6. Short Notes for Important Articles and Points; Miscellaneous Facts Notes | Study RAS RPSC Prelims Preparation - Notes, Study Material & Tests - UPSC

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Short Notes for Important Articles and Points


Parts of the Constitution






The Union & its Territories






Fundamental Rights



Directive Principles of State Policy



Fundamental Duties (42nd Amendment)



The Union Government



The State Government



Dealt with states in Part B of the First Schedule. Repealed in 1956 by the



Seventh Amendment.



Union Territories. Article 242 repealed.


243 A-O

The Panchayats


243 P-ZG

The Municipalities


244-244 A

The Scheduled & Tribal Areas



Relations between the Union & the States



Finance, Property, Contracts & Suits



Trade, Commerce & Intercouse within the territory of India



Services under the Union & the States



Administrative Tribunals (42nd Amendment 1976)






Special Provisions (Reservations of SC, ST, Anglo Indian etc.)



Official Language



Emergency Provisions



Miscellaneous Provisions (Immunity of President, Legislature etc.)



Amendment of the Constitution



Temporary, Transitional & Special Provision



Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative



Schedules of the Constitution

Schedule I

Deals with territories of the 28 states & 7 union territories

Schedule II

Salaries allowances of president, V.P, Speaker, Judges, CAG etc.

Schedule III

Various forms of Oaths & affirmation which various incumbents have to take.

Schedule IV

Seats allotted to various states & UTs in the Rajya Sabha (Council of States)

Schedule V

Administration & Control of scheduled areas.

Schedule VI

Administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya & Mizoram

Schedule VII

Subjects in the three lists – Union, State & Concurrent

Schedule VIII

List of 22 regional languages

Schedule IX

Certain acts & regulations dealing with land reforms & zamidari system abolition.


((Added by first constitutional amendment).

Schedule X

Disqualifications on grounds of defection. (52nd Amendment)

Schedule XI

29 subjects on which panchayats can legislate. (73rd Amendment)

Schedule XII

18 subjects on which municipalities have control. (74th Amendment)




Indian Constitution Borrowed Features


British Constitution

Parliamentary form of Government, Rule of Law, Law making



procedure, Single Citizenship; Institution of Speaker, doctrine of



Pleasure tenure of civil servants.


American Constitution

Judicial System, Fundamental Rights


Canadian Constitution

Federal System with a strong central authority; Residual powers,



Centre State Relation.


Irish Constitution

Directive Principles, Election of the President of India


Australian Constitution

Concurrent list; Freedom of Trade & Service within country


Weimar Constitution

Emergency Provision


Soviet Constitution

Five Year Plans; Fundamental duties


Govt of India Act 1935

Office of the governor, powers of the federal jury.


South African

Amendment of Constitution.





Important Cases of the Constitution


Berubari Case

Preamble not a part of the constitution


Golaknath Case

Supreme court held that the Parliament had no power to amend any of the



provisions of Part III (Fundamental rights) The Indira Gandhi government



in 1971 carried out the 24th Amendment with a view to assert the right of



The parliament to amend any part of the constitution.


Keshvanada Bharti

Preamble was a part of the constitution & can be amended by Parliament



Under Article 368. Parliament can also amend the fundamental rights



(Against Golaknath case) but ruled that the parliament cannot destroy the



Basic structure of the constitution.


Minerval Mills Case

The 42nd.amendment carried out in 1976 gave asserted that parliament had



unlimited powers to amend the constitution & tried to accord precedence to



Directive principles over fundamental rights. But in the Minerva Mills



Case the Supreme court struck down those provisions


Maneka Gandhi Vs

Right to live is not merely confined to physical existence but includes


Union of India

within its ambit the right to live with human dignity



We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens:

Justice, social, economic and political;

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

Equality of status and of opportunity;

And to promote among them all

Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

In our constituent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.




Reorganization of States


1956 Act

14 States & 6 Union territories formed.



States - Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Bombay, J&K, Kerala, M.P., Madras,



Mysore, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, U.P & West Bengal.



UTs – Andaman & Nicobar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Laccadive, Minicoy &



Amindivi Islands, Manipur & Tripura



The states of Maharashtra & Gujarat created by bifurcating the state of Bombay.



Nagaland formed



Punjab & Haryana formed out of Punjab & hill areas merged with H.P (UT then).



Meghalaya created out of Assam.



Himachal Pradesh, Tripura & Manipur raised to the status of a state



Sikkim admitted as a state.



Mizoram & Arunachal Pradesh (UTs till then) given status of state



Goa created by separating it from the UT of Daman & Diu.



Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand & Uttaranchal



Various Political/Non Political Offices of India


Name proposed by 50 electors & security deposit of Rs 15000.Disputes  in


Connection with the election of President are decided by Supreme Court. Oath by


Chief justice of India. MLAs & members of both house of the parliament vote in the


Election. The president submits his resignation to the Vice President. Impeachment


Can be initiated by either house of parliament (2/3 majority). Nominated members can


Also participate but they do not participate in the election of president. MLAs do not


participate in impeachment. In case the office becomes vacant fresh elections within


6 months. The president enjoys sus pensive veto powers & it applies only to the non


money  bills.  With  regards  to  constitutional  amendments  president  has  no  veto


powers. President can promulgate ordinances when the parliament is in recess only


on  matters  in  the  union  &  concurrent  list.  The  ordinances  must  be  approved  by


parliament within 6 weeks. All money bills originate on the recommendation of the


President. Appoints finance commission. If there is no party with clear cut majority


the president can use his discretion. He cannot declare any emergency on his own.


Can summon both houses separately.

Vice President

Name seconded by at least 25 members & security deposit of 15,000. More than 35


years of age. Elected by the members of Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha at a joint meeting.


Oath  before  the  president  or  some  other  person  appointed  by  him.  Can  act  as


President for a maximum 6 months period. Not a member of Rajya sabha only an ex-


Officio chairman.

Prime Minister

Gets the same salary & allowances as MPs but additional sumptuary allowance of


3000 per month.  If the prime minister is taken from Rajya Sabha he cannot part in


voting when a vote of no confidence is under consideration. In the event of his death


the council of ministers stand automatically dissolved.

Deputy PM

Position not known to the constitution although 7 persons have occupies this post.


Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, Charan Singh, Jajuan Ram, Y.B Chavan, Devi


Lal & L. K. Advani have served the office.

Council of

Should be a member of either house or do so within 6 months. Vote of no confidence


against any minister leads to resignation of entire council. The cabinet, state & deputy


ministers get sumptuary allowance of 2000, 1000 & 600 respectively. Present the


budget before the parliament. Collectively responsible to parliament but individual


ministers responsible to President.

Lok Sabha

Strength  of  Lok  Sabha  fixed  at  543  plus  2  nominated  members  of  Anglo-Indian


community  in  1976.  Minimum 25 years  of  age.  The  security  deposit  has  been


increased from Rs 500 to Rs 10,000. In case of SC/ST it has been increased from Rs


250 to Rs 5000. 10 electors should propose. No candidate can contest elections from


more than 2 constituencies. Oath before president or some person appointed by him.


Can vacant seat by writing to speaker. Seat vacant if absents from meetings for 60


days without intimation. The speaker continues in the house even after the dissolution


of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets. MPs are entitled to a monthly


salary of Rs 12000 & pension of 3000 which increases according to the number of


years served. The joint session is called if a bill passed is rejected by other house or


no action is taken. Speaker presides over joint sessions.

Rajya Sabha

238 elected & 12 nominated. Minimum 30 years of age. Elected by members of state


legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation through a single


Transferable vote. It is not subjected to dissolution. In the event of dissolution of Lok


Sabha, any bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by Lok Sabha does not



Supreme Court

5 years as high court judge or 10 years as advocate. Hold office till the age of 65.


Address their resignation to president. The salaries of chief justice & other judges are


33000 & 30,000 respectively. Impeachment requires 2/3rd majority in the two houses


of the  parliament.  Original  Jurisdiction  (Centre-state  &  fundamental  rights),


Appellate jurisdiction (Only if high court certifies or the high court has awarded


death sentence after reversing judgement or after withdrawing case from lower court


& Advisory jurisdiction.


Oath  before  chief  justice  of  high  court  of  that  state.  35 years of age.  Draws


36000. Addresses first session of state legislature after elections. Appoint one sixth


 members of legislative council. Nominates one member of Anglo Indian community


to the legislative assembly. Makes laws through ordinances. Can grant pardon but not


in case of death sentence. Reserve a bill for president’s consideration. He is permitted


to  act  without  the  advice  of  the  council  of  ministers  unlike  president.  Ordinance


issued by him remains in force for a maximum 6 months. The constitution does not


contain any provision for his impeachment.


Person  who  is  qualified  to  be  a  judge  of  the  high  court.  Remunerations  as  the


governor may determine.


60 to 500 members according to population but Sikkim has only 32 members. 25


years of age. Goa, Mizoram, Pondicherry have only 30 members.


Its members are elected by legislative assembly (1/3rd) local bodies (1/3rd), teachers


(1/12th), university graduates (1/12th) & nominated by governor (1/6th).  The


maximum membership can be 1/3rd  that of Legislative Assembly but in no case less


than 40 members. 30 years of age. The legislative council can delay an ordinary bill


for 3 months & a money bill for 14 days. There is no provision for joint sitting here.

High Court

To become a judge – advocate for 10 years or held judicial office in Indian Territory


for a period of at least 10 years. 62 years of age. Chief justice gets 30,000 & other


judges 26000. The pension of the high court judges is charged to the Consolidated


fund of India.


Incorporated by 42nd amendment through addition of articles 323A & 323B. CAT is


located at Delhi. The retirement of chairman & VC at 65 & others at 62. The decision


of CAT can be challenged in a high court.

Inter State

Created on the recommendations of the Sarkaria commission although constitution


provided for it. Appointed by president. Advises on disputes between various states.


Comprises of PM & CMs of all states & UTs. PM  can nominate  6 ministers of


cabinet rank. Meets at least 3 times a year.

Zonal Council

Set up under state reorganization act 1956. 5 before & 6th  added in 1972 called NE


council. Consists of Union minister nominated by president, CM of each state in the


zone, two ministers from each state nominated by governor & one member per UT.


The CM of the state where the zonal council meets is the ex-officio chairman.


Chairman & 8 members. Members appointed for a 6 year term or till they attain 65


years of age. President can issue orders for the removal of the members of the UPSC


only after supreme court makes such recommendation on the basis of an enquiry.


Members not eligible for employment by the government after retirement. The state


can restrict the fundamental rights of civil servants.

Comptroller &

6  years  or  till  the  age  of  65  years.  The  president  can  remove  CAG  only  after


recommendation of the two houses of parliament. Salary of 30,000. He only conducts


audit. Submits report to President who in turn places it before parliament.


Qualification  same  as  judge  of  supreme  court.  Appears  before  supreme  court  &


various high courts involving the Government of India.


Two  commissioners  with  equivalent  power.  Period of 5 years.  Job  also  includes


delimitation of constituency to ensure same number of people in each. The election


commission of India appoints the ‘Returning officers’ for the state assembly elections


to help conduct fair elections. Election of local bodies comes under state election


commission.  The  state  election  commission  is  a  single  member  commission


comprising SEC.


Qualified to be appointed as judges of the high court or special knowledge of finance


& accounts of government. Comprises chairman & four other members. Functions:-


recommend  distribution  of  taxes  between  centre  &  states,  grant-in-aid  to  states,


advice president on any matter.


Non-statutory body which formulates 5 year plans. The Commission works through


its  various  divisions,  of  which  there  are  three  kind:  General  Planning  Divisions,


Special Planning Divisions, Programme Administration Divisions


Extra constitutional & extra-legal body. Its recommendations are binding in nature as


per convention.


Seven members. The states of M.P, Orissa & Bihar are obliged to appoint a separate


minister the welfare of SC/ST/OBC.


Statutory body.


Panchayat is responsible to gram sabha, the general body of villagers comprising all


adults. Members usually range from 5 to 31. Members have same requirements as


MLAs except lower age of 21. Can legislate on 29 subjects which are listed in XI




Genearlly  comprises  of  the  sarpanches  of  village  panchayats  under  the  block.  Its


Chairman called ‘Pradhan’ is elected from among its members. Responsible to gram


panchayat as well as gram sabhas. Gets a share of cess of land revenue from the gram


panchayat & Zilla Parishad

Zila Parishad

Consists of representatives of panchayat samiti, local members of state legislature,


members of parliament,  members  representing  SC/ST/Women/cooperative  bodies.


Zilla  parishad  elects  its  chairman  called  ‘Pradhan’  form  amongst  its  members.


Depends entirely on state government for grants.



Constitution of India (Up to Part IV)

Part I

The Union and its Territory

Article 1

Name and territory of the Union

Article 2

Admission or establishment of new States

Article 2a

[Repealed] Sikkim to be associated with the Union

Article 3

Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States

Article 4

Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the


Fourth Schedule and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters

Part II


Article 5

Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution

Article 6

Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan

Article 7

Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan

Article 8

Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India

Article 9

Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens

Article 10

Continuance of the rights of citizenship

Article 11

Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law

Part III

Fundamental Rights

Article 12


Article 13

Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Article 14

Equality before law meaning ‘equality of treatment within a class’

Article 15

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

Article 16

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

Article 17

Abolition of Untouchability

Article 18

Abolition of titles

Article 19

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

Article 20

Protection in respect of conviction for offenses

Article 21

Protection of life and personal liberty

Article 21A

Right to education.

Article 22

Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Article 23

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Article 24

Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Article 25

Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion

Article 26

Freedom to manage religious affairs

Article 27

Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Article 28

Freedom  as  to  attendance  at  religious  instruction  or  religious  worship  in  certain


educational institutions

Article 29

Protection of interests of minorities

Article 30

Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

Article 31

[Repealed] Compulsory acquisition of property

Article 31A

Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.

Article 31B

Validation of certain Acts and Regulations

Article 31C

Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles

Article 31D

[Repealed] Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities

Article 32

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part

Article 32A


Article 33

Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to


Forces, etc.

Article 34

Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while marital law is in force in any area

Article 35

Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part

Part IV

Directive Principles of State Policy

Article 36


Article 37

Application of the principles contained in this Part

Article 38

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people

Article 39

Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State

Article 39A

A Equal justice and free legal aid

Article 40

Organisation of village panchayats

Article 41

Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases

Article 42

Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief

Article 43

Living wage, etc., for workers

Article 43A

Participation of workers in management of industries

Article 44

Uniform civil code for the citizen

Article 45

Provision for free and compulsory education for children

Article 46

Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes


and other weaker sections

Article 47

Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve


public health

Article 48

Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry

Article 48A

Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life

Article 49

Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance

Article 50

Separation of judiciary from executive

Article 51

Promotion of international peace and security

Article 51A

Fundamental Duties


Parliamentary Committees


Business Advisory Committee

15 members. Speaker is chairman


Committee on Private Members Bills &

15   members.   Deputy   Chairman   is   chairman.



Classifies bills according to importance.


Select Committees

Constituted for considering different bills.


Committee on Petitions

15 members.


Rules Committee

15 members. Speaker is head. Rules of House


Committee on Privileges

15 members. Violation of Privileges of M.P


Committee on Subordinate Legislations



Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes

30 Members. 20 M.Ps & 10 R.S.


& Scheduled Tribes



Committee on Government Assurances

15 members.  How  far  assurances  given  by  the



ministers have been implemented


Committee on Absence of Members

Examines leave applications of members


Estimates Committee

30   members.   Examines   Annual   Estimates   &



suggests alternative policies


Public Accounts Committee

22 members. 15M.Ps & 7 R.S. Assisted  by



Comptroller & Auditor general. It acts as a watch



dog of expenditure.


Committee on Public Undertakings

15 members. 10 M.Ps & 5 R.S. Examines working



of public undertakings


Joint Committee on Salaries & Allowances

15 members. 10 nominated by speaker & 5 by the



chairman of Rajya Sabha.


Joint Committee on Offices of Profit

15 members. 10 L.S & 5 R.S.


Parliamentary Subject Committees

17 parliamentary committees were constituted. 11



by Speaker &  6 by chairman of Rajya Sabha




Parliamentary Terms


Question Hour

First hour of every sitting in the two houses of the parliament is devoted to



asking & answering questions known as Question hour. The questions



consist of starred (oral), unstarred (written) & short notice question.


Zero Hour

The hour after the question hour. There is no mention of zero hour in the



rules of the parliamentary procedure & the term was coined by press in the



early 1960’s.  Members raise matters which cannot brook any delay.


Adjournment Motion

Moved to draw the attention to a recent matter of urgent public importance.



Only if 50 members support it & speaker grants permission.


Calling Attention

A member with prior attention of the speaker may call the attention of a



minister to a matter of urgent public importance.


Short Duration

Private members can also bring matters of urgent public importance to the



notice of the House. The notice must be signed by at least 3 members


Cut Motion

Motions to reduce the amount of demand for grants. They are of 3 types:



Disapproval of policy cut, Economy cut, Token Cut.



When the discussion cannot be completed within stipulated time, the



speaker can put the matter to vote even without concluding discussion.


Censure Motion

At least 50 members support it & speaker should admit it. If the motion is



passed in the Lok Sabha, the council of ministers have to resign.


By Elections

To fill up the seat rendered vacant due to death.



Union List (99)

Foreign  affairs,  currency,  banking,  communication,  inter-state



trade,   commerce,   atomic   energy,   railways,   highways,   aerodromes.



[Originally 97 items – one deleted, 3 added]


State List (61)

Health,  sanitation,  public  order,  agriculture,  prisons,  local  government,



liquor,  transportation,  relief  of  disabled,  sales  tax  &  octroi,  taxes  on



entertainment & wealth. [Originally 66 items out of which 5 transferred to



concurrent list].


Concurrent list (52)

Criminal law, electricity, factories, forests, education, marriage & divorce,



drugs, newspapers, books & printing press, social insurance, trade unions,



preventive detention, stamp duties. [Originally 47 but 5 items transferred to



this list from state list]

Commissions/committees & their Purpose


S.K Dhar committee

Reorganization of states on linguistic basis


JVP committee

Jawaharlal, Vallabh, Pattabhi Sitaramayya (same as above)


Shah Commission

Punjab Reorganization Act


Tarkunde Committee

Electoral Reforms. Voting age to be reduced to 18 years (61st



amendment). Voter councils to be formed.


Dinesh Goswami

Electoral Reforms. To save the security candidates should secure



at least 1/4th of valid votes.



Balwant Rai Mehta

Recommendations approved by NDC. Rajasthan first adopted 3



tier structure, followed by Andhra Pradesh & Bihar.


Ashok Mehta Committee

Working of panchayati raj institutions.


Rajamannar Commission

Recommended abolition of IAS & the IPS



Select Political Doctrines & Principles

The Doctrine Of

Idea that when the legislature wants to do something that it cannot do


within the constraints of the constitution, it colours the law with a


substitute purpose which will still allow it to accomplish its original goal.

Pith And Substance

Interpretation used to determine under which head of power a given piece


of legislation falls. The doctrine is primarily used when a law is


challenged on the basis that one level of government (be it provincial or


federal) has encroached upon the exclusive jurisdiction of another level of



Doctrine of Severability

Associated with declaration of law as unconstitutional & void by the



Principle of Harmonious

Concerned with the relationship between the fundamental rights & the


directive principles.


Miscellaneous Facts

  1. The idea of a constituent assembly to frame a constitution for India was first mooted by the Swaraja Party in 1928. Dr. Sachhidanand Sinha was the Provincial president of the assembly that drafted the Indian constitution later Rajendra Prasad took over. The constituent assembly set up 13 committees for framing the constitution. On the basis of the reports, a draft of the constitution was prepared by a seven member drafting committee under the chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. B.N. Rau acted as the constitutional advisor to the constituent assembly. The preamble was proposed before the drafting committee by J.L. Nehru.
  2. While dealing with the reorganization of princely states, the constitution provided a four-fold distribution of states, viz. A, B, C & D. Part A states comprised of nine erstwhile states under the government of British India. Part B comprised of five princely states with legislatures. Part C of five centrally administered areas & Part D comprised of Andaman & Nicobar.
  3. The citizenship act of 1955 was first amended in 1986 & later in 2003. In 2003 a new law was passed which permits PIO residing in 16 countries to have dual citizenship status. This will enable them to participate in economic activities & real estate. However they cannot participate in elections.
  4. The right to property (Article 31) eliminated from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment in 1978. Now it is a constitutional right.
  5. The writ of Prohibition is available during the period when the proceedings are pending & the final order is not made. Certiorari (meaning ‘to be informed’) can be issued only after the final order has been made.
  6. Right to education is granted by the 86th amendment carried out in 2002. Under this the government shall provide free & compulsory education to all children from the age of 6 to 14. The right to information has been granted to the citizens under the information act 2002.
  7. In 1976 the delimitation of constituencies was freezed on the basis of the 1971 census up to 2001. In 2002 the 84th amendment extended the freeze up to 2026.
  8. The Parliament can also legislate on subjects in the state list if (a) the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by 2/3rd majority (b.) if the legislatures of two or more states recommend to parliament (c) For the implementation of treaty with foreign powers (d) during emergency.
  9. The stages of bill introduction are first reading, publishing in gazette, second reading, referred to committee, committee submits its report with recommendations (amendments can be introduced here) & third reading involving formal voting to accept or reject the bill (No amendments possible here).
  10. The final decision whether a bill is a money bill or not rests with the speaker. Rajya Sabha can delay money bill only by 14 days.
  11. Vote of Account is a provision to meet the expenses due the gap between the presentation & passage of the budget. Normally vote of account is taken as two months for a sum equivalent to one-sixth of the estimated expenditure of the whole financial year.
  12. The government is collectively responsible only to the Lok Sabha.
  13. In the appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court & the high courts, the president is bound t act in accordance with the opinion of the Chief Justice of India who would tender his opinion after consulting his colleagues.
  14. The court appoints its officer & servants in consultation with the UPSC.
  15. Bihar, J&K, Karnataka, Maharashtra & U.P are the only states with bicameral legislature.
  16. Family Courts, Lok Adalats (under State Legal Aid & Advice Boards) & Nyaya Panchayat are other judicial bodies.
  17. The administrators are known as lieutenant governors (Daman & Pondicherry), Chief commissioners (Andaman & Chandigarh) & as administrators (Lakshadweep)
  18. In UTs with legislative assembly the right to legislate on subjects enumerated in the state list & concurrent list vests with the assembly but for other UTs parliament enacts the laws.
  19. The constitution has made special provision for the administration of scheduled areas in a state other than Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura & Mizoram. The right to declare any area as scheduled area rests with the President & is subject to legislation by the parliament.
  20. Comptroller & auditor general looks after the accounts of both the centre & the state.
  21. In case the law is passed by the state legislature & received the approval of the President before the enactment of law on the same subject by the Parliament, the former prevails.
  22. Sark aria commission’s recommendations included inter-governmental council formation, sparing use of article 356, and governor post/All India services/NDC to continue.
  23. National Emergency: The proclamation of emergency should be approved by both houses within one month of the date of issue & passed by 2/3rd majority otherwise ceases to operate in one month. Once it has been approved it remains in force for a period of 6 months. The life of Lok Sabha can be extended up to one year at a time & up to the period not exceeding beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. Fundamental rights except guaranteed in article 20 & 21 cannot be suspended. Emergency was form 1962-68 & 1971-78. However according to 44th amendment, national emergency cannot be declared on grounds of internal disturbances.
  24. Emergency due to constitutional failure in state: Ceases to be in operation after the expiry of two months unless approved by each house. After approval valid for 6 months. It can be extended by parliament for a further period of 6 months. To extend further election commission should certify & still maximum period is 3 years. Declared more than 100 times, first time in Punjab. The court can strike down emergency if found unconstitutional & revive the dissolved state assembly.
  25. Financial Emergency: Remains in force for a period of 2 months unless approved. After approval 6 months. The maximum period is 3 years. President can reduce salary of judges of all courts & ask all money bills passed by state legislature to be reserved.
  26. Initially the constitution recognized 14 regional languages which were Hindi, Sanskrit, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Bengali, Assamese, Punjabi, and Kashmiri. Sindhi was added through 21st amendment. In 1992 three additional languages – Konkani, Manipuri & Nepali were added by 71st amendment. In 2003 four more languages – Bode, Maithili, Santali & Dogri were added to the eighth schedule raising the number to 22.
  27. Special Provisions for J&K: Directive principles & fundamental duties do not apply. High court of J&K enjoys very limited powers & cannot declare any law unconstitutional or issue writs except for enforcement of fundamental rights. Residuary powers rest with the state government. The V & VI schedule of constitution regarding scheduled areas & scheduled tribes not applicable. Assembly consists of 100 members & legislative council 36 members. Urdu is official language. The constitution was adopted on November 17, 1957. No emergency except that due to war/external aggression can be automatically extended to the state.
  28. Money comes to consolidated fund of India from revenues, fresh loans, and repayment of loans. Money can be spent out of this fund only after approval of parliament. Expenses charged on this fund include debt charges of GOI, sums payable due to court award & salaries of CAG, Auditor general, judges etc.
  29. Contingency fund is at the disposal of President & was constituted in 1950 by parliament. Expenses should be subsequently authorized by parliament. State govt contingency fund is with governor.
  30. The security deposit for general elections is Rs 10,000 & for reserved seats 5,000.
  31. The 52nd amendment added tenth schedule to the constitution which dealt with anti-defection. The final decision rested with speaker regarding defection, though it can be challenged in court.
  32. 6 all India party & over 40 regional parties. National party if it secures more 6 per cent of the votes polled in any four or more states. In addition it must win at least four seats in the House of the People or should have at least 2 percent of the Lok Sabha seats from at least three different states (ie 11 MPs). Regional party only six percent in a single state or at least 3 seats in the Assembly.
  33. 73rd amendment gave constitutional status to panchayati raj. If panchayat is dissolved before 5 years, fresh elections should be held within 6 months.
  34. Amendment normally needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass it. When Rajya Sabha disagrees with the proposals, the amendment bill is lost.
  35. Proportional representation with single transferable vote is followed in the elections of President, Vice President& Members of Rajya Sabha.
  36. The government of India instituted Bharat Ratna & Padma Shri under Article 18 of the constitution.
  37. The procedure of election of the President can be modified through an amendment passed by two-thirds majority by both the houses & be ratified by legislatures of at least half of the states.
  38. V.P Singh resigned after losing vote of no confidence in the Lok Sabha.
  39. Finance bill & appropriation bill are presented along with the budget. The recommendation of creation of new all India services is the exclusive power of Rajya Sabha. A member of the panel of chairman announced by the speaker presides over lok sabha if neither the speaker nor the depty speaker present.
  40. 30 seats are reserved for STs in the Lok Sabha.
  41. The concept of PIL originated in U.K. The number of judges of high court is determined by the President.
  42. The salary & emoluments of the president are exempt from income tax. This is not the case with chief justice of India & election commissioner.
  43. Disputes regarding the age of the judge of a high court shall be decided by the president in consultation with the Chief Justice of India. A bench consisting of five or more judges is called a full bench of the Supreme Court.
  44. National commission for SC & the State Election Commission are not statutory body. Keeping the units of Indian union under control & serving as the agents of the central government is not the purpose of All India services.
  45. Only war & external aggression can lead to suspension of fundamental rights under article 19. Armed rebellion does not cause the suspension.
  46. Provisions regarding citizenship & provisional parliament were given immediate effect from 26th November 1949. Elections & fundamental rights came later on 26th January 1950.
  47. Only when president’s rule is imposed, the parliament gests the exclusive authority to legislate on a subject under state list.
  48. When the three lists come in conflict, List-I has priority over both List II & List III. Further List III has priority over List II. The expression ‘Judicial review’ is not explicitly stated in the constitution & is implied. President of India is an integral part of the parliament.
  49. The following enjoy the rank of a cabinet minister: deputy chairperson of planning commission, Leader of opposition in Lok Sabha, Speaker of LS, and Chairman of Finance Commission. The following are special voters in the elections to the lok sabha & the assemblies – President, VP, Governors & Judges of the supreme court & high courts.
  50. Lok Sabha enjoys the powers to pass vote on account, votes of credit & exceptional grants.
  51. U.K has no written constitution. New Zealand was the first country to grant franchise to women.
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