6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

RAS RPSC Prelims Preparation - Notes, Study Material & Tests

Created by: Notes Wala

UPSC : 6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document 6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course RAS RPSC Prelims Preparation - Notes, Study Material & Tests.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

 

 

Tribes of the World

1.

Kalmuks

Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas - pastoral

2.

Kirghiz

Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs

3.

Gauchos

Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay.

4.

Mestizos

People of mixed white & Indian parentage

5.

Ostyaks

West Siberian tribe

6.

Pygmies

Congo basin – Zaire, Congo, Gabon.

7.

Boro

Amazon basin-sub group of red Indians.

8.

Semang

Malaysia

9.

Papuans

New Guinea

10.

Bushmen or San

Kalahari – Namibia, Botswana, Angola

11.

Bedouins

Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East

12.

Masai

East Africa – Kenya, Uganda

13.

Kirghiz

Central Asia. Muslim by faith

14.

Saami or Lapps

Norway, Sweden, Finland – Also known as Laplanders

15.

Yuti

Siberia

16.

Chukchi

Far Eastern Siberia

17.

Yakuts

Tundra region of Russia

18.

Aleut

Aleutian Islands

19.

Yuit

Siberia

20.

Inuit

Greenland, Canada & Siberia

21.

Samoyed

West Siberia

22.

Punan

Borneo

23.

Afrikaner/Boer

Dutch race in S. Africa

24.

Afridis

N. West Pakistan

25.

Veddas

Racial stock of Sri Lanka

26.

Bantus

Central & southern Africa – Swahili is Bantu derived language.

27.

Berbers

Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia

28.

Maori

New Zealand

29.

Bindibu

Western Australia

30.

Cossacks

Russia around black & Caspian Sea

31.

Magyar

Inhabitants of Hungary

32.

Croats

Croatia

33.

Flemish

Belgium

34.

Finns

European Tundra

35.

Hamites

N-W Africa – Dark skinned muslims

36.

Hottentots/khoi khoi

Tropical Africa

37.

Kaffris

S. Africa – known as martial race

38.

Kikuyu

Kenya’s most populous ethnic group

39.

Masuds

Waziristan region, Pakistan

40.

Mestizos

People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America

41.

Amerinds

N. America – People of mixed European & Indian blood

42.

Mulatto

Mixed European & black blood in South America

43.

Moors

Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco

43.

Semites

Jews & Ethiopians

44.

Tartar

Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia

45.

Zambas

People of African & Native American Indian in S. America

46.

Zulus

People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa

47.

Akka

Democratic republic of Congo

48.

Oromo or Galla

African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya

49.

Uygur

Turkic people inhabiting N-W china & Kazakhstan.

50.

Kubu

Inhabitants of Sumatra

51.

Fulani/Fula

Cattle herders of Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea or Chad

52.

Buryat

Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic.

53.

Aeta

Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous)

54.

Ainu

Caucasoids of Japan.

55.

Yanomamo

Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela

 

Largest Producers of Fish in the World

Country

Prod in Million tons

China

16.5

Peru

8

USA

4.9

Japan

4.7

Indonesia

4.2

WORLD

92.4

 

Worst deforestation rate of primary forests, 2000-2005

S.N

Country

Deforestation Rate %

1.

Nigeria

55.7

2.

Vietnam

54.5

3.

Cambodia

29.4

4.

Sri Lanka

15.2

5.

Malawi

14.9

6.

Indonesia

12.9

 

 

Total forest cover in hectares - 2005

1.

Russian Federation

808,790,000

2.

Brazil

477,698,000

3.

Canada

310,134,000

4.

United States of America

303,089,000

5.

China

197,290,000

 

 

Highest total forest cover as a percentage of total land cover, 2005

1.

Suriname

94.7

2.

French Guiana

91.8

3.

Micronesia (Federated States of)

90.6

4.

American Samoa

89.4

5.

Seychelles

88.9

 

 

 

Minerals & Their Ores

1.

Iron

Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe304), limonite & Siderite

2.

Nickel

Millerite, Pentlandite

3.

Manganese

Pyrolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane

4.

Antimony

Stibnite

5.

Titanium

Rutile

6.

Chromium

Chromite

7.

Uranium

Pitchblende (UO2)

8.

Lead

Galena

9.

Thorium

Thorianite, Monazite, Allanite, Ilemnite

10.

Zinc

Calamine, Sphalerite

11.

Mercury

Cinnabar

12.

Beryllium

Beryl, chrysoberyl

13.

Cobalt

Smalitite, Cobaltite

14.

Lithium

Spodumene

15.

Magnesium

Magnesite, Dolomite, Kieserite, Carnallite.

16.

Potassium

Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O)

17.

Silver

Argentite

18.

Sodium

Chile Saltpeter (NaNO3)

19.

Tin

Cassiterite

 

 

Major Discontinuities within the earth

1.

Conrad Discontinuity

Between outer & inner crust

2.

Mohorovicic Discontinuity

Between crust & mantle

3.

Repetti Discontinuity

Between outer & inner mantle

4.

Weichart-Gutenberg Discontinuity

Between mantle & core

5.

Lehmann Discontinuity

Between outer & inner core.

 

 

 

Important Mining Centers Of The World

1.

Cleveland

Iron Ore (U. K.)

2.

Ungava & Belle Island

Iron Ore (Canada)

3.

Carajas

Iron Ore (Brazil)

4.

Yampi Sound

Iron Ore (Australia)

5.

Paraburdoo

Iron Ore (Australia)

6.

Bilbao

Iron Ore (Spain)

7.

Nikopol

Largest manganese mines of world (Ukraine)

8.

Chuquicamata

copper (Chile)

9.

Morenci

Copper (Arizona - largest in US)

10.

El Chino

copper (New Mexico)

11.

Katanga

copper, cobalt, uranium, cadmium, tin, gold, silver (DMC)

12.

Mount Isa

Silver, lead, zinc & copper (Australia)

13.

Broken Hill

Silver, Lead & Zinc

14.

Witwatersrand

Gold (S. Africa)

15.

Kalgoorlie

Gold (Australia)

16.

Fushun

Manchuria (Coal)

17.

Donetz

Coal (Ukraine)

18.

Kuznetsk

Coal (Russia)

19.

Karaganda

Coal (Kazakhstan)

20.

Mesabi range

Iron ore (Northern Minnesota)

21.

Pittsburg

iron & steel capital of the world (Pennsylvania)

22.

Port Louis

Sugar industry (Mauritius)

23.

Anshan

iron & Steel (China)

24.

Lille

Textiles (France)

25.

Yallourn

Coal (Australia)

26.

Ipoh

Tin (Kinta Valley, Malaysia)

27.

Tula

Iron ore (near Moscow)

28.

Chiatura

Manganese (Georgia)

29.

Chilean desert

Caliche (Chile Saltpeter-NaNO3)

30.

Pilbara

Iron ore (Australia)

31.

Bomi Hill

Liberia (Iron Ore

32.

Niger

Uranium accounts for 75 per cent mineral export

33.

Montana

Copper ( USA)

34.

Kra Peninsula

Tin (Narrowest point of Malaysia)

35.

Iron Knob

Iron ore (Australia- Now almost exhausted)

36.

Minas Gerais

Iron Ore (Brazil)

37.

Jos Plateau

Tin (Nigeria)

38.

Ozark

Lead-Zinc Ores (USA)

39.

Bingham

Copper (United States largest mine)

40.

Chihuahua

Important mining town of Mexico – Iron, Lead, copper, silver.

41.

Rum Jungle

Uranium (Australia)

42.

Krivoi Rog

Iron Ore (Ukraine)

43.

Sudbury

Nickel (Canada)

44.

Kinta Valley

Tin (Malaysia)

45.

Weipa

Bauxite (Australia)

46.

Gippsland

Lignite(Australia)

47.

Flin Flon

Mining centre in Manitoba, Canada

48.

Catavi

Bolivia

49.

Braden

Chile (Copper)

 

 

 

 

 

Important Isopleths

1.

Isogones

Equal magnetic declination

2.

Isohel

Equal amount of sunlight.

3.

Isobront

Thunderstorm at the same time

4.

Isocheim

Same mean winter temperature

5.

Isothere

Same mean summer temperature

6.

Isanomal

Isopleth of Anomaly

7.

Isochrones

Equal travel time from a common center.

8.

Isohypse

Or Contour lines

9.

Isonif

Amount of Snow

10.

Isophene

Isopleths of seasonal phenomena

11.

Isopotential

Surface to which artesian water can rise

12.

Isorymes

Equal frost

13.

Isarithm

A line representing continuous value on map

14.

Isonephs

Equal cloudiness

15.

Co-seismal lines

Simultaneous seismic activity

16.

Isohypse

Or contours

17.

Isopach

Equal thickness of geological strata

18.

Isotach

Same wind speed

19.

Isotherombrose

Equal ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall

20.

Isochasm

Equal frequency of aurorae

21.

Isodynamic

Equal magnetic intensity

22.

Isogen

Equal birthrates

23.

Isokeraunic

Equal occurrence of thunderstorms

 

 

Places & Their Importance

1.

Yorkshire

woollen textile

2.

Lancashire

cotton textile

3.

Glasgow

ship building

4.

Sheffield

Cutlery & steel works

5.

Lorraine

Iron ore (France)

6.

Lyon

Silk Industry (France)

7.

Silesia

Coal (Poland) – high grade

8.

Lodz

Manchester of Poland

9.

Hamburg

Ship Building (Germany)

10.

Stuttgart

Automobile (Germany)

11.

Munich

Instruments (Germany)

12.

Karl Marx Stadt

Textile (Germany)

13.

Sambre-Meuse

Coal (Belgium)

14.

Marseilles

Oil Refinery

15.

Baku

Capital city of Azerbaijan & chief refining center.

16.

Chicago

Biggest railway junction

17.

Detroit

Automobile

18.

Seattle

Aircraft

19.

Cadiz

Cork (Spain)

20.

Changchun

Automobile & machine tools (China)

21.

Chelyabinsk

Iron & Steel (Russia)

22.

Dresden

Optical, Photo & Graphic instruments (Germany)

23.

Dusseldorf

Iron & Steel (Germany)

24.

Essen

Iron & Steel (Germany)

25.

Essex

Engineering works (England)

26.

Kharkov

Machine building & Engineering (Ukraine)

27.

Kiev

Engineering (Ukraine)

28.

Magnitogorsk

Iron & Steel (Russia)

29.

Nagoya

Cotton & Ship building (Japan)

30.

Nizhny Tagil

Iron & Steel (Russia)

31.

Venice

Glass Industry

32.

Vienna

Glass Industry

33.

Philadelphia

Locomotives (USA)

34.

Plymouth

Shipbuilding (USA)

35.

Yenang Yang

Oil Drilling (Myanmar)

36.

Gorky / Nizhny Novogorod

Engineering Industry.

37.

Belfast

Ship building (Ireland)

 

Types of Delta

1.

Arcuate Delta

Nile, Ganga, Rhine, Hwang Ho, Volga, Indus, Mekong, Rhone, Danube.

2.

Digitate or Bird-Foot Delta

Mississippi

3.

Estuarine Delta

Elb, Ob, Seine, Narmada, Tapti, Mackenzie, Hudson, Amazon, Rhine

4.

Cuspate or Tooth-Shaped Delta

Tiber in Italy, Ebro of Spain.

 

Major Natural Regions

1.

Equatorial Lowland

Amazon Type

2.

Equatorial Highland

Malay Type

3.

Equatorial High Plateaus

Ecuador Type

4.

Tropical Eastern Margin

Monsoon Type

5.

Tropical Interiors

Sudan Type

6.

Tropical Western Deserts

Sahara Type

7.

Warm Temperate/Subtropical Western Margins

Mediterranean Type

8.

Warm Temperate/Subtropical Eastern Margin

China Type

9.

Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Lowland

Turan Type

10.

Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Plateau

Iran Type

11.

Cool Temperate Western Margin

European Type

12.

Cool Temperate Eastern Margin

St. Lawrence Type

13.

Cool Temperate Interior Lowland

Prairie Type

14.

Cool Temperate Interior Highland

Altai Type

15.

Cool Temperate High Plateau

Tibet Type

16.

Polar Lowland

Tundra Type

17.

Polar Highland

Ice Cap Type

 

 

 

Major Deserts

S.

Desert

Location

1.

Sahara

Northern Africa

2.

Gobi

Mongolia/Northeastern China

3.

Patagonian

Argentina

4.

Rub‘ Al Khali

Southern Arabian Peninsula

5.

Great Sandy

Northwestern Australia

6.

Great Victoria

Southwestern Australia

7.

Chihuahuan

Mexico/Southwestern United States

8.

Takla Makan

Northern China

9.

Sonoran

Mexico/Southwestern United States

10.

Kalahari

Southwestern Africa

11.

Kyzyl Kum

Uzbekistan

12.

Thar

India/Pakistan

13.

Simpson

Australia

14.

Mohave

Southwestern United States

15.

Nafud Desert

Arabian Peninsula

16.

Dasht-I-Kavir

Iran

 

 

 

 

Planets & satellites

1.

Mars

Deimos, Phobos

2.Jupiter

Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Io

3.

Saturn

Titan, Tethys, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione

4.

Uranus

Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel

5.

Neptune

Triton

6.

Pluto

Charon

 

 

 

 

Hypothesis of the origin of Earth

1.

Gaseous Hypothesis

Kant

2.

Nebular Hypothesis

Laplace

3.

Planetesimal Hypothesis

T.C. Chamberlain & F. R. Moulten

4.

Tidal Hypothesis

James Jeans & Harold Jeffreys

5.

Meteoric Hypothesis

Lockyer

6.

Binary Star Hypothesis

H.N. Russel

7.

Fission Hypothesis

Ross Gun

8.

Cepheid Hypothesis

A.C. Banerji

9.

Supernova Hypothesis

F. Hoyle

10.

Interstellar Dust Hypothesis

Otto Schmidt

11.

Nebular Cloud Hypothesis

Von Weizsacker

12.

Protoplanet Hypothesis

Gerald Kuiper

 

 

Percentage Area of various bodies

1.

Pacific Ocean

35.4 %

2.

Atlantic Ocean

18.4 %

3.

Indian Ocean

14.5 %

4.

Land

29.2 %

 

 

 

Major Trenches in the Ocean

1.

Pacific Ocean

Aleutian trench, Tonga trench, Philippine trench, Peru-Chile

 

 

trench, Mariana Trench (near Micronesia)

2.

Atlantic Ocean

Puerto Rico trench, South sandwich trench, Romanche trench

3.

Indian Ocean

Java trench

 

 

 

 

Submarine Canyons in various oceans

 

Pacific Ocean

 

Atlantic Ocean

 

Indian Ocean

1.

Tokyo Canyon

1.

Oceanographer Canyon

1.

Indus Canyon

2.

Bering Canyon

2.

Hudson Canyon

2.

Ganges Canyon

3.

Columbia Canyon

3.

Wilmington Canyon

3.

 

4.

Juan De Fucca Canyon

4.

Norfolk Canyon

4.

 

5.

Monterey Canyon

5.

Congo Canyon

5.

 

6.

Arguello Canyon

6.

San Francisco Canyon

6.

 

7.

Scripps Canyon

7.

Mississippi Canyon

7.

 

8.

Coronados Canyon

8.

 

8.

 

 

 

 

Basins of the Oceans

1.

Atlantic Ocean

South Antilles basin, Cape basin, Agulhas basin

2.

Indian Ocean

Mascarenes, Sulu, Celebes, Banda basin

3.

Pacific Ocean

Caroline, Solomon, New Hebrides, Guatemala basin

 

Major Ridges & Rises in various Oceans

 

Pacific Ocean

 

Atlantic Ocean

 

Indian Ocean

1.

Catham rise

1.

Rio Grande rise

1.

Carlsberg ridge

2.

Galapagos rise

2.

Walvis ridge

2.

Laccadive-Chagos ridge

3.

Nazca ridge

3.

Reykjanes ridge (Iceland)

3.

Chagos-St Paul ridge

4.

South Tasman rise

4.

Sierra Leone rise

4.

Kerguelen-Gausberg ridge

5.

Louisville ridge

5.

Para rise

 

 

6.

Juan de fuca ridge (N-E P)

6.

New foundland rise

 

 

7.

Gorda ridge ( N-E P)

7.

Wyville Thomson ridge

 

 

8.

Explorer ridge

8.

Dolphin rise

 

 

9.

Austral Marshall Gilbert

9.

Challenger rise

 

 

10.

Carneige ridge

 

 

 

 

11.

Cocos ridge

 

 

 

 

12.

Norfolk Island ridge

 

 

 

 

13.

Caroline-Solomon ridge

 

 

 

 

•Lomonsov ridge & Gakkel ridge is in arctic ocean.

 

 

 

 

 

Koppen’s Classification

A

Tropical Climate

S

Steppe Climate

B

Dry Climate

W

Desert Climate

C

Mild Humid (Mesothermal) Climate

T

Tundra climate

D

Snowy forest (Microthermal) climate

F

Ice Cap climate

E

Polar Climate

f

Precipitation in all months

H

Undifferentiated highland climate

m

Monsoon type

 

 

w

Dry season in winter

 

 

s

Dry season in summer

 

 

h

Dry hot; mean ann. Temp >18 C (B only)

 

 

k

Dry cold; mean ann. temp < 18 C (B only)

 

 

 

Third Letter

1.

a

Hot summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of above 22 C.

 

 

Used in C & D climate

2.

b

Warm summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of below 22 C.

 

 

Used in C & D climates

3.

c

Cool short summers with fewer than four months having a mean temperature above 10

 

 

C. Used in C & D climates

4.

d

Very cold winters in which the mean temperature of the coldest month is below -38 C.

 

 

Used in D climate only.

 

 

Types of Climate Under Koppen’s Scheme

Af

Tropical Rainforest

Cs

Mild humid climate with dry summer

 

Am

Tropical monsoon

Df

Snowy forest climate with on dry season

 

Aw

Tropical savanna

Dw

Snowy forest climate with dry winter

 

BS

Steppe climate

Ds

Snowy forest climate with dry summer

 

BW

Desert climate

ET

Tundra climate.0<Warmest month< 10 C

 

Cf

Mild humid climate with no dry season

EF

Perpetual frost. Less than 0 C throughout

 

Cw

Mild humid with a dry winter

 

 

 

 

Thornthwaite Scheme 1931

Thornthwaite identified 5 humidity zones on the basis of P/E (precipitation effectiveness or efficiency) index.

P/E index = 11.5 (r/T – 10) ^9/10

where r is mean monthly rainfall in inches & t is mean monthly temperature in degree F. Similarly Thermal efficiency or temperature effectiveness can be computed using

T/E ratio = (t – 32)/4

Where t is the mean monthly temperature in degree F.

 

Humidity zones based on P/E index

 

Humidity Zones based on T/E index

A

Wet

127

A’

Tropical

127

B

Humid

64-127

B’

Mesothermal

64-127

C

Sub humid

32-63

C’

Microthermal

32-63

D

Semi arid

16-31

D’

Taiga

16-31

E

arid

<16

E’

Tundra

1-15

 

 

 

F’

Frost

0

 

 

Third letter

r

Rainfall adequate in all season

s

Rainfall deficient in summer

w

Rainfall deficient in winter

d

Rainfall deficient in all season

 

E.g. AB’r – mesothermal wet climate with adequate rainfall in all seasons.

 

 

Thornthwaite 1948 Classification

Moisture index (Im) = (100S- 60D)/PE

Where S represents monthly surplus of moisture & D represents monthly deficit of moisture. Thermal efficiency index is simply the potential evapotranspiration expressed in centimeters.

 

Humidity zones based on moisture index

Thermal zone based on thermal efficiency

A

Perhumid

>100 cm

A’

Megathermal

>114

B1 – B4

Humid

20 to100 cm

B1’ – B4’

Mesothermal

57 to 114

C2

Moist Subhumid

0 to 20 cm

C2’

Microthermal

42.7 to 57

C1

Dry subhumid

-33.3 to 0 cm

C1’

Microthermal

28.5 to 42.7

D

Semi arid

-67 to -33.3

D’

Tundra

14.2 to 28.5

E

Arid

-100 to -66.7

E’

Frost

< 14.2

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of UPSC

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

Exam

,

video lectures

,

practice quizzes

,

study material

,

past year papers

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

pdf

,

Viva Questions

,

6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Extra Questions

,

Free

,

6. World Geography Part 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

,

ppt

;