7. World Geography Part 3 UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Composition of the Earth

 

 

Earths Crust

Whole Earth

1.

Oxygen

46.6

Iron

35

2.

Silicon

27.7

Oxygen

30

3.

Aluminium

8

Silicon

15

4.

Iron

5

Magnesium

13

5.

Calcium

3.6

Nickel

2.4

6.

Sodium

2.8

Sulphur

1.9

7.

Potassium

2.6

Calcium

1.1

8.

Magnesium

2.1

Aluminium

1.1

 

 

 

Mountains & Geological Periods

 

1.

Pre-Cambrian Mountains

Feno-Scandian mountains, North west highlands

 

2.

Caledonian Mountains

Formed during Silurian & Devonian period. E.g. Scottish

 

 

 

highlands, Appalachians, Aravallis

 

3.

Hercynian Mountains

Formed during Permian period. E.g. Spanish Messeta, mountains of

 

 

 

Iberian peninsula, Brittany of France, Vosges, Black forest,

 

 

 

Mendips, Harz (Germany).

 

4.

Alpine Mountains

Formed during tertiary period. E.g. Rockies, Andes, alps,

 

 

 

Carpathians, Pyrenees, Caucasus, Balkans, Himalayas , Sierra

 

 

 

Nevada, Zagros & Elburz (Iran), Verkhoyansk mountains

 


 

Mountain Types

Block Mountain

Ruwenzori Mountain range in Central Africa, Black forest, Vosges,

 

bohemian massif and the Sierra Nevada in the south-western USA.

Fold Mountains

Himalayas, Aravalli, Appalachians, Alps, Rockies, Andes.

Relict Mountains

Aravalli, Rajmahal, Nilgiris, Satpuras, Western Ghats.

Dome Mountain

Henry mountain, USA

 

 

Highest Waterfalls of the World

 

Waterfall

Location

Total drop (m)

Angel Falls

Venezuela

979

Yosemite Falls

United States

739

Mardalsfossen-South

Norway

655

Thukela (Tugela) Falls

South Africa

614

Cuquenan

Venezuela

610

Sutherland

New Zealand

580

 

 

Worlds Largest Lakes

Caspian Sea,

Asia

Lake Superior

North America

Lake Victoria

Africa

Lake Huron

North America

Lake Michigan

North America

Lake Tanganyika

Burundi (N), Zambia (S), DMC (W)

Great Bear Lake

North America

Lake Baikal

Asia

Aral Sea

Asia

Great Slave Lake

North America


 

Other Important Lakes

Lake Balkash

Kazakhstan

Lake Titicaca

Bolivia-Peru

Lake Nyasa

Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania

Lake Ladoga

Russia (N-W)

Lake Onega

Russia (N-W)

Lake Rudolf

Kenya

Lake Torrens

Just South of Lake Eyre in S. Australia

Lake Vanern

Sweden

Lake Urmia

Iran

Lake Mobutu

Uganda

 

 

Principal Gases in the atmosphere

1.

Nitrogen

78.084

2.

Oxygen

20.947

3.

Argon

.934

4.

Carbon Dioxide

.0314

5.

Neon

.0018

6.

Helium

.0005

7.

Methane

.0002

8.

Krypton

.00011

9.

Hydrogen

.00005

10.

Xenon

.0000087

 

Heterosphere

 

1.

Molecular Nitrogen layer

90-120 km

2.

Atomic Oxygen layer

200-1100 km

3.

Helium layer

11000-3500 km

4.

Hydrogen layer

3500-10000 km

 

Albedo of Some Surfaces

5.

Fresh Snow Cover

80 %

6.

Clouds

70-80%

7.

Sand

20-30 %
 

8.

Grass

15-30 %

9.

Dry Ground

15-20%

10.

Wet Ground

10 %

11.

Forest

5-10%

12.

Water (Solar Elevation > 60)

3-5%

13.

Water (Solar Elevation

25-30 %

 
 

 

 

Various Measuring Instruments

 

1.

Lysimeter

Evapo-Transpiration

 

2.

Anemometer

Wind

 

3.

Psychrometer

Humidity

 

4.

Planimeter

Area on Maps

 

5.

Pantograph

Enlargement & Reduction of Maps

 

6.

Parallax Bar

Measuring elevations from topographical maps.

 

7.

Abney level

Measuring angles in a vertical plane

 

8.

Clinometer

Angles in vertical plane

 

9.

Dumpy level

Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane

 

10.

Theodolite

Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane

 

11.

Spectroradiometer

Measures spectral reflectance at different wavelengths.

 

12.

Stereoscope

View photos in 3D view. Channelises one image to one eye.

 

13.

Opisometer/ Meilograph

Measuring length of curved lines on a map.

 

14.

Eidograph

Enlargement & Reduction of maps

 

15.

Alidade

A sighting device or pointer for angular measurement used in plane table survey.

 

16.

Aneroid Barometer

Used for measuring altitude as pressure decreases with height

 

17.

Sextant

Used to measure angle of objects located on the field

 

 

 

 

Important Local Winds of the World

1.

Mistral

Blows in Spain & France from N-W to S-E. Common during winter

2.

Bora

Blows along the shores of the Adriatic sea.

3.

Blizzard

Snow laden wind in

4.

Purga

Snow laden wind in Russian tundra. Much like Buran.

5.

Bise

An extremely cold wind in France

6.

Levanter

Blows in strait of Gibraltar between Spain & Morocco.

7.

Pampero

Pampas of S. America

8.

Papagayo

Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua.

9.

Haboob

Sudan

10.

Friagem

Amazon Valley

11.

Buran

Eastern Russia & central Siberia

12.

Norther

Texas, Gulf of Mexico & western carribean

13.

Etesian

Eastern Mediterranean.

14.

Surazo

Cold wind blowing from Argentinean pampas & Patagonia.

15.

Norte

A strong cold northeasterly wind which blows in Mexico.

16.

Tehuantepecer

This is a violent, squally wind from north or north-east in S. Mexico.

 
 

Hot Winds

1.

Fohn

Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Alps in Switzerland.

2.

Chinook

Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Rockies in USA

3.

Harmattan

Blowing from east & northeast towards west in Sahara

4.

Brickfielder

Victoria province of Australia

5.

Black Roller

Great plains of USA

6.

Shamal

Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf

7.

Norwester

New Zealand

8.

Sirocco

From Sahara over Mediterranean. Known as khamsin in Egypt, Chili in

 

 

Tunisia, Gibli in Libya, Levech in Spain & Leste in Madiera & Morocco.

9.

Simoom

Warm & dry dusty wind in the Arabian desert

10.

Santa Ana

S. California – blowing out of Santa Ana canyon

11.

Yamo

A warm & dry wind in Japan

12.

Zonda

A warm & dry wind of the Andean valleys in Argentina

13.

Tramontane

A warm wind of central Europe.

14.

Samun

Warm wind in Iran

15.

Karaburan

Hot dusty wind in central Asia – Tarim basin, Mongolia.

16.

Berg

A hot dry wind blowing from interior in South Africa.

17.

Shamal

A hot wind of Iraq and the Persian gulf

18.

Austru

Dry blows from the lee side of the mountains in Romania (much like fohn).

19.

Almwind

Local name of fohn that blows in Hungary & Poland over Tatra mountains.

 

 

Soil Classification

 

 

Soil

Common Characteristics

Fertility

Typical

Name

 

 

Location

Alfisol

Moderately weathered, having a medium to high base

High

Parts of Canada,

 

saturation & have a subsoil accumulation of clay. Most

 

U.S & Europe

 

develop under forest

 

 

Aridisols

Desert soils with little or no organic content but

Low

Deserts

 

significant calcium. Affected by salinization.

 

 

Entisols

Soil Type with little or no horizon development. Found

Low to

River valleys,

 

in young formations (lava, sand-dunes etc)

Moderate

flood plains &

 

 

 

deltas

Inceptisols

More significant horizon development than entisols but

Moderate

Mountain &

 

less than others. Used for cultivation of sugarcane &

to low

other

 

 

 

geologically

 

 

 

young formation

Histosols

Organic soils found in bogs, swamps & wetlands

 

Swamps & bogs

Mollisols

Dark coloured with upper horizons rich in organic

Very High

Great American

 

matter. Geographically associated with aridisols

 

plains. Pampas

 

 

 

& Steppes

Oxisols

Infertile, acidic, deeply weathered soils with contain

Low

Amazon basin &

 

clays of iron & aluminium oxide

 

Congo basin

Spodosols

Sandy soils which develop under forests particularly in

Good

Coniferous areas

 

coniferous areas. They are acidic & have accumulation

 

in cool climate.

 

of organic matter & iron & aluminium oxides.

 

 

Ultisols

These are acidic, deeply weathered soil of tropical &

Poor,

Temperate

 

subtropical areas with clay accumulation in the B

require

humid &

 

horizon. Not as intensely weathered as oxisols

fertilizers

tropical regions.

Vertisols

Clay soils which expand when wet & crack when dry.

Good

Seasonally dry

Gelisols

Soil where permafrost lies within 2 m of the surface

Poor

Periglacial areas

Andisols

Contain ash & volcanic glass

Poor

Near volcanoes

 

Changed Geographical Names

 

S

Old Name

New Name

 

Old Name

New Name

1.

Abyssinia

Ethiopia

29.

Angora

Ankara

2.

Aden

Yemen

24.

Basutoland

Lesotho

3.

Bechuanaland

Botswana

25.

Batavia

Djakarta

4.

British Honduras

Belize

26.

Constantinople

Istanbul

5.

Dahomey

Benin

27.

Cape Canaveral

Cape Kennedy

6.

Formosa

Taiwan

28.

Christina

Oslo

7.

Leningrad

St. Petersburg

29.

Congo

Zaire

8.

Persia

Iran

30.

Constantinople

Istanbul

9.

Mesopotamia

Iraq

31.

Dutch East Indies

Indonesia

10.

Batavia

Jakarta

32.

Dutch Guiana

Surinam

11.

South-West Africa

Namibia

33.

Japan

Nippon

12.

Tanganyika/Zanzibar

Tanzania

34.

Malaya

Malaysia

13.

Upper Volta

Burkina Faso

35.

Manchukuo

Manchuria

14.

Gold Coast

Ghana

36.

Mesopotamia

Iraq

15.

Stalingrad

Volgograd

37.

Nyasaland

Malawi

16.

Azrak

Azov

38.

Rangoon

Yongon

17.

Ister

Danube

39.

Rhodesia

Zimbabwe

18.

Paulus Meotus

Volga

40.

Salisbury

Harare

19.

Raha

Blue Nile

41.

Ascension

Saint Helena

20.

Albion

England

42.

Bohemia

Czech Republic

21.

Euxine

Black Sea

43.

Cilicia

Turkey

22.

Mare Internum

Mediterranean Sea

44.

Ellice Islands

Tuvalu

23.

Taprobana

Sri Lanka

45.

French Guinea

Guinea

24.

Northern Rhodesia

Zambia

46.

Portuguese Guinea

Guinea Bissau

25.

Southern Rhodesia

Zimbabwe

47.

British Guinea

Guyana

26.

Leopoldville

Kinshasa

48.

French West Africa

Mali

27.

New Hebrides

Vanuatu

49.

West French Africa

Mauritania

28.

Manchukuo

Manchuria

50.

Dutch Guyana

Surinam

29.

Sea of Herkend

Indian Ocean

51.

 

 

 

 

 

Cities Located on Rivers

 

 

City

River

Country

 

City

River

Country

Alexandria

Nile

Egypt

 

Lahore

Ravi

Pakistan

Amsterdam

Amsel

Netherlands

 

Lisbon

Tagus

Portugal

Antwerp

Scheldt

Belgium

 

Liverpool

Mersey

England

Ankara

Kizil

Turkey

 

London

Thames

England

Baghdad

Tigris

Iraq

 

Montreal

Ottawa

Canada

Bangkok

Menam

Thailand

Moscow

Moskva

Russia

Belgrade

Danube

Yugoslavia

Nanking

Yang-tse-kiang

China

Berlin

Spree

Germany

New Orleans

Mississippi

USA

Bonn

Rhine

Germany

New York

Hudson

USA

Bristol

Avon

England

Paris

Seine

France

Budapest

Danube

Hungary

Philadelphia

Delaware

USA

Cairo

Nile

Egypt

Quebec

St. Lawrence

Canada

Canton

Canton

China

Rangoon

Irawadi

Burma

Chittagong

Karnaphuli

Bangladesh

Rome

Tiber

Italy

Chungking

Yang-tse-kiang

China

Shanghai

Yangtze-kiang

China

Cologne

Rhine

Germany

Tokyo

Sumida

Japan

Glasgow

Clyde

Scotland

Vienna

Danube

Austria

Hull

Humber

England

Warsaw

Vistula

Poland

Hamburg

Elbe

Germany

Washington

Potomac

USA

Karachi

Indus

Pakistan

 

 

 

Khartoum

Nile

Sudan

 

 

 

Location

Q: Why is India’s north-south distance (3214 km) more than the east-west distance (2933), though both latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30 degree?

A: This is because the distance between the longitudes decreases near the pole whereas the distances between latitudes remain the same everywhere.

Time Zone

There is a general convention to select the standard time zone meridian in multiples of 7o30’ of longitude.  There are 24 time zones on earth, each 15 degree apart.

USA uses multiple time zone system (7 time zones)

India has the longest international boundary with Bangladesh.

Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states

  • Gujarat
  • Rajasthan
  • MP
  • CG
  • Jharkhand
  • WB
  • Tripura
  • Mizoram

Gujarat has the longest coast line.

UP borders the maximum number of states: 8

  • HP
  • Haryana
  • Uttarakhand
  • Rajasthan
  • MP
  • CG
  • Bihar
  • Jharkhand

Population

  • Highest: UP> Maha> Bihar > WB
  • Lowest: Sikkim< Mizoram < Arunachal < Goa

Area

  • Highest: Rajasthan>MP> Maha>>Andhra
  • Lowest: Goa<Sikkim<Tripura<Nagaland<Mizoram

Indian Geography 

Landforms

Three Geological divisions:

  1. The peninsular block
  2. The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  3. Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
  • Peninsular block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).

Six physiographic divisions:

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  1. Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum River.
  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun

Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range
  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath,  Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)
  • Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet
  • The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.
  • Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota
  • Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM
  • Inhabited with the Bhotia tribe. They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters. 

Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga
  • Tribe: Lepcha
  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>
  • Duar formations are peculiar to this region.

Arunachal Himalayas

  • From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.
  • Direction: Southwest to Northeast
  • Peaks: Kangtu and Namya Barwa
  • Rivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.
  • These rivers are perennial and have the highest hydro-electric power potential in the country.
  • Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and Nagas
  • These communities practice shifting cultivation known as Jhumming.

Eastern Hills and Mountains

  • Direction: North to South
  • Ranges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hills
  • These are low hills
  • Tribes practice Jhum cultivation
  • Rivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in eastern Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.
  • Lake: Loktak
  • Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only Floating Lake in the world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.
  • Keibul Kamjao National Park located in the Bishnupur district of Manipur is the only floating park in the world and is an integral part of the Loktak Lake. Home to the endangered Manipur Eld’s Deer or Brow-antlered Deer or Sangai or Dancing Deer.
  • Mizoram is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.
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