64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

Digital Electronics

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) : 64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

The document 64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev is a part of the Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Course Digital Electronics.
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64 – bit Processor

  • The brain of the PC is processor or CPU.
  • It performs the system’s calculating and processing operations.
  • The term N-bits means that its ALU, internal registers and most of its instructions are designed to work with N-bit binary words.
  • The major components of CPU are:

64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

  • 64-bit processors have 64-bit ALUs, 64-bit registers, and 64-bit buses.
  • A 64-bit register can address up to 264 bytes of logical address.
  • 64-bit processors have been with us since 1992.  
  • Eg: 64-bit AMD processor.

64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

Internal Architecture

  • The internal logic design of microprocessor which determines how and when various operations are performed.
  • The various function performed by the microprocessor can be classified as:
    • Microprocessor initiated operations
    • Internal operations
    • Peripheral operations
  • Microprocessor initiated operations mainly deal with memory and I/O read and write operations.
  • Internal operations determines how and what operations can be performed with the data.The operations include:
    1. storing
    2. performing arithmetic and logical operations
    3. test for conditions
    4. store in the stack
  • External initiated operations are initiated by the external devices to perform speci al operations like reset, interrupt, ready, etc.
  • The block diagram of 64-bit microprocessor is shown below.
  • The major parts of the block diagram are:
    • General register unit
    • Control and decoding unit
    • Bus unit o Cache memory unit
    • Floating point register unit
    • Issue ports

64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

Architecture Elements

  • Addressing Modes
  • General Purpose Registers
  • Non-modal and modal Instructions
  • New Instructions in Support of 64-bit
  • New immediate Instructions

Addressing modes

  • This addressing mode determines the working environment. i.e 24,32 or 64 bit mode
  • PSW bits 31 and 32 designate addressing mode (out of 64 bit).
    • Addressing modes bits:00=24 bit-mode
      01=32 bit-mode
      11=64 bit-mode 

General purposes register (GPR)

  • The register is treated as 64-bits for:
    •  Address generation in 64-bit mode.


64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

  • The register is treated as 32-bits for:
    •  Address generation in 24/32-bit mode.

New instructions in 64-bit:

  • Load Reversed - LRV, LRVR
  • Multiply Logical - ML, MLR
  • Divide Logical - DL, DLR
  • Add Logical w/ Carry - ALC
  • Subtract Logical w/ Borrow - SLB
  • Store Reversed - STRV
  • Rotate Left Single Logical – RLL

New immediate Instructions 

  • Load Logical Immediate
  • Insert Logical Immediate
  • AND Immediate
  • OR Immediate
  • Test Under Mask (High/Low)

Comparison of 64-bit with 32-bit 

  • Contains 32-bit data lines whereas 64-bit contains 64 data lines.
  • Can address max 2^32(4 GB) of data whereas 64 bit can address 2^64(18 billion GB).
  • Speed and execution is both fast in 64-bit processors.
  • 64-bit processors can drive 32-bit applications even faster, by handling more data per clock cycle than a 32-bit processor.
  • The table shows the basic difference between two: 

64 - Bit Processor Notes | EduRev

 

 advantages 

  • Previous processors can have max 4 Gb of physical memory but 64-bit can handle more.
  • More general purpose registers than in older processors.
  • Significant increase in speed due to wider data bus and processing is fast

disadvantages 

  • Compatibility difficulty with existing software as they are mostly developed to the 32-bit processors.
  • 64-bit OS must have 64-bit drivers, for working efficiently.
  • They are costly. 

 

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