5. Modern Period - Indian History UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Modern Period

 

1707-12

Bahadur Shah I

1712-13

Jahandar Shah

1713-19

Farukk Siyar

1719-48

Muhammad Shah Rangila

1748-54

Ahmad Shah

1754-59

Alamgir II

1759-1806

Shah Alam II

1806-1837

Akbar Shah II

1837-57

Bahadur Shah II

 Later Mughal Rulers

 

Bahadur Shah I

1707-1712

After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought in

which Mauzzam emerged victorious & assumed the title of Bahadur Shah I. Banda

Bahadur who killed Wazir khanwas defeated by him. Was referred to as ‘Shah-i-

Bekhabar’.

Jahandar Shah

1712-13

Later after Bahadur Shah’s death, his son Jahandar Shah came to power after killing

His other brothers with the help of Zulfikar Khan. He made peace with the Jats,

Shahuji & honoured rajput kings.

Farrukh Siyar

1713-19

Nephew  of  Jahandar  Shah,  Farrukh  Siyar  killed  him  with  the  help  of  Sayyid

Brothers – Abdulla Khan (Wazir) & Hussain Ali Khan (Mir Bakshi). Farrukh Siyar

tried to check the powers of Sayyid brothers but the latter got him killed & crowned

Two princes Raffi-ud-Darajat, Raffi-ud-Daula in quick succession. Later they made

Muhammad Shah (Grandson of Bahadur Shah I) as the king. After his accession the

Sayyid brothers fell victim to the intrigue of Turani Amirs.

Muhammad

Shah Rangila

1719-48

During his tenure most the independent kingdoms were established: Nizam-ul-Mulk

(Deccan), Saadat Khan (Awadh) & Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal).  Iranian  King

Nadir Shah invaded in 1739 on invitation of Saadat Khan (Awadh). The latter was

Imprisoned by Nadir Shah for not able to pay the promised ransom. Nadir Shah

Took the peacock throne & the Kohinoor diamond with him.

Ahmad Shah

1748-54

Son of Muhammad Shah. During his reign Ahmad Shah Abdali (claimed himself

ruler  of  Kandhar  after  the  assassination  of  Nadir  Shah  by  Persian  in  1747)

Repeatedly attacked. Later Ahmad Shah was killed & deposed by his own Wazir

Imad-ul-Mulk.

Alamgir II

Actual name Aziz-ud-din. Frequency of Abdali attacks increased. [1754-59]

Shah Alam II

1759-1806

Akbar Shah II

1806-1837

Bahadur Shah II

1837-57

 

Other Contemporary States

Bihar

After Saadat Khan, *Safdarjung* became the king  who was an impartial ruler &

Carried out many reforms & was made the wazir of mughal empire. Shuja-ud-Daula

Succeded him to throne. He was also made the wazir of mughal empire but he sided

with Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat.

Bengal

Murshid Quli Khan was an able ruler. Later his son in law Shuja-ud-din & his son

Sarfaraz came in that order. Sarfaraz was defeated by Alivardi Khan of Bihar. Later

Alivardi Khan was defeated by Raghuji Bhonsle & forced him to surrender Orissa.

After the death of Alivardi khan his grandson Siraj-ud-daula tool over who lost to

Britishers under Lord Clive.

Hyderabad

Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Jah founded the state of Hyderabad in 1724.

Mysore &

Haider Ali

Since the downfall of the Vijaynagar empire Wodeyar dynasty was ruling. But in

the 18th century two minister Nanjaraj & Devaraj usurped power early reducing the

King Krishna Raj to a puppet. Haider Ali rose to become the Commander-in-Chief

of the Mysore army & became the sultan after Nanjraj’s death. He was defeated by

Peshwa Madhav Rao.

Tipu Sultan

He defeated the combined forces of Marathas & Nizam in 1787 & soon after

Claimed himself Padshah at Seringapattam. He attempted to reduce the custom of

Jagirs& hereditary possession of poligars (small chieftans). He was a staunch

muslim. He donated money to hindus but later got the temples abolished.

Travancore

Martanda Verma

Rajput States

Marwar (Ajit Singh), Amer (Sawai Jai Singh)

Rohilkhand

Area between Agra & Awadh. Muhammad Khan Bangash ruled who was defeated

by Maharana Chhatrasal of Bundelkhand with the help of Marathas.

Sikhs

Ruler of one of the 12 Misls called Sukarchakiya. He with the help of his brave

commander Hari Singh Nalwa won Multan, Kashmir & Peshawar.

 

The Peshwas

 

1713-20

Balaji Vishwanath

Shahu appointed him as the Peshwa.

1720-40

Baji Rao I

Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in

Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand

& even raided Delhi.

1740-61

Balaji Baji Rao

Son of Baji Rao I  Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from

the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II) who defeated

the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a

terrible blow at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761-Panipat

1761-72

Madhav Rao I

Defeated Nizam, Mysore, Rohillas, Rajputs Jats. In 1771 he

confined the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II  by giving pension.

1772-73

Narayan Rao

Short tenure. Tussle with Ragunath Rao over Peshwa claim.

1774-95

Madhav Rao II

Became Peshwa after treaty of Salbai supported by Nana

Phadnavis.  In the meantime Mahadji Scindia who had brought

Shah Alam under his control became the actual ruler of Delhi till

his death in 1794.

1796-1818

Baji Rao II

Incompetent son of Raghunath Rao (who was had earlier stuggled

with Narayan Rao to become Peshwa & sided with Britishers)

 

 

Important Battles

1744-48

First Anglo-French Carnatic war. Madras returned to British by the treaty of Aix-la-

Chappalle. In battle of St. Thome, a small French Army defeated Nawab Anwar-ud-

Din’s large one.

1748-54

Second Anglo French Carnatic war. The French sided with Muzaffar Jang (grandson of

Asaf Jah) & Chanda Sahib (in Carnatic) while the Enlish supported the claims of Nasir

Jang (son of late Nizam, Asaf Jah) & Anwar-ud-din (Carnatic) Initially the French

under Dupleix had success (& stationed officer Bussy at Hyderabad) but later the

English got hold. Treaty of Pondicherry signed.

1757-63

Third Anglo French Carnatic war. French captured Fort St. David. Lally did the

mistake of recalling Bussy from Hyderabad. Later the French were badly routed at

Wandiwash by the British under Sir Eyre Coote.

1757

Battle of Plassey. British under clive & treacher Mir Jaffar routed Siraj-ud-daula. Mir

Jafar was made Bengal but later replaced by his son-in-law Mir Kasim. He revolted &

was again replaced by Mir Jafar.

1760

Battle of Wandiwash. French decisively defeated

1761

Third Battle of Panipat. Marathas defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali

1764

Battle of Buxar. Mir Kasim, Shuja-ud-daula & Shah Alam II defeated by Major Munro.

Treaty of Allahabad signed which gave the diwani of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa & Bihar to

the Enlish & trading rights in Awadh. Shah Alam on pension of 26 laksh/annum.

1767-69

I Anglo Mysore war. Both the British & Haider Ali returned each others territories The

britisheres committed to help Haider against a third party invasion

1775-82

First Anglo Maratha war. The British army was defeated. The humiliating convention

of Wadgaon was concluded in which the company was required to give up all the

advantages of Treaty of Purandhar. Peace was at last restored by treaty of Salbai signed

between Warren Hastings & Mahdji Scindia whereby salsette & Bassein were given to

the British.

1780-84

II Anglo Mysore War. In 1782 Haider Ali passed away due to illness leaving the

struggle to Tipu. War concluded by treaty of Mangalore

1790-92

III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu signed the treaty of Seringapattam

1799

IV Anglo Mysore war. When the subsidiary alliance was offered to Tipu Sultan he

flatly refused & hence the war happened in which the Marathas & the Nizam helped the

Britishers. Tipu died fighting the war.

1803-1805

Second Anglo Maratha war. Marathas defeated.

1814-16

Anglo Nepal war. War came to an end by treaty of Sagauli

1817-19

Third Anglo Maratha war. Marathas decisively defeated

1823-26

First Anglo Burmese war. Buremese defeated & conducted Treaty of Yandahboo

1839-42

First Anglo Afghan war. The Britishers were defeated.

1845-46

First Anglo-Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Treaty of Lahore conducted

1848-49

Second Anglo Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Punjab annexed to British. Maharaja Dalip

Singh given an annual pension of 50,000 pounds & sent to England for higher studies

& later converted to Christianity. The Kohinoor was gifted to Queen Victoria.

1852

Second Anglo Burmese war. English successful

1878-80

Second Anglo Afghan war. English suffered losses.

1885-87

Third Anglo Burmese war. English annexed Burma

1919-21

Third Anglo Afghan war. English though victorious did not benefit from the war.

 

Important Treaties

Treaty of Pondicherry

After the II Carnatic war. Muhammad Ali, son of late Anwar-ud-din was accepted as the Nawab of Carnatic.

Treaty of Mangalore

1784

Signed between Tipu & British in 1784. Under this Tipu withdrew his army from Carnatic & English withdrew theirs from the Carnatic.

Treaty of Seringapattam

1792

After III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu had to pay heavy war indemnity & send as hostages his two sons to the English. Half of his territory was ceded. He paid the war indemnity & his two sons were released.

Treaty of Amritsar 1809

Signed between British & Ranjit Singh in which the latter recognized their rights in the Cis-Sutlej areas.

Treaty of Sagauli

After Anglo Nepalese war. The Gurkhas gave up their claim over the Tarai region& ceded claim over the areas of Kumaon & Garhwal to the British.

Treaty of Lahore

After the first Anglo Sikh war. The territories lying to the south of river Sutlej  were given to the company.

 

Land Sattelment

Zamindari System (19%)

Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of NW provinces & northern Carnatic.

90 % of the revenue went to government & 10 % to Zamindar (British)

Mahalwari System (30%)

Major parts of NW provinces, Central provinces & Punjab. Responsibility

of paying revenue was with the entire village or mahal. (Based on

traditional Indian system of economic community)

Ryotwari system (51%)

Bombay & Madras presidencies, Assam, Berar & certain other parts. Land

revenue was fixed for 20-40 years at a time (French in Origin)

 

Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)

Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)

Jyotiba Phule

Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji

Jyotiba Phule

New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Indian War of Independence (seized by British)

V.D. Savarkar

Loyal Muhammadans of India

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Tahaib-al-Akhlaq

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Asbab-e-Bagawar-e-Hind (Held Bahadur Shah II as fool for revolting)

Sayyed Ahmad Khan

Neel Darpan

Dinbandhu Mitra

How did America get Freedom

Ram Prasad Bismil

The activities of Bolsheviks, The wave of the Mind, Colour of Swadeshi,

Ram Prasad Bismil

Revolutionary Life

 

Systematic History of Ancient India

V.A. Smith

Hindu Polity

K.P. Jayaswal

Political History of Ancient India

H.C. Raychaudhary

A History of Ancient India; A history of South India

K.A. Nilkant Shastri

Hindu Civilization; Chandragupta Maurya; Asoka;

R.K. Mookerji

Fundamental Unity of India

 R. K. Mookerji

History of Dharmashastra

P.V. Kane

The Wonder That was India

A.L. Basham

 

Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations

 

Atmiya Sabha (1815)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Brahmo Samaj (1828)

Raja Rammohun Roy.

Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839). Later merged with

Brahmo Samaj in 1842

Indian national Social Conference

Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore.

M.G. Ranade

Harijan Sevak Sangh

Mahatma Gandhi

Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873)

Jyotirao Phule (fight caste oppression)

Shri Narayana Dharma Partiplana Yogama

Shri Narayan Guru (fight caste oppression)

South Indian Liberal Federation (later became

justice party & then Dravida Kazhagam)

T. Teagaraja & T.M. Nair (Self respect)

Prarthana Samaj (1867)

Atma Ram Pandurang

Arya Samaj (1875)

Swami Dayanand

Servants of India Society (1905)

Gopal Krishna Gokhale (Rejected Knighthood)

Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha (1893 at

Chapekar Brothers - Damodar & Balakrishna.

Nasik)

Abhinav Bharat

V.D. Savarkar

New India Association

V.D. Savarkar

Anushilan Samiti

Aurobindo Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose, B.P.

Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya & Bhupendra Dutta

Patriotic Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Muhammad Anglo-Oriental Defence Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha (1924)

B.R. Ambedkar

Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Varg Sabha

B.R. Ambedkar

 

Movements/Organizations

Aligarh Movement

Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan

Deoband

Movement

Represented by Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi & Rashid Ahmad Gangohi.

Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement was strictlybased  on  Islamic  tradition unlike liberal  Aligarh movement.   The  also promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat Ullah  Sahib  founded  the,  ‘Jamaitul  Ulema-i-Hind’  to  further  work  in  this direction. His role was prominent in the Khilafat movement.

Muslim League

Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk presided over a gathering at the invitation of Nawab Salim Ullah of Dacca. Muslim league was the result. The constitution of the league was prepared in 1907 at Karachi. The first session of the league was held in 1908 at Amritsar. The same year Aga Khan became the president. The league supported partition of Bengal & was a loyalist organization. After 1913 Aga Khan left the league which led to the emergence of new leaders like Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali & M.A. Ansari.

Home Rule League

 

Estd by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. She was the president & other   members   included   Arundale,   P.C.   Ramaswamy   Iyer,   V.P.   Wadia. Balgangadhar Tilak had estd another Home Rule League in April 1916 at Pune.

Champaran

Satyagraha 1917

European  planters  forced  the  farmers  to  cultivate  Indigo  on  atleast  3/20

(Tinkathiya) parts of their land. Rajendra Prasad, Mazhur-ul-Haq, J.B. Kriplani, Mahadev Desai accompanied him. An enquiry was set up to alleviate miseries of which even Gandhi was a member.

 

Kheda Satyagraha

Kheda peasants refused to pay revenue due to failure of crops. After Satyagraha

 

1918

the government issued instructions to collect revenue only from those who could

afford to pay. Indulal Yagnik & Vallabh Bhai Patel supported Gandhi.

Ahmedabad Mill

Problem 1918

Mahatma Gandhi considered 35 % increase in salary as just. He undertook a fast

unto death & the strike came to an end. Ambalal Sarabhai’s sister Anasuya Behn

was main lieutenant of Gandhi here.

Rowlatt Act

In March 1919, the Britishers passed the Rowlatt Act according to which any

Indian could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. A nationwide satyagraha was

organized which involved arrest of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr Satyapal, Dr. Saiffuddin

Kitchlew & Arya Samaj leader Swami Shradhananda (shoot if you can rally).

Jallianwala Bagh

Massacre

Demanded  to  know  the  whereabouts  of  Satyapal  and  Kitchlew  throught  the

reciting of  the poem ‘Fariyad’ on the day of Baisakhi (13th  April, 1919). Martial

law was proclaimed later at Lahore, Gujarat & Layal with curfew at Amritsar. An

enquiry was setup under Hunter. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his title.

Khilafat Movement

Sultan of Turkey was the Caliph. The allied powers were arrayed against Turkey.

Mulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saiffudin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari,

Hakim Ajmal Khan & the Ali brothers were prominent leaders. British signed the

Treaty of Tibers, partitioned Turkey & its Sultan was made a prisoner & sent to

Constantinople.

Non Cooperation

1920-22

Approval at Congress session in 1920. Leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie

Besant & Bipin Chandra Pal not in agreement & left the congress. Students took

their names off school. Kashi Vidyapeeth, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Jamia Milia Islamia

were set up. No Congress leader contested for elections. Mass demonstrations

before  Duke  of  Connaught  &  Prince  of  wales.  Tilak  Swarajya  Fund  was

established. Moplah rebellion was the ugly face. Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP

incidence led to its recall. Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das

formed as separate group within the congress known as Swarajya Party with a

purpose not to let the movement lapse.

AITUC

1920

Formed  in  1920  with  Lotvala’s  help.  M.N Roy, Muzzafarabad Ahmad, S.  A

Dange & Shaukat Osmani led the trade unionist movements. The  Britishers

leveled the kanpur/Meerut conspiracy against them.

Swaraj Party

Suspension   of   Non   Cooperation   movement   disoriented   the   leadership.

Chittaranjan Das & Motilal Nehru were called ‘Pro-Changers’ & did not support

the non cooperation movement. The other group was ‘no-changers’ & included C.

Rajgopalachari, M.A. Ansari. In 1923 Das & Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at

Allahabad with a view to take part in the 1923 Council elections. The swaraj party

got  clear  majority  in  the  Central  legislature  &  Provincial  legislatures  except

Bengal. After the passing away of Chittaranjan Das in 1925 the party weakened &

further some of the leaders became corrupt. Therefore in the election of 1926 it

suffered miserable defeat in all the provinces except Madras.

Hindustan

Republic

Associaiton 1924

Established in October 1924 in Kanpur by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil,

Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal. The Kakori

Train Action was a notable act of terrorism by this group but trial prooved to be a

major  setback.However,  the  group  was  reorganized  under  the  leadership  of

Chandrashekhar Azad and with members like Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan

Vohra  and  Sukhdev  on  9  and  10  September  1928-  and  the  group  was  now

christened Hindustan Socialist  Republican  Association (HSRA).  Bhagat  Singh,

Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged in March 1931.

Communist Party of India 1925

Was declared illegal in 1934. This ban continued till 1942 when there was an agreement that the communist will support British in the war effort & sabotage the quit India movement. In a memorandum to the Cabinet Mission in 1946, they put forward a plan for the division of India into 17 sovereign states.

 

Bardoli Satyagraha

In Bardoli district of Surat under Vallabh Bhai Patel. The government had raised the tax rate by 30% despite famine.

All India States

People Conference

Formed  in  1926  whose  first  session  was  held  under  the  presidentship  of  the  famous leader of Ellore, Diwan Bahadur M. Ramachandra Rai.

Simon

Commission

The purpose was the review the Act of 1919 after a gap of ten years. The 7 member commission was labeled ‘White Men Commission’. Huge demonstration under Govind Vallabh Pant at Lucknow & Lala Lajpat at Lahore. The report of Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It stated the constitutional experiment  with  Dyarchy  was  unsuccessful  &  in  its  place  recommended  the establishment of autonomous government.  It  recommended  special  powers  to governor  general  &  governors  to  look  after  the  interest  of  minorities, strengthening  the  centre,  increasing  electorate  base  on  communal  basis, Indianization of defence forces, delink Burma from India & Sindh from Bombay. The Indians rejected the report as it gave no regard to Dominion Status. It became a basis for the Govt of India Act 1935.

Nehru Report,

1928

Secretary  of  State,  Lord  Birkenhead  challenged  the  Indians  to  produce  a constitution that would be acceptable to all. A meeting held at Bombay set up a 8 member committee headed by Motilal Nehru & others included Bose, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Sir Ali Imam, Shahib Qureshi, Sardar Mangal Singh, MS Anney & G.R Pradhan.  The  report  was  placed  before  Congress  Session  in  Calcutta  in  1928 where it was adopted unanimously. It recommended reservation for minorities instead of separate electorates. Jinnah & President of Central Sikh league, Sardar Kharak Singh rejected it.  Later  Jinnah  convened  an  All  India  Conference  of Muslims & drew up a list of 14 point. Jawahar & Bose were not happy with the dominion status.

Dandi March

April 1930

Reached Dandi after marching with 78 handpicked followers & formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the Salt laws. Many muslims kept themselves  aloof  but  in  the  NWFP  an  organization  of  Khudai  Khidmatgar (Servants of Gods – Red Shirts) under Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (Frontier Gandhi) participated in full.

I Round table

Conference

Nov 1930

Held under the Chairmanship of Ramsay MacDonald. Failed to resolve any issues as it was opposed by congress.

Gandhi Irwin Pact

March 1931

As  per  it  Gandhi  agreed  to  suspend  the  Civil  Disobedience  Movement  & participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact.

II Round Table

Conference 1931

At London. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India as no agreement could be reached.

In January 1932 the civil disobedience movement was resumed.

McDonald Communal Award

1932
The British PM Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement according to which the depressed classes were considered as separate community. Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast unto death in Yeravada Jail. An agreement was reached with the consent of Mahatma Gandhi & Ambedkar which came to be known as ‘Poona Act’.  The British government also approved it.  Accordingly 148 seats were reserved in different provincial legislatures in place of 71 as per communal award.
III Round Table Conference 1932 The  congress  once  more  didn’t  take  part  in  it.  None  the  less  the  British 

Government issued a white paper which became basis for Govt of India Act 1935.

Individual Civil Disobedience was launched in 1933

Congress Socialist

Party 1934

founded  in  1934  by  Jai  Praksh  Narain  &  Acharya  Narendra  Deva  within  the

Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the Communist

Party of India's loyalty to the USSR as well as the anti-rational mysticism of

Mohandas Gandhi. Although a socialist, Jawaharlal Nehru did not join the CSP.

After independence, the CSP broke away from Congress, under the influence of JP

Narayan and Basawon Singh (Sinha), to form the Socialist Party of India.

August Offer 1940

Envisaged that after the war a representative body of Indians would be set up to

frame the new constitution.

Individual

Satyagraha 1940

Started in October 1940. In it Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Nehru & Brahma Dutt were

the first 3 satyagrahis.

Cripps Mission

1942

Viceroy  Lord  Linlithgow  expanded  is  Executive  council  by  taking  five  more

Indians into it. The Indians were dissatisfied as it did not like the rights of the

princely states to join or stay out of the Indian constitution. The demand for Pak

also not considered leading to Muslim league rejecting the plan.

Quit India

Movement

1942-44

The fear of an impending Japanese invasion Gandhi launched this campaign. In

the midst the government arrested all Indian leaders – Gandhi at Poona, others at

Ahmadnagar fort. Rajendra Prasad was interned in Patna. The Congress Socialist

Party  whith  its  leaders  like  Ram  Manohar  Lohia,  Achyuta  Patwardhan  played

important role. Communist Party remained loyal to the British. The Muslims by &

large remained indifferent.

INA

Captain Mohan Singh founded it in 1942. In 1943 he reached Singapore & gave a

the cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the president of the Indian Independence

League.  The  name  of  the  brigades  were  Subhash,  Gandhi,  Nehru  &  Rani

Lakshmibai. In Nov 1943, Japan handed over Andamans & Nicobar Islands to

him. He named the Shaheed Island & Swaraj Island respectively. The army

marched towards imphal after registering victory over Kohima. But later Japan

accepted defeat & Subhas died in a plain crash after crossing Formosa Island.

C.R. Formula 1944

To resolve the constitutional impasse Rajagopalachari evolved a formula in March

1944. But it was rejected by Jinnah who would not settle without Pakistan.

Wavell Plan &

Shimla Conference

1945

The main provisions were akin to Cripps mission proposals. It essentially dealt

with  the  Indian  demand  of  self-rule  &  reconstitution  of  viceroy’s  executive

council  giving  a  balanced  representation  to  the  major  communities.  Executive

council  was  an  interim  arrangement  in  which  all  but  the  Viceory  &  the

Commander in Chief were to be Indians & all portfolios except defence were to be

held by Indian members. Conference broke down because of Jinnah’s insistence

that Muslim league alone represented Indian Muslims & hence no non league

muslim members could be nominated to viceroy’s council.

Cabinet Mission

1946

Pathick Lawrence (secretary of state for India), Stafford Cripps & A.B. Alexander.

Jinnah stuck his demand for Pakistan. It proposed the formation of Union of India

comprising  both  British  India  &  princely  states  (only  foreign,  defence  &

Communication).  A  constitutional  assembly  was  to  be  formed  consisting  of

representatives of Provincial assemblies & princely states, elected on communal

basis in proportion to the population of each province. Envisaged interim govt &

said that until the constitution is framed & the govt estd British forces will not

withdraw. The Congress & Muslim league accepted it in June 1946.

Elections

Following cabinet mission elections were held. Congress secured 205 out of 214  general seats & had support of 4 sikh members. The Muslim league got 73 out of 78  Muslim  seats.  Jinnah became greatly disturbed by the election results.  He demanded separate constituent assembly & started instigating violent action. Later 16  August  1946  was  fixed  as  direct  action  day to withdraw its  acceptance  of cabinet mission plan. Communal  riots  broke  out  in  Bengal,  United  Province, Punjab, Sindh & NWFP. Interim government was formed with Jawahar Nehru as head& 14 members – 6 congress, 5 League, one each Christian, Sikh & Parsi. However Muslim league kept out of the Interim government.

INA Trails

Held at Red Fort in Delhi. Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of three senior INA officers, Shahnawaz khan, P.M. Sehgal & G.S. Gurudayal Dhillon led to their acquittal.

RIN Mutiny 1946

Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy mutined. Around 5000 naval ratings put up INA badges.

Mountbatten Plan

Mountbatten came to India as Viceroy. He put forth the plan of partition of India in 3 June 1947. Punjab & Bengla would be divided into two parts with muslim & non muslim majority. Baluchistan had the right to determine which side to join. The power would be transferred on 15 August 1947. Referendum were to be held in NWFP, Sylhet (to join Assam or East Bengal). Legislative assembly of Sindh was to decide whether to join India or not.

Indian Independece

Act 1947

The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence act on 18th    July 1947. Partition on 15thAugust. The act provided separate governor generals for the two dominions.  Abolition  of  the  post  of  secretary  of  state  for  India.   Pending  the adoption  of  new  constitution,  the  administration  of  the  two  dominions  &  the provinces  would  be  carried  on  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the government of India act 1935 though special powers of the Governor General & the Provincial governors  would  be  ceased.  Jinnah  became  the  first  governor general of Pakistan.

Unification Drive

On 5th July 1947, Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the Indian provinces to handover. He followed up his appeal with a hurricane tour of 40 days in which he invited all the native princes to join the Indian union by 5th  August. In Kashmir Hari Singh sent  his  PM  Meharchand  Mahajan  with  the  signed  papers  for  the  merger.  In Hyderabad  the  nawab  wanted  to  continue  his  arbitary  rule  with  the  help  of Rajakars. Finally after military action, Rajakars were expelled & the instrument of accession signed.

Pondicherry & Goa

The  other  French  territories  were  Karaikal,  Mahe,Yanam  &  Chandernagore. Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite. In 1954 all the French possession in India were formally handed over to India though the legal transfer took place in 1962. Operation ‘Vijay’ was carried out for the liberation of Goa when satyagraha failed in 1961. It became a state in 1987.

 

Social Reformers & Their Work

Rajaram Mohun

Roy

Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta Alongwith David Hare.

Maharishi

Devendranath

Tagore

The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj members.  He  din’t  perform  his  fathers  antyeshti  samskara  as  it  involved  idol worship.

Keshav Chandra Sen

He was greatly inspired with the lives of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ & hence he  came in confrontation with Devendranath Tagore. Consequently the Brahmo Samaj was split into the Brahmo Samaj of India under him & Adi Brahmo Samaj under Devendranath. He opposed child marriage but married her own minor daughter to Maharaja of Cooch-Behar. Hence there was a further split into Neo Brahmo Samaj under him & Sadharan Brahmo Samaj

Ishwar Chandra

Vidyasagar

Became principal of Sanskrit college in Calcutta. Opened the Sanskrit college for non  Brahmin  students.  He  founded  ‘Bethune  School  at  Calcutta’  to  encourage female education.

Bankim Chandra

First graduate of Calcutta University which was estd in 1857 based on the lines of Macaulay Minute. He became a deputy collector. Wrote the famous Bande Matram (Anand Math) & published Banga Darshan magazine.

Ramakrishna

Paramhamsa

Became a priest in the temple of Goddess Kali at Dakshineshwar. (1836-86)

Swami

Vivekanand

(1863-1902)

In 1893 he attened the Parliament of Religions at Chicago. In 1897 he established

the  Ramakrishna  Mission.  His  disciple,  Sister  Nivedita  even  helped  many

revolutionaries from Bengal directly.

Swami Dayananda

1824-83

Known in early life as Mul Shankar & born in Gujarat. Received his education at the feet of Swami Virajananda at Mathura. Founded Arya Samaj in 1875 based on a set of 28 principles (later 10). He estd the HQ of Arya Samaj at Lahore. Passed away on Diwali at Jodhpur following the mixing of glass powder in his drink.

Through his Satyartha Prakasha he emphasized Vedas. He laid emphasis on the worship  of  a  formless  god  &  abandonment  of  idolatory.  He  emphasized  on Ashrama system of education. He stressed on swadeshi, swadharma, swabhasha & swarajya. He considered Vedas as infallible.

Jyotibha Phule

In  1873  he  founded  Satya  Shodhak  Samaj.  Gave  testimony  before  Hunter

Commission against Christian missionaries. Later given the title ‘Mahatma’.

Sayyid Ahmad

Khan

In 1875 founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh which later

became Aligarh University. Opposed polygamy, purdah, abolition of the practice of

easy divorce, reform in madrasa.

Freedom Fighters

Lokmanya Tilak

1856-1920

Lala Lajpat Rai

Introduced the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi & Shivaji festivals. Paticipated in Home Rule Movement in 1916. Called by Britishers as ‘Biggest Traitor’ & ‘Father of Indian dissatisfaction’ Sher-e-Punjab. Was sent to Jail at Mandey on the charges of seditious activities.

Sri Aurobindo

Ghosh

His development of National education & editing of Bande Mataram (started by Bipin Chandra Pal) gave momentum to Bengal partition movement. Left Baroda to

work in the National College in Calcutta.

Chapekar Brothers

Chapekar Brothers - Damodar & Balakrishna. Killed two British officials Rand &

Aryst. Celcbrated Shivaji & Ganesh Utsavs.

Savarkar Brothers

Ganesh  Savarkar,  Vinayak  Damodar  Savarkar  &   arayana  Savarkar.  V.D. Savarkar organized the New India Association in London. Organizing lectures at the  India  House  founded  by  Shyamji  Krishna  Verma.  He  was  linked  to  the

assassination  of  Jackson  at  Aurangabad.  Sentenced  to  imprisonment  in  the Andamans from 1911-24.

Shyamji Krishna

Verma

India  House  had  become  centre  of  V.D  Savarkar,  Sardar  Singh  Rana,  Madam Bhikaji kama & Madan Lal Dhingra.

Madam Kama

Represented India in the International Conference at Stutteguard in Germany.

Madan Lal

Dhingra

He short dead the assistant of the Secretary of State Curzon Wyllie. Gopal Krishna Gokhale clled it as a heinous act meant to spoil the name of India.

Chandra Shekhar

Azad

Involved in the assassination of Saunders (officer who ordered the Lathi Charge in which Lala Lajpat was killed), alongwith Bhagat Singh & Rajguru. He had chalked out a plan to blow up the train in which the Viceroy Lord Irwin was traveling. He was killed in a police encounter  at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Harkishen Talwar

Shot  the  Governor  of  Punjab  but  the  latter  escaped  with  injuries  only  Later Harkishen was hanged.

Bhagat Singh

In association with Chhabil Das & Yashpal he had founded the Punjab Naujavan Bharat Sabha

Rani Gaidinliu Lead the Nagas in the revolt. Yadunaga was the other leader.

Subhas Chandra

Bose

Passed  the Civils  in  1920 but  preferred to  serve  the  nationalist  cause. He  was elected  the  Mayor  of  Calcutta  in  1923  but  soon  arrested  &  sent  to  Mandalay. Elected President at the Haripura session of Congress in 1938. He left for Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram. From there he went to Germany & met Hitler. He was first addressed as Netaji in Germany.

Udham Singh

Whilst living in England in 1940, Singh shot dead Sir Michael O'Dwyer, former Governor General of the Punjab.

 

Major Armed Uprising

Wahabi

Movement

Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim

society& convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.

Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid.

Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province).

Kuka

Movement

Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called Namdhari Mission.

Bhai Ram Singh asked his followers to worship cow & run langars, wear white clothes

& not use any foreign commodity or service. Bhai Ram Singh was deported to Burma.

Santhal

Rebellion

1855-56

Siddhu, Khanhu, Chand & Bhareo (four sons of Chulu Santhal of Raj Mahal district).

Under the Permanent Settlement of 1793 the lands of Santhal passed to Zamidars &

later to European Indigo planters. 10,000 santhals were killed in this rebellion. After

this the area was put under the direct control of the Governor General & was named

Santhal Paragana.

Vasudeo Balwant Phadke was born in Maharashtra. He left the army & became a revolutionary. Later deported to Aden & died in 1883. He may be justly called the father of militant nationalism in India.

Kisan

Movements

Launched by Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh. The passing of the 1906 Punjab Land Revenue Act & heavy increase in water tax caused panic. The poem of Banke Dayal, ‘Pagri Sambhal O Jatta’ became famous. Lala & Ajit Singh were sentenced to 6 months  prison. Later the DSP of Layalpur Clough was assassinated. Ajit Singh escaped to France while Bhai Parmanand’s house search yielded a book on bomb making.

Moplah

Rebellion

Khilafat movement in Malabar incited communal feelings in Muslim peasants directed

towards Hindu land holders

 

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