sanga of

Mewar. The rent rolls of his reign formed the basis during Sher

Shah Suri period. Imposed the Jaziya. The Bahluli coin remained in

circulation till Akbar’s rule. He was the only sultan to be killed in

the battle field.

Smaller States

Assam

Ahoms - Greatest ruler during this peiod was Suhungmung

Gujarat

Muzaffar’s Shah grandson, Ahmad Shah I founded new capital Ahmedabad. Was the

first sultan to levy Jaziya on hindus of Gujarat. *Mahmud Begarha* was the greatest

Mewar

Rana Kumbha. His grandson was Rana Sanga.

Amber

Under Prithviraj who fought under Rana Sanga at Khanua

Jaunpur

Under Sharquis. Jaunpur is in eastern U.P.

Kashmir

*Zianul Abidin*. Abolished Jaziya. Got Ramayana & Mahabharata translated into

Persian. Allowed Kashmiri pandits to return to the state.

 

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

Babur

1526-30

Zahiruddin  Muhammad  Babur.  Ascended  throne  of  Farghana.  Daulat  Khan  Lodi,

govenror of Punjab invited him to dethrone Ibrahim Lodi but later retracted. Ibrahim Lodi

perished in 1526 at Panipat. Battle of Khanua in 1527 against Rana Sanga in which Babur

won by effective use of artillery & mounted archers. Died around 1529 & burried at

Kabul. Introduced Char Bagh (symmetric gardens).

Himayun

1530-56

His early fight was with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat whom he defeated but did not depose.

In  Bihar  the  Afghans  rallied  under  Sher  Shah  Suri.  At  the  battle  of  Chausa  in  1939

Himayun was defeated by Sher Shah. He finally left India in 1544 for the Safavid court. A

decade after the death of Sher Shah, Himayun occupied back Delhi but died within seven

months after a fall from the steps of his library.

Sher Shah

1540-45

Son of a small Jagirdar from Jaunpur. Defeated Raja Maldeo of Marwar in the battle of

Samel in 1544 & also won Chittor. He realized Jaziya from Hindus. Revived system of

Dagh & Chehra. Introduced a system of crop rates form the first time. Introduced uniform

standard gold, silver & copper coins replacing the debased coins & introduced uniform

weights. Maintained army through Sawars. Died in 1545 (5 years rule).

Akbar

1556-1605

Born  in  Amarkot.  Bairam  Khan  invited  Hemu  (Afhan  assumed  title  of  Hemchandra

Vikramaditya) in 1556 at the second battle of Panipat in which Hemu was slained. Later

Akbar discharged Bairam Khan & married his widow. Akbar’s foster mothers son Adam

Khan  won  Malwa  defeating  Baz  Bahadur.  Won  at  Gondwana,  Chittor  (Udai  Sing),

Ranthambor & Marwar. Rana Pratap ascended Mewar after the death of Udai Singh. In

1576 the Haldi ghati war between Man Singh (grandson of Bhara Mal of Amber who

entered imperial services) & Rana Pratap. In 1571 Akbar shifted his capital to Fatehpur

Sikri.  Later  marched  against  Ahmedabad,  Kabul  (deposed  Mirza  Hakim).  In  1585  he

trasnferred his capital to Lahore. Later won Baluchistan, Qandhar, Ahmadnagar (Chand

Bibi), Khandesh (Akbar’s last major miliary campaign). In 1579 he abolished Jaziya. He

issued Mahzar which entitle him to choose one of the interpretations of Muslim law. Only

Raja Birbal accepted Din-i-Ilahi. Todar Mal, Bhagwan das, Man Singh declined it. He

abolished the position of wazir after Bairam khan. Revived chehra & dagh.

Jehangir

1605-27

Jehangir’s elder brother Khusrau revolted thrice against Akbar & was blinded. He became

the  first  ruler  to  conquer  Kangra.  Amar  Singh,  Son  of  Rana  Pratap  at  Ajmer  also

surrendered. The Persians got control of Qandhar back in their second attempt. Deccan

(ruled by Malik Ambar of Ahmadnagar) was subdued again by prince Khurram. Jehangir

ordered the murder of fifth sikh guru Arjun Dev (the first to be murdered by Mughals).

Visited dargah of Moinuddin Chisti several times. Married Iranian widow (Mehrunisa),

who was given the title Nur Jahan.  Nur Jahan’s brother was Asaf khan whose daughter

Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu) was married to Shah Jahan.

Shah

Jahan

1628-58

Sent his two sons Dara  Shukoh& Aurangzeb as hostages to his fathers court. He was

helped in his throne capture by his father in law, Asaf Khan. Ordered execution of his

brothers  &  their  sons  after  accession.  Increased  control  over  Bundelkhand  (Ruled  by

Jehangir’s hard core friend Bir Singh Deo’s son Jujhar Singh). Qandhar was capture for a

brief period but lost back to the Safavids. His Peacock throne & capital Shahjahanabad are

remembered. Reformed the zat & sawar system. Iranis & Turanis dominated the nobility.

Instituted month scales on the basis of difference between official estimate of income

(Jama) & actual amount collected (hasil).

Aurangzeb

1658-1707

War of succession between Dara, Shah Shuja, Auranzeb & Murad – all sons of Mumtaz

Mahal. Mir Jumla was deputed by Aurangzeb to restore authority in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Later in Assam Ahom king agreed to be a vassal of Mughals. He banned Nauroz, the Persian new year, banned painters, musicians, drinking & women pilgrimage. Pilgrimage tax on Hindu abolished by Akbar reinstated. Destroyed the Keshava Rai Temple at Mathura built by Bir Singh Bundela. Reimposed Jaziya tax. His son prince Akbar revolted &  was sheltered by Maratha ruler Sambhaji. Aurangzeb lay seize on Bijapur & Golconda &  won. He was also known as Alamgir.

Shivaji

Shivaji tutor was Dadaji Kond-deva. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan (general of Ali Adil Shah

II) while meeting. Later he almost defeated the governor of the Deccan, Shaista Khan who

was replaced by Prince Mauzzam on orders of Aurangzeb. Raja Jai Singh was given the

responsibility of tackling Shivaji who won & conducted the treaty of Purandhar. Later

Shivaji visited mughal court & was captured but escaped.

Later

Marathas

Shivaji – Sambhaji – Rajaram (Sambhaji’s brother). In the meanwhile Sambhaji’s son

Shahu was taken to the Mughal household. Later when Rajaram died, his widow Tara Bai

declared her four year old son Shivaji II, king & herself the regent. Later Shahu was

released by Bahadur Shah I who appointed Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa. Baji Rao I

succeded  who  was  the  most  charismatic  leader  in  Maratha  history  after  Shivaji.He

conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand & even raided Delhi. He was succeded by his son  Balaji

Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II)

who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a terrible blow at

the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 at Panipat.

 

Selective Treaties & Battles

Treaty of Purandhar

Jai Singh defeated Shivaji. Shivaji had to surrender 23 out of the thirty

five forts held by him.

Treaty of Palkhed

Nizam of Hyderabad was forced to recognize Maratha claimsto chauth

& sardeshmuhi in the Deccan (durin Baji Rao I’s tenure).

Treaty of Warna

Claims of Tara Bai settled by granting her Kolhapur

Treaty of Bhalke

Marathas won large parts of Khandesh by invading Karnataka.

Battle of Talikota (1565)

Between Vijayanagara Empire (Rama Raya, son of Achutya Raya) and

Deccan sultanates, resulted in Vijayanagar’s defeat.

Books of Medieval Period

1.

Taj-ul-Maasir

Hasan Nizami

2.

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri

Minhaj Siraj

3.

Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi (Most important work of sultanate period)

Ziauddin Barani

 

Fatwah-i-Jahandari

 

4.

Futuh-us-Salatin (establishment of Bahmani Kingdom)

Isami

5.

Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi

Afif

6.

Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi

Yahya Sirhindi

7.

Akbar Nama

Abul Fazal

8.

Tabaqat-I-Akbari

Nizammudin Ahmad

9.

Muntakhab-al-tawarikh

Badauni

10

Badshahnama/Padshahnama

Abdul Hamid Lahori

11

Muntakhab-ul Lubab (Aurangzeb’s reign)

Khafi Khan

12

Mirat-i-Ahmadi

Ali Muhammad Khan

13

Padmavat (on Padmini – wife of Ratan Singh, King of Chittor)

Malik Mohammad Jaisi

14

Tughluq Nama, Tarik-i-Alai, Nuh Sipihr, Ashiqa

Amir Khusro

15

Marwar ra Pargani ri Vigat (Info on Rajasthan)

Munhta Nainsi

16

Chandayan

Maulana Daud

17

Himayun Nama

Gulbadan Begum

18

Bhavartha Dipika

Gyaneshwara

19

Safarnama or Rihla

Ibn Batuta

20

Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (Autobiography)

Jehangir

21

Tarikh-i-Shershahi

Abbas Sarwani

22

Tuzuk-i-Baburi/ Baburnama (in Turkish –Autobiography)

Babur

23

Shahjahannama

Inayat Khan

24

Dayabhaga

Jimuta Vahna

25

Periya Puranam (12th book of Tamil Veda called Tirumurai)

Shekkilar

26

Sur Sagar (Life of Krishna)

Sur Das

27

History of Aurangzeb, The fall of the Mughal Empire

Jadunath Sarkar

28

Mahmud of Ghazni

Mohammad Habib

29

The Administration of the Delhi Sultanate

I.H. Qureshi

30

Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

A.B.M. Habibullah

31

Agrarian System of Mughal India

Irfan Habib

Monuments of Medieval Period

College of Ajmer (Converted to Adhai din ka Jhompra)

Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva

Rudra Mahakala temple, Siddhapura

Jayasimha Siddharaja

Jagannath Temple at Puri

Anantavarman Chodaganga

Sun Temple, Konark

Narasimha I ( E. Gangas)

Brihadesvara/Rajarajeswara temple at Thanjavur

Rajaraja the Great

Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, Delhi

Qutbuddin Aibak

Adhai din ka Jhompra

Qutbuddin Aibak

Himayun’s Tomb

Akbar’s step mother Haji Begum

Tomb of Sher Shah at Sasaram

Sher Shah

Agra Fort

Akbar

Buland Darwarza (commemorate Gujarat victory)

Akbar

Shalimar Garden

Shah Jahan

Badshahi Mosque at Lahore (largest in subcontinent)

Aurgangzeb

Man Mandir, Gwalior

Man Singh

Hauz Khas

Alauddin Khalji

Akbar’s Mausoleum at Sikandara

Akbar. Completed by Jehangir.

Madrasa at Bidar

Mahmud Gawan

Kings & their Court Jewels

1.

Lakshmansena

Jayadeva, Halayudha, Sridharadasa.

2.

Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya)

Bilhana (Vikramanankadevacharita) Vijnanaeshvara (Mitakshara)

3.

Sharqis of Jaunpur

Malik Muhammad Jaisi

4.

Akbar

Tansen, Todar Mal, Tulsidas (just contemporary)

 

Prominent Foreign Travellers

1.

Marco Polo

Venetian Traveller visited Pandya kingdom

2.

Ibn Batuta

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

3.

Nicolo Conti

Italian visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I

4.

Abdur Razaq

Visited the court of Zamorin in Calicut & travelled to Vijaynagar

 

 

during the reign of Deva Raya II

5.

Nikitin

Russian, visited Bahmani kingdom & Gujarat

6.

Nuniz

Portuguese, stayed at Vijayanagar during Krishna Deva Raya

7.

Ralph Fitch

British during Akbar’s reign

8.

William Hawkins

English merchant. Received a mansab from Jehangir

9.

Thomas Roe

Ambassador of English King James I to Jehangir’s court.

 

 

Obtained trade concessions. Wrote “Embassy”.

10.

Peter Mundy

English traveller during Shah Jahan’s reign.

11.

Tavernier

French jweller. Aurangzeb’s reign.

12.

Bernier

French Physician. Most important account of all European.

 

 

Aurangzeb’s reign. Wrote ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’.

13.

Nicolo Manucci

Italian. Aurangzeb’s reign.

Jargon of Medieval Period

Mamluk

White slaves

Ur

Common village assembly (Chola  period)

Muqaddam

Village head

Nagaram

Assembly of merchants (Chola  period)

Sondhar

loans

Sabha

Assembly of Brahmins (Chola  period)

Khots

Village head

Khutba

A sermon made in Friday mosque

Sharia

Muslim law

Madad-i-Maash

Tax free grants of land

Subas

Provinces

Waqf

Grants to muslim religious establishment

Mir Bakshi

Military department

Pargana

Around Hundred villages.

Ummah

Muslim believers

Sadr us sadur

Ecclesiastical affairs

Mir Saman

Supply department

Qanungos

Keeper of revenue records

Shiqdar

Headed Pargana.

Zabt

Revenue based on land measurement

Amils

Revenue officer

Ibadat Khana

House of worship (Fatehpur Sikri)

Hundis

Bills of Exchange

Diwan

Function of finance (Akbar’s time)

Dhimmis

Non-Muslim people

Wujuhat

Taxes on cattle, grazing, orchards.

Vimans

Towers of temple

Shaikhzadas

Indian Muslims nobility

Din

Religion

Peshwa

Prime minister (Shivaji)

Ganj

A grain market

Amatya

Revenue minister (Shivaji)

Gomashta

Commercial agent

Sumant

Foreign minister (Shivaji)

Hun

A gold coin

Bargir

Cavalrymen (horse belonged to leader)

Dam

Coin (1/4th of rupee)

Nankar

Portion of revenue given to Zamidar

Sarkar

A number of Paragana

Diwan-i-Arz

Ministry of Military Affairs

Khums

Tax on plunder

Diwan-i-Insha

Ministry of Royal Correspondences

Zawabit

Non Shariat state laws

Diwan-i-Risalat

Religiour affairs

Faujdar

Incharge of Sarkar

Diwan-i-Kul

Wazir or chief imperial fiscal minister.

Malfuzat

Sayings of sufi saint

Diwan-i-Wizarat

Department of finance

Tankah

Silver coin

Khalisa

Land revenue directly for imperial treasury

Kanqah

Sufi lodging

Wilayat

Spiritual territory of a sufi

Misl

Sikh Regions  (12)

Umra

Collective term for nobility

 

 

Watandar

Desais & Deshmukh (collective term)

Extent of Mughal Empire at Akbar’s Death

  Indian History,IAS,Rajasthan Public Service Commission,RAS,RPSC,SPCS,State Public Service Commission

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