8. Art and Culture Part 3 UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Rajasthan : History of Mevar

Mewar primarily covers the south Western region of Rajasthan, bordering Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Consisting of the districts of  Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh and Udaipur,  it is flanked by the Aravallis in the North West, and the southern region is mostly hilly, dotted with forests.

The region’s rather rugged landscape could have played a role in shaping the spirit of it’s rulers, and people a tough, never say die, independent streak.  Ecologically this is one of India’s most important regions, being a part of the Kathiawar-Gir ecosystem, and containing wildlife sanctuaries like Kumbalgarh, Sita Mata, Bassi and Jaisamand. The rugged terrain consisting of valleys, hills , mountain   passes and forests, provided the backdrop for some of the fiercest resistance to the Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal rule. While the massive forts of Chittorgarh, and the sweeping grandeur of Udaipur, mark the region’s most visible landmarks, it has some other memorable landmarks. The huge fort of Kumbalgarh with it’s Great Wall of India, the crafts village of Shilpagram near Udaipur, the temples of Eklingji and Nathdwara, the Jain temples of Ranakpur are equally prominent landmarks too. Apart from Rana Pratap, and the Ranas, the region has been home to two remarkable women- Meera Bai, the poetess and devotee of Krishna, one of the foremost icons of the Bhakti movement, and the brave, noble midwife Panna, who sacrificed her own son for the future of Mewar.

 

Mewar Map

8. Art and Culture Part 3 UPSC Notes | EduRev

The region was originally called Medhapat, which in due course of time, became corrupted to Mewar.  The patron deity of the region is Eklingji,  one of the oldest temples dating back to the 10th century built by the Guhilas.  Located near Udaipur, the current temple was rebuilt on the ruins of an earlier temple and is famous for it’s 4 faced image of Shiva in granite.  To date the ruler of Udaipur, visits this temple every Monday and he considers himself as the Dewan here. Shiva is also referred to as Medhapatheshwar, the ruler of the Mewar region.

The history of Mewar dates back somewhere to the 2nd century AD, when a certain Kanak Sen hailing from Kosala, migrated to Saurashtra.  His descendants, established the city of Vallabhi, now located near Bhavnagar in Gujarat.  The city was the capital of the Maitraka rulers, who expanded their territory all over Saurashtra as well as the Southern part of Rajasthan. Sometime in 770, when Vallabhi fell during the Arab invasion, the Maitraka queen, Kamalavati handed over her new born son to a Brahmin woman and committed Sati after her husband Shiladitya was killed in battle. The new born was named Grihaditya, also called as Guhil, one born in a cave, and he grew up in Idar( now in the Sabarkantha district of Gujarat).  He lent his name to the clan Guhilot which in due course of time, became better known as Gehlot. For a major part, the Guhilots supported the dominant Pratiharas  and Chauhans against the early Arab invasions.  While they initially ruled from Idar, they had to abandon it and later a new capital was established at Nagada( now located in Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh).

The actual founder of the Mewar kingdom was Bappa Rawal, the son of Mahendra II, the last surviving Gehlot ruler of Nagada.  His real name as Kalbhoj, and though he belonged to the Gehlot clan, he never used that family name. Instead he established a new dynasty called the Rawals, after the area he had conquered.  Though born to a royal chieftain, he grew up near the hills of Nagada. Living as a shepherd,  it is believed he was blessed with Harita Rishi, that he would be the king. While his father was of the Gehlot clan, his mother belonged to the Paramara clan, and was the sister of Maan Mori, the Paramara ruler of Gujarat. While the Gehlots, claimed themselves as Suryavanshi Rajputs, the Paramaras on the other hand, identified themselves as one of the four Agnikula Kshatriyas( born from fire). The others being Chauhans, Parihars and the Solankis.

Bappa Rawal, would however earn his fame due to his exploits in the famed Battle of Rajasthan.  Primarily fought during the 8th century AD, the Battle of Rajasthan was a series of wars between the Rajput clans the invading Arab armies from Sindh. Uniting the smaller states of Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Bappa Rawal created a powerful alliance, that repelled the Arab invasion. Mohd Bin Qasim who practically overran Sindh, and defeated it’s ruler Dahir was forced to retreat thanks to Bappa’s aggression. In fact Bappa pursed Bin Qasim, back, through Saurashtra right up to the western banks of the Indus. Not content with that, he marched right up to Ghazni (now in Afghanistan) and defeated it’s ruler there.  He not only repelled the Arab invasions, but managed to expand his territory right up to Ispahan in current day Iran, and covered vast swathes of Afghanistan. After his conquests and a reign of 20 years, he abdicated the throne in favor of his son, and became an ascetic.

 

Now we will have a chronology of the rulers of Mewar. Mewar was rulled by following Dynasties:-

  1. Guilot Dyanasty
  2. Sisodiya Dynasty

 

Guhilot Dynasty
 (AD 734 – 1303)

The creators of Mewar's ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan. Foundation stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. In the seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders. Bappa Rawal, the later founder of a dynasty of rulers of Mewar, was born as Kalbhoj. After a promising beginning as a good warrior for, and possible relative of, an obscure local chieftain called Maan Mori in Malwa and Mewar, Bappa Rawal usurped his patron's territory and established himself as its new ruler (although some sources insist he was the son of Maan Mori and simply ruled after his assassination). All subsequent rulers of the territory traced their lineage to Bappa Rawal.
550    Pushpavati    Queen who fled Vallabhi when it was invaded by raiders.
 569 - 603    Guhil ('Cave-born')    Son. Became clan chief aged 11. Founded the Guhilot clan.
 603 - 615    Bhoj    Son.
 615 - 625    Mahendra    Son. Rebel Bhils killed him and wrested back their territories.
 625 - 646    Naagaditya    Moved capital to Nagdhara and renamed it Nagda.
 646 - 661    Sheeladitya     
 661 - 688    Aparjit / Aparaji     
 688 - 716    Mahendra II    Arab raiders attacked Chitor, ruled by Paramaras during his time.

          
731/734    Bappa Rawal (Kalbhoj)    Son. Guhilot dynasty founder and creator of the state.
 731 or 734    Born as Kalbhoj, Bappa Rawal is the founder of a dynasty which later comes to rule Mewar. He takes Chittor from the Maan Mori dynasty and wards off Muslim attacks on his territory.
 753 - 773    Khumar    Son. Warded off several attacks on his kingdom.
 773 - 793    Mattat     
 773 - 813        Bhratrabhat    Co-ruler or relative
 813 - 828    Sinha     
 828 - 853    Khuman II    Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks. Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
 c.853    Deoraj establishes the royal family of Jaisalmer and makes Lodorva his capital.
 853 - 878    Mahayak    Faced several invasions.
 878 - 942    Khuman III     
 942 - 943    Bhratrabhat II     
 943 - 953    Allat     
 c.943    Possibly near start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.
 953 - 971    The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramaras attack Ahar. It takes until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.
 961    The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor.
 971 - 973    Naravan / Narvahan     
 973 - 977    Shalivahan     
 977 - 993    Shaktikumar     
 993 - 1007    Amba Prasad    Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
 1007 - 1021    Suchivarma     
 1021 - 1035    Narvarma     
 1035 - 1051    Kirtivarma     
 1037    Raja Dulha Rao is generally given as the founder of the Rajput kingdom of Amer, while his son's successor, Hunadev, is the one to hammer home the final nail in the Meena coffin.
              
              
 1051 - 1068    Yograj     
 1068 - 1088    Bairat / Vairat     
 1088 - 1103    Hanspal     
 1103 - 1107    Vairi Singh     
 1107 - 1127    Vijay Singh     
 1127 - 1138    Ari Singh I    Chittor is captured by Malwa.
 1138 - 1148    Chaur Singh    The Western Chalukyas attack the Paramaras who hold Chittor.
 1148 - 1158    Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I     
 1158 - 1168    Karan Singh     
 1168    The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh's reign. His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
 1168 - 1172    Kshem Singh     
 1172 - 1179    Samant Singh     
 1179    Samant Singh occupies Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadol in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
 1179 - 1191    Kumar Singh    Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.
 1191 - 1211    Mathan Singh    Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at start of his reign.
 1191 - 1192    Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Mohammed Ghuri.
 1194    The Hindu Rajputs of Amer and the Gahadavalas who had governed much of the region around Delhi now lose that territory and the city itself when they are defeated by a slave of the Ghurid sultan. The sultanate of Delhi is subsequently founded.
 1207    Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
 1211 - 1213    Padam Singh     
 1213 - 1253    Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh     
      During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi has destroyed Nadga.
 1226    Rao Siyaji, grandson of King Jai Chandra of the Gahadavalas, founds the kingdom of Marwar.
 1234    Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
 1253 - 1261    There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
 1261 - 1267    Tej Singh    Ruled from Chittor.
 1267 - 1273    There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. It takes six years for Tej Singh's son to ascend the throne.
 1273 - 1302    Samar Singh    Son. Ruled from Chittor.
      Samar Singh builds wall around Mahasati in Chittor. His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
 1302 - 1303    Ratan Singh    Last Guhilot king to rule.
 1303    The army of the sultan of Delhi, Muhammad Shah I, invades north-western India under the command of Malik Kafur, conquering the Rajput states, including Mewar. With the capital and main fort at Chittor about to fall, the women inside commit mass suicide rather than fall into the hands of the invaders, while the men make a heroic charge in the face of insurmountable odds. The few survivors of the fall of Chittor take refuge in the hills. Administration of the captured state is handed to the ruler of the neighbouring state of Jalore, Maldeo.

Sisodiya Dynasty
 (AD 1326 - Present Day)

Once Mewar had been conquered by the sultan of Delhi, a vassal ruler was placed on the throne, governing Mewar as well as his own domains in Jalore. In order to establish some cooperation from the locals, he married his widowed daughter, Songari, to a member of a minor branch of the former ruling dynasty, a young man named Hamir. In 1326, Hamir organised a coup against his father-in-law and re-established an independent Mewar. Hamir could trace his descent from Bappa Rawal (AD 731), although his 'new' dynasty was named after the mountain village of his birth, Sisoda.
There were a number of small Rajputana kingdoms at this time, including Amer, Bikaner, Bundi, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Malwa, andMarwar, and all were eventually conquered by the Moghuls.
1303 - 1326    Maldeo    Vassal of Delhi and ruler of Jalore.
 1326 - 1364    Hamir Singh I    Grandson of Ratan Singh. Founded the Sisodiya dynasty.
 1342    Rao Deva founds the Rajput kingdom of Bundi.
 1364 - 1382    Kshetra Singh    Son. Continued work retaking Mewar provinces from Tughlaqs.
 1382    Kshetra Singh is assassinated by the Hara chief of Banbaoda in a dispute about a daughter he is to marry.
 1382 - 1421    Laksha Singh    Son. Ruled from Chittor.
 1398    Laksha Singh falls out with his heir, Prince Choonda, over a princess of Marwar whom Laksha himself marries. Choonda renounces his right to throne. Later, Laksha appoints Choonda as regent for his young step-brother, Mokal, son of the princess whom Choonda spurned.
 c.1400    Rao Chanda seizes control of Marwar and founds his own Rajput dynasty there.
 1421 - 1433    Mokal    Son. Ascended throne aged 5.
 1433    During his relatively short reign, Mokal's mother, Rajmata Hansabai, deposes Choonda as regent, and he retires to Mandu, the capital of Malwa. Rao Ranmal of Marwar and other of Hansabai's relatives move into Chittor as part of an attempted political takeover. Ultimately, in 1433, Mokal is killed by his father's step-brothers, Chacha and Mera.
 1465    Rao Bika of the Rathore clan founds the city of Bikaner and his own Rajput kingdom.
 1433 - 1468    Kumbhkaran / Kumbha    Son. Ascended throne as a minor.
      Kumbhkaran ascends throne after his father's murder. Rao Ranmal kills Mokal's assassins and, in a move to take over the throne, he murders Choonda's brother, Raghudeo. The dowager queen, Rajmata Hansabai, asks Choonda to return and he drives out invaders before forming the Choondawat clan at Salumbar. Khumba survives the crisis period to become a renowned warrior, builder, writer, and patron of the arts.
 1458 - 1468    A Charan predicts Kumbha's imminent death, so he banishes the Charan tribes from Mewar. Crown Prince Raimal supports the Charans so he is exiled to Idar. A decade later, Raimal's younger brother, Udai (Uda), assassinates Kumbha and usurps throne.
 1468 - 1473    Udaikaran / Uda / Udai Singh I    Son. Usurper, nicknamed Hatyara, 'The Murderer'.
 1473    Crown Prince Raimal comes out of exile, amasses an army, attacks Chittor, and claims the throne that is rightly his. Udai Singh flees to Delhi to get help from Sultan Bahlul Lodi but in a bizarre twist of fate he is struck and killed by lightening.
 1473 - c.1519    Raimal    Brother.
 1501    Rudra Pratap founds the Orcha kingdom of Bundela rajas who are of Chhatri Suryanvanshi Rajput descent.
 c.1519 - 1527    Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh)    Son. Severely wounded and defeated in battle.

1517 - 1526
     Ibrahim Lodhi, sultan of Delhi, faces a number of rebellions by nobles within the sultanate as well as pressure from outside, as Rana Sanga extends his own territory at Delhi's expense. From 1519, the ruler ofKabul, Babar, also leads a great many raids on Delhi. In 1526, he is invited by the nobility to invade (Rana Sanga being included amongst that nobility), and Ibrahim is killed at the Battle of Panipat. Babar creates a Moghul empire which sacks and then controls Delhi as the heart of that empire.
 1527 - 1528    Babur increases his territory by defeating Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanua, despite having an army only half the size, and conquering Mewar. In 1528 it is the turn of Rana Sanga's vassal, Medina Rai of Malwa to be defeated.
 1527 - 1531    Ratan Singh    Son.
 1531 - 1532    The new Moghul emperor, Humayun, faces an invasion of Rajputana when Bahadur Shah of Gujarat takes Malwa (1531) and Raisen (1532). However, the problem is quickly dealt with and Rajputana is restored to Moghul control.
 1531 - 1568    Vikramaditya    Brother.
 1566    The Mirza princes who survive Akbar's defeat of an attempted coup of the Moghul throne flee first to the Rajputs (including Mewar), and then to Gujarat.
 1568 - 1572    Uday Singh II / Udai Singh II    Son.
 1564 - 1568    The Moghul emperor, Akbar, takes on the might of the Rajputs. He sends his emissaries to various Rajput princes, asking them to accept his suzerainty but, knowing the Rajput reputation for valour, he uses subtle diplomacy to win them over, entering into marriage alliances with many of them. The ruler of Amer (Jaipur), Raja Bharmal, gives his daughter to Akbar and sets the precedent. Akbar inducted Raja Bharmal's son, Bhagwandas, and grandson, Man Singh, into his body of high ranking courtiers. The new ruler, Maharana Uday Singh refuses the offer, so Akbar attacks him and Chittor, which has remained the capital of the Sisodiyas until this year, is sacked. The Sisodiya capital is moved to Udaipur as half the kingdom is annexed. Uday Singh holds on tenaciously to the remaining half of his kingdom for the remainder of his life.

             
             
    Jagmal Singh         
 1572    Maharana Pratap Singh        Son and chosen heir, but politely removed by the nobles.
 1572 - 1597    The legendary Pratap Singh also refuses to follow the bidding of the Moghul emperor, Akbar. In 1576, Akbar meets him at the famous Battle of Haldighati. In a struggle that is comparable in Indian warfare to the bravery of the Spartans at Thermopylae, the Rajputs fight valiantly but are outnumbered. Pratap Singh escapes to the adjoining jungles and continues his struggle from there, waging a guerrilla battle against Akbar until his death.        Brother.
 1576    Amar Singh         
 1597 - 1620    Emperor Jahangir continues the Moghul campaigns against Mewar, encountering stiff resistance all the way. Many battles take place in this period, but one notable victory for the ranas is when Amar Singh wins back the fort of Chittor. In 1615 Amar Singh agrees to sign a peace treaty on the advice of courtiers and his son, Prince Karan Singh. He agrees to accept the suzerainty of the Moghuls in return for the restoration of Mewar's territories.        Son.
 1605 - 1615    Karan Singh         
 1620 - 1628    Jagat Singh        Son.
 1628 - 1654    Raj Singh        Son. Rebuilt Chittor from the ruins.
 1654 - 1681    While a revolt against Moghul emperor Aurangzeb is already underway in Marwar, Raj Singh revolts against the jaziya tax. Aurangzeb is quick to retaliate, destroying perhaps 173 temples in Udaipur and 63 temples in Chittor. Raj Singh is defeated in battle in 1680, but for a time he joins the guerrilla war being waged by Marwar. Aurungzeb eventually agrees a treaty with his son, Jai Singh.        Son.
 1678 - 1680    Maharana Jai Singh         
 1681 - 1700    Amar Singh II        Son. m daughter of Jaswantsingh of Jaisalmer.
 1700 - 1716    Raja Chatrasal founds the Bundela kingdom of Panna. The Bundelas are Chhatri Suryanvanshi Rajputs by origin.        Son. Restored the independence of the kingdom.
 1707    Maharana Sangram Singh II         
 1716 - 1734    Udajirao Pawar assists Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I in his Malwa campaign. In reward for his services, Udaji Pwar is given Dhar as his jagir (estate). His ancestors had been Gurjars who assumed the status of Chandravanshi Rajput Kshatriyas (claiming descent from Raja Vikramaditya of Malwa).        Regained the kingdom's lost territories.
 1728    Udajirao of Dhar falls out with the Peshwa and his jagir rights are transferred to his two brothers, Tukaji Pawar and Jivaji Pawar, who establish themselves as rulers in Dewas. Udajirao is sent off to Multan, where he dies.         
 1732    Jagat Singh II         
 1734 - 1751    Jagat Singh II begins his reign with a revival of the triple alliance between Mewar, Marwar, and Amer, which had first been agreed during the reign of Amar Singh II but which had failed at the time. This renewed union of states is formed at Hoorlah, a town within Amer. Unfortunately, it again fails, due to individual ambition, and the increasingly powerful Maratha empire is able to conquer the entire Rajasthan region.        Son.
 1734    Jagat Singh II places his eldest son, Ishwari Singh, on the throne of Amer. Politics being played by Jagat Singh's queen mean that Ishwari Singh commits suicide in 1750. Jagat Singh's misrule in his own kingdom sends it into a decline following his death, with the throne being occupied by incompetent successors.         
 1743    Pratap Singh II         
 1752 -1755    Raj Singh II        Son. Continually fighting off Maratha invasions.
 1755 - 1762    On the death of Raj Singh, his uncle makes sure the order of succession is amended to allow him to claim the throne.        Son.
 1762    Ari Singh II         
 1762 - 1772    Hamir Singh II        Uncle. Assassinated, apparently by Rao Raja Ajit Singh of Bundi.
 1772 - 1778    Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur is granted the panch hazari mansab by Moghul Emperor Shah Alam, and founds the Rajput kingdom of Alwar as a result.        Son.
 1775    Bhim Singh II         
 1778 - 1828    The Third Maratha War results in a decisive victory for the British against the Peshwa in India. The last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, is defeated, and the Maratha empire is largely annexed, bound by treaty to the British Crown. It is at this time (in 1818) that Bhim Singh also officially accepts the superiority of British power in the country.        Brother. Acceded aged 8.
 1818    Maharana Jawan Singh         
 1828 - 1838    Sardar Singh        Son.
 1838 - 1842    Maharana Swaroop Singh        Adopted son.
 1842 - 1861    Maharana Shambhu Singh        Adopted son.
 1861 - 1874    Sajjan Singh        Adopted son.
 1874 - 1884    Maharana Fateh Singh        Adopted son.
 1884 - 1930    Maharana Bhopal Singh        Adopted son. Powers curbed by British in India. Titular ruler only.
 1930 - 1955    India achieves independence from Britain and begins the process of taking control of the princely states. Mewar is one of the first of the princely states to merge with the new dominion. Later in 1949, twenty-two princely states of Rajasthan merge to form the Union of Greater Rajasthan, acknowledging the maharana of Udaipur in Mewar as their head. The states which cease to exist include Alwar, Amer, Bikaner, Bundi, Dewas, Dhar, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Malwa.        Son.


Rathore of Marwad
Marwar was ruled by Rathores for centuries, current Rathore rule was established in year 1226 AD. Rathore arise from the Sanskrit word Rastrakoot .Ranbanka Rathores proudly carried their legacy till date by showing courage, chivalry and bravery at various points of time in history and even today they are maintaining the highest standards of Rajput culture. 
Various theories have been proposed about their origin like:-
1.    Bhatoun ki Pothiyan states them to be son of Hirankashyap
2.    Dayaldas in book states them to be Suryavanshi
3.    Prathvi Raj Raso states them to be from Kanuj
Rathore clan expanded their territories covering the largest area of Rajputana state. Erstwhile Bikaner state was also under the Bika Rathores; a branch of main Rathore clan. Compared to Jaipur, Mewar or Shekhawati region, the Rathore rule was covering almost entire Thar Desert and a big part of sandy planes of current Rajasthan state. However it was divided under to power centers i.e. Jodhpur-Marwar and Bikaner-Jangladesh. Goddess Nagnechi Mata is the family deity of all Rathores.

Rathore rulers have built many magnificent forts and palaces in Marwar region, the larger than life Mehrangarh Fort is known as the pride of entire Marwar. At the same time the beautiful Umaid Bhawan palace is among the largest residential buildings of world. The current royal family of Marwar resides in Umaid Bhawan palace.

Rajpurohits, Rabaris or Raikas, Lanagas, Manganiars and Kalbelias are few important communities of Marwar; they have contributed in nourishing the culture, language and music of the region.
Chronology of Rathore Rulers:-
Rathore rule in Mawar could be Traced to Rao Siyaji / Shiva, Grandson of King Jai Chandra of the Gahadavalas.(who ruled western India after the fall of Kannauj). 
1226 - 1272    Rao Siyaji / Shiva    Grandson of King Jai Chandra of the Gahadavalas.
 1226    Rao Siyaji visits Marwar on pilgrimage and stops at a town called Pali. The local Brahmin community asks him to settle there, become their chief, and protect them from raiders.


1271    Rao Siyaji is killed in battle against Sultan Balban and a huge army from Delhi.
 1272 - 1292    Rao Asthan    Son.
     During his reign, Rao Asthan conquers Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately he is killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi.
 1292 - 1309    Rao Doohad    Son. Vied with Rao Sindhal for control of Marwar.
 1292    Rao Sindhal    Rival for the throne.
 1309 - 1313    Rao Raipal    Son.
 1313 - 1323    Rao Kanha / Kanhapal    Son.
 1323 - 1328    Rao Jalansi    Son.
 1328 - 1344    Rao Chada / Chandoji    Son.
 1344 - 1357    Rao Tida    Son.
 1357 - 1374    Rao Kanhadev    Son of Salkha / Salkhaji, son of Tida.
 1374 - 1383    Rao Viramdev / Biramdev    Son.
 1383 - 1406    Rao Chanda / Chundarji    Son. Tenth in line from Siyaji. Seized control of Jodhpur.
 1406    Rao Chanda gains full power in Marwar and Jodhpur after wresting then from the Islamic rulers of Delhi. From this point onwards, Marwar is ruled by the Rathores, and shares their fate.

        
        

Jodhpur & Marwar
 AD 1406 - 1947

Jodhpur was a small Rajput kingdom which emerged in thirteenth century Rajasthan in north-west of India. The kingdom's founders were the Rathore clan of Rajputs, who claimed descent from the Gahadavala kings of Kannauj. After the sacking of Kannauj by Muhammad of Ghor, the Ghurid king, in 1194, and its capture by the Delhi sultanate in the early thirteenth century, the Rathores fled west.
The Rathore family chronicles relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last Gahadavala king of Kannauj, entered Marwar on a pilgrimage to Dwarka in Gujarat, and on halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to protect the Brahmin community from the raids of marauding bands. Later, Rao (king) Chanda, who was tenth in line of succession from Siyaji of Marwar, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Pratiharas and established his own independent kingdom from Jodhpur.
Jodhpur was one of a number of small Rajput kingdoms that emerged between the sixth and thirteenth centuries, including Amer,Bikaner, Bundi, Jaisalmer, Malwa,and Mewar, and all were eventually conquered by the Moghuls.
 

1406 - 1424    Rao Chanda / Chundarji    Secured Marwar and founded the kingdom of Jodhpur.
 1424 - 1427    The great Rao Chanda, founder of the kingdom, is killed in battle by the forces of Salim Shah of Multan. The king's son, Kanha, subsequently has to fight to retain his throne when his brother Rao Ranmal, who had been disinherited by their father, makes a bid for power. Ultimately, Ranmal is successful.
 1424 - 1427    Rao Kanha    Son. Faced opposition from his brothers.
 1424 - 1427    Rao Sanha    Brother. Rebelled against his brother's rule.
 1424 - 1438    Rao Ranmal / Ranamalla / Ranmalji    Brother. Opposed Rao Kanha.
 1438 - 1489    Rao Jodha    Son. First fully independent Rathore king of Jodhpur & Marwar.
 1459    The first fully independent king of Jodhpur, Jodha reconquers Mandore from the Sisodiyas of Mewar before he founds the city of Jodhpur. The city is named after him and forms the capital of the Rathor state (and in modern times is still an administrative centre). Construction on the impressive fort of Mehran Garh (or Mehrangarh) is begun in the same year.

1465    Rao Bika is a member of the Rathore clan and is the son of Rao Jodha. Following a disagreement with his father he leaves Jodhpur and founds the city of Bikaner after building his fort, Rati Ghati, on the site.
 1489    Upon the death of his father, Rao Bika of Bikaner is refused the family heirlooms (the sandalwood throne, 'Pugal', plus an umbrella, a sword, and a horse) by his brothers, he marches to Fort Mehrangarh and subdues his brothers. He doesn't harm them, simply regaining his rightful property.
 1489 - 1492    Rao Satalji    Son. Killed in battle in March.
 1492 - 1515    Rao Sujaji    Brother.
 1515    Rao Biram Singh    Son of Rao Satalji. Deposed.
 1515 - 1532    Rao Gangaji    Brother. Usurped the throne from Rao Biram Singh.
 1532 - 1562    Rao Maldeo / Maldev    Son. Expanded kingdom, taking Ajmer, Merta, & Nagore.
 1542 - 1543    Rao, or king, Maldeo initially thinks that an alliance with the exiled Moghul emperor, Humayun, will be a good idea. However, when Maldeo sees the reduced size of the Moghul army, he withdraws his proposal, only to make it again when the emir of Sindh kills his father. The war against Sindh quickly bogs down, ending in stalemate. Humayan retreats to Kabul.
 1562 - 1565    Rao Chandra Sen    Son.
 1562    Chandra Sen seizes the throne on the death of his father and in the absence of his elder brothers. On learning of Chandra Sen's usurpation of their position, his brothers joined forces with Moghul Emperor Akbar.
 1565 - 1581    Aided by Chandra Sen's dispossessed brothers, Moghul Emperor Akbar gains the submission of Jodhpur and Marwar, along with the other Rajputs of Bikaner, Bundi, and Jaisalmer. Governors are assigned to Jodhpur during this period, before the ruling house is restored. Subsequent generations consistently enter Moghul service.
 1581 - 1583    Rao Rai Singh    Son.
 1583 - 1595    Raja Udai Singh    Uncle. First of his line to be called raja of Jodhpur & Marwar.
 1595 - 1619    Sawai Raja Sur Singh    Son.
 1619 - 1638    Maharaja Gaj Singh I    Son. Used the title 'maharaja' on a personal basis.
 1638 - 1678    Maharaja Jaswant Singh    
 1678    While Jaswant Singh has been a loyal servant of the Moghul emperor, Aurangzeb, he has been plotting behind his back to reduce the Rajputs' special status within the empire. With the death of Jai Singh of Amer and with Jaswant Singh fighting in Afghanistan, where he suddenly dies, Aurangzeb puts his plan into operation. He attacks Marwar, capturing forts and destroying temples, and then sells the throne itself to the chief of Nagar, while attempting to install a milkman's son as ruler of Marwar. The true heir to the throne is an infant in the care of Jaswant Singh's aide, Durgadas.
 1678 - 1698    ?    Moghul governor in the name of Emperor Aurangzeb.
 1678 - 1707    Buoyed by the people of Marwar revolting against Aurangzeb's actions, Durgadas raises an army against theMoghuls which settles in the forests to wage a guerrilla war. In Mewar, Ajit Singh's maternal uncle, Raj Singh, also revolts against Aurangzeb and in 1680 he joins Durgadas in the forests. After an alliance with Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, fails, Durgadas and Akbar take refuge with Sambhaji, the Maratha emperor in the south. Durgadas and Ajit Singh continue their struggle until Aurangzeb until his death.

1678 - 1707        Durgadas    Regent and former aide to Jaswant Singh.
 1679 - 1724    Maharaja Shri Ajit Singh    Son of Jaswant. First maharaja of Jodhpur & Marwar.
 1707    Upon the death of Moghul emperor Aurangzeb, Ajit Singh recaptures Marwar and is able to re-establish his kingdom, becoming fully independent and making his capital at Jodhpur. The king is later reconciled with Emperor Bahadur Shah I. Said to have been killed by his son Abhai singh and Bakht singh.
 1724    Maharaja Shri Ajit Singh's death is rumoured to be caused by his sons, Abhai Singh and Bakht Singh.
 1724 - 1749    Maharaja Shri Abhai Singh    Son. Appointed Moghul subedar of Gujarat.
 1739    Wars between Marwar and Bikaner are triggered when Abhai Singh attacks Bikaner, but the capital is saved through the intervention of Raja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur.
 1749 - 1751    Maharaja Shri Ram Singh    Brother. Deposed.
 1751 - 1752    Maharaja Shri Bakht Singh    Brother. Deposed.
 1752 - 1753    Maharaja Shri Vijay Singh    Son. Temporarily deposed.
 1753 - 1772    Maharaja Shri Ram Singh    Son of Abhai Singh.
 1772 - 1793    Maharaja Shri Vijay Singh    Restored. Largely involved in defending kingdom from Marathas.
 1793 - 1803    Maharaja Shri Bhim Singh    Grandson, and son of Bhom Singh.
 1803 - 1817    Maharaja Shri Man Singh    Grandson of Vijay Singh, and son of Guman Singh. Abdicated.
 1817 - 1818    Maharaja Shri Chatar Singh    Son. King in place of his father temporarily.
 1818 - 1843    Maharaja Shri Man Singh    Returned as king.
 1843 - 1873    Maharaja Shri Sir Takht Singh    Not in direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh.
 1857 - 1858    In common with many of his peers, Takht Singh assists the British in India during the Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Mutiny), following which the British Viceroys are established to replace the Moghuls as the highest power in the land.


Rathore of Bikaner
RaoBhikaji Rathore, son of Rao Jodhaji of Marwar (Jodhpur), founded the state of Bikaner, in Northern Rajasthan, in 1465. His great grandson, Rai Singhji assumed the titles of Maharajadhiraja and Maharaja, but these were not officially recognised by the Mughal emperors.
A marriage alliance between Rai Singhji's daughter and the Emperor Jahangir, enhanced the power and prestige of the house. More importantly, it safeguarded the family domains from Mughal incursions. Anup Singhji received confirmation of the hereditary title of Maharaja from Aurangzeb in 1687, in recognition of his part in the capture of Golconda and Bijapur. His grandson, Gaj Singhji I, received confirmation of the title of Maharajadhiraja in 1752, from Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan conqueror. The princes of the ruling family served the Mughals with considerable distinction for several generations, as soldiers, Imperial governors and statesmen. 
when the Mughal power began to wane, and the Marathas began to threat, they  entered into a treaty of Friendship and Alliance with the British. This new alliance, concluded in 1818, ensured that the age-old martial tradition of the Rathores continued stronger than ever.
From the Third Mahratta War to the conclusion of British rule, troops from Bikaner fought alongside British troops in every campaign. Maharaja Ganga Singhji ensured that his famous regiments, such as the Bikaner Camel Corps, were amongst the first Indian states' troops to go into battle. He often served in person, eventually rising to the rank of a full General, one of only four Indians to do so during British rule. He represented Imperial India on the world stage, at Imperial conferences, the League of Nations, and most importantly, at the Peace Conference. He had served as the Indian member of the Imperial War Cabinet during the Great War, and signed the Versailles Treaty on India's behalf in 1919.

Chronology  of Rathore of Bikaner
 1465 - 1504    Rao Bika    Born 1438. Of the Rathore clan and founder of Bikaner.
 1465    Rao Bika is a member of the Rathore clan and is the son of Rao Jodha of Jodhpur. Following a disagreement with his father he leaves Jodhpur and founds the city of Bikaner after building his fort, Rati Ghati, on the site. He ends the rivalry between his clan and the Bati clan by marrying the daughter of their ruler. When refused the family heirlooms (the sandalwood throne, 'Pugal', plus an umbrella, a sword, and a horse) by his brothers, he marches to Fort Mehrangarh and subdues his brothers. He does not harm them, simply regaining his rightful property.
 During his reign he also subdues the Jats, Pathans, Bilochis, and Kyamkhanis and annexes their territory to his kingdom. He eventually dies at his fort.
 1504 - 1505    Rao Naroji    Son. Lost control over some of his nobles.
 1505 - 1526    Rao Lunkaranji succeeds Naroji and subdues the rebelling nobles. He later defeats a Moghul army under Prince Kamran, but dies in battle against the nawab of Narnaul.
 1505 - 1526    Rao Lunkaranji    Brother. Married the daughter of the ruler of Mewar.
 1526 - 1542    Rao Jait Singhji    Son.
     Jait Singhji defeats the Bidwats, Chahals,and Johiyas, and expands the kingdom's territory by taking portions ofMarwar. He is subsequently killed in battle by Marwar's forces under Rao Maldev.
 1542 - 1571    Rao Kalyan Singh    Son.
     Kalyan Singh is forced to flee his kingdom by the forces of Marwar, but he soon recovers it from Rao Maldev thanks to the help of Sher Shah Suri. He also resists an onslaught by the Moghul emperor, Akbar.
 by 1570    The Moghul emperor, Akbar, gains the submission of Bikaner, along with the other Rajputs of Bundi, Jaisalmer, andJodhpur.
 1571 - 1611    Raja Raj Singh I    Son. Subdued Jodhpur. Died in the Deccan at Burhanpur.
     Raj Singh marries the princess of Jaisalmer, and later becomes Emperor Akbar's general. His own daughter is married to Prince Salim, son of Akbar (and later the Moghul Emperor Jehangir).
 1611    On his deathbed, Raj Singh passes over Dalpat in favour of his younger brother, Sur Singh. Dalpat rebels and declares himself king.
 1611 - 1614    Raja Dalpat Singh    Son. Usurped the throne. Served as a commander in Moghul army.
 1614    Sur Singh takes his brother prisoner and seizes his throne. Dalpat Singh is killed at Ajmer while trying to escape from captivity.
 1614 - 1631    Raja Sur Singh    Brother.
 1631 - 1669    Raja Karan Singh    Son. Deposed.
 1646    Differences have arisen between the king of Golconda and the Moghul governor of the Deccan, Emperor Shah Jahan's son, Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb's own son is Prince Muhammed, and he is deputed to attack Golconda. Anup Singh, son of Raja Karan Singh, aids him, winning the fort of Golconda.
 1658    A war of succession erupts when Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan falls ill. With Karan Singh as one of his supporters, Aurangzeb defeats Dara Shukoh in battle using a mixture of guile and bravery and subsequently seizes power. Karan Singh's later reward is to be deposed by Aurangzeb for dereliction of duty at Attock. He is exiled to Aurangabad in the Deccan, where he dies.
 1669 - 1698    Maharaja Anup Singh    Son. Died at Adoni in Deccan.
 1698 - 1700    Maharaja Sarup Singh    Son. Succeeded aged 9. Died of smallpox at Adoni.
 1700 - 1736    Maharaja Sujan Singh    Brother? Succeeded aged 10. Broke off ties with declining Moghuls.
     Sujan Singh assists Emperor Aurangzeb in the Deccan, and successfully wards off attacks from Jodhpur and Nagaur. Once it becomes clear that Moghul power is fading, Sujan Singh breaks off ties (and Moghul control).
 1736 - 1745    Maharaja Zorawar Singh    Son.
 1739    Wars against Marwar are triggered when Abhai Singh of Marwar attacks Bikaner. The capital is saved through the intervention of Raja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur, although Zorawar Singh has to quell rebellions by his own nobles.
 1745 - 1787    Maharaja Gaj Singh    Nephew and adopted son.
 1745    Maharaja Gaj Singh makes peace with Marwar against the wishes of his nobles. He is also the first of his line to mint his own coins.
 1787    Maharaja Raj Singh II    Son. Reigned for 13 days.
 1787    Maharaja Pratap Singh    Son. Succeeded aged 6. Died same year, perhaps killed by uncle.
 1788 - 1828    Maharaja Surat Singh    Uncle, and regent during Pratap's short reign.
     Surat Singh's reign is one of mixed fortunes. He resolves border disputes with Jaipur, and concedes the payment of indemnity to the Marathas after their attack, incurring huge debts in the process. He later applies for Britishprotection after an internal rebellion.
 1828 - 1851    Maharaja Narendra Ratan Singh    Son.
 1839    Narendra Ratan Singh supplies camels to the British in India during their Afghan campaign.
 1844 - 1845    The British in India annexe Sindh in 1844, and the Sikhs attack British divisions at Ferozepur. The First Anglo-Sikh War is triggered in 1845. The Sikhs fight well, but eventually succumb to the disciplined British army following betrayals by some of their Dogra generals. Narendra Ratan Singh supplies help to the British for this campaign.
 1851 - 1872    Maharaja Sardar Singh    Son.
 1857 - 1858    The Indian Mutiny (or Great Sepoy Rebellion) against British rule erupts among East India Company native army units at Meerut, near Delhi, but after some hard fighting in places it is suppressed, with Sardar Singh providing support. The British Parliament places India under the direct control of the empire's Viceroys.

 

Kachwa Rulers of Amer

The Kachhwaha clan of the Rajputs of Amber we are one of the most important components of the Mughal nobility.

The Minas were ousted by Kachhwaha Rajputs from Amer. The Kachchwaha rulers of Amber-Jaipur trace their descent from Kush, the son of Ram, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. In the Balban inscription of 1288 A.D., Chatsu inscription of 1499 A.D., Sanganer inscription of 1601 and Rewasa inscription of 1604 A.D., the Kachhwaha has been mentioned as Kurmas or Kurmbha

The ruling chief of thisprincipality Raja Bharamal Kachhwaha was the first Rajput ruler who acceptedthe subordination of Emperor Akbar and also offered him his daughter in marriage. In turn they were rewarded with high mansabs and important administrative offices in Mughal administration. Several member of the family such as Raja Bharamal, Bhagwant Das, Man Singh, Jagannath, Bhao Singh and Jai Singh were held in high esteem by the Mughal rulers.

Amber was a small state in the north-eastern plain of Rajputana and upto 1528 the rulers were practically feudatories of the Sisodias of Mewar. However, after the death of Rana Sangram, they became almost independent but the rulers of Marwar and the Muslims officers posted at Ajmer and Nagore continued to harass them.' On the eve of the Mughal conquest of India, Amber was ruled by Prithvi Raj Kachhwahas. It seems that close relations between the Kachhwahas and the imperial Mughals were established quite early.

 

Chauhan Rulers of Sambhar/Sakambhari

There are several theories about the origin of chauhans which are as follows:-

  1. Prithviraj Raso – Agnikund at Abu
  2. Prithiviraj Vijay- Suryavanshi
  3. Col. Tod- Foriegner
  4. Dr. Dashrat Sharma- Bhramins
  5. Chandravati Lekh- Bhramins

Chronology of Chauhan Rulers of Sambhar:-

  1. Ajairaj II: Prithviraj I was succeeded by his son Ajairaj II who was a famous ruler of his time. He founded Ajmer and also attacked Malava captured Sulhana and made the senapati of Parmar king Naravarman as his prisoner. He killed rulers Chachig, Sindhul and Yashoraj.Ajay Maru or Ajmer. He defeted the Muslims.
  2. Arnoraj : Ajairaj was succeeded by his son Arnoraj before 1133 AD. Jaisingh Siddhraj, Chalukya ruler, attacked Arnoraj but later he returned the kingdom of Arnoraj and married his daughter Kanchandevi with him. Arnoraj's second wife was Sidhawa ,daughter of Marwar ruler of Avichi province. Jaisingh Siddharaj's son also fought against Arnoraj. Arnoraj entered into a treaty with king Ballal of Ujjain and attacked Siddharaj's son Kumarpal. Arnoraj had also conquered the king of Kushavarna and had successfully faced the attack of the Muslims. Near about 1155 A.D.
  3. Jugdeva :Arnoraj's son Jugdeva killed his father and ascended the throne. But only after a few days his younger brother Vigraharaja IV usurped the throne from him. Kanchanadevi's son was Someshwar and Sudhawa had three sons, whose elder son Jagdev killed Arnoraj. This murder was prior to year 1153 AD. Jagdev ruled for a short period who was dethroned by Vigraharaj IV. [23]
  4. Vigraharaj IV (1159 AD) : He ruled from 1153 to 1163 A.D. He was a powerful king and is also known as Bisaldeva. He conquered Delhi from the kings of Tomar dynasty and attacked Chalukya king Kumarpala and to avenge his father's defeat, he destroyed the areas of Pallika and Naddul. Narhar Inscription of Vigraharaja IV of s.v. 1215 (1159 AD) tells us that Vigraharaj IV ruled over wide areas of Shekhawati.
  5. Amarangeya: After the death of Bisaldeva his son Amarangeya succeeded him as a king. But he died at an early age and was succeeded by Prithviraj II.
  6. Prithviraj II: To check the attacks of the Muslims Prithviraj II had appointed his maternal uncle Guhila Kilahana as the ruler of Punjab.
  7. Someshwara: After the death of Prithviraj II, his uncle Someshwara succeeded him as a king. He was the son of Arnoraj and his mother Kanchandevi was a princess ofChalukya dynasty. Someshwara had extended his empire to Gwalior, Kannauj and to Hissar and Sarhind in the west.
  8. Prithviraj III (1166-1192 CE): He was the son of Someshwara and ascended the throne at the age of 15 years. Because of his minor age, his mother Karpuradevi looked after the administration of the state for one year. During this period Nagas, who had many small states, organized and rebelled against Chauhan dynasty. Rani Karpuri Devi sent her faithful minister Bhuwanikamal and suppressed the Nagas. Later on we do not hear about Nagas in history. [24]
  9. Prithviraja III defeated the Afghan ruler Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 CE. Ghori attacked for a second time next year, and Prithviraja III was defeated and slain at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 CE. After his defeat Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers.

 

Chauhans of Ranthambore

The Chahamana or Chauhan dynasty of Ranastambhapura (Ranthambore) was established by Govinda-raja, a member of the Shakambhari Chahamana family (also known as the Chauhans of Ajmer).Govinda was the son of Prithviraja III, who was defeated and killed in a battle with the Delhi Sultanate, in 1192 CE. The Delhi Sultan Muhammad of Ghor appointed Govinda as his vassal at Ajmer. However, Prithviraja's brother Hari-raja de-throned him, and himself became the ruler of AjmerGovinda then established a new kingdom with its capital at Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambor). After the Muslim conquest of Ajmer, he granted asylum to Hari.

Balhana, the son of Govindaraja, is recorded as a vassal of the Delhi Sultan Iltumish in 1215 CE, but declared independence in the later years.Balhana's elder son Prahlada succeeded him, and died in a lion-hunt. Prahlada's son Viranarayana was invited to Delhi by Iltumish, but was poisoned to death there.[3] Iltumish captured the fort in 1226 CE. Balhana's younger son Vagabhata then ascended the throne of Ranthambore. He recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi ruler Razia (r. 1236-1240). He successfully defended the fort against the Delhi Sultanate's invasions in 1248 and 1253 CE.

Vagbhata's son Jaitrasimha achieved military successes against Paramaras of Malwa and other Rajput chiefs. He, however, lost his sovereignty to Nasir-ud-din, and ended up paying tribute to the Delhi Sultanate.

Hammira-Deva, the last ruler of the dynasty, was also its most powerful ruler.He is supposed to have won 16 wars and died fighting in the 17th with Allauddin Khilji.

He constructed the 32 Khamboun ki Chatri in Ranthambore.

He ascended the throne sometime between 1283 and 1289 CE. Hammira-Mahakavya, his biography by Nayachandra, is one of the few non-Muslim sources for the region's history from that period, and enables the historians to verify the accounts of the Muslim chronicles. The Balvan inscription of 1288 CE mentions that Hammira captured the elephant force of Arjuna II, the Paramara king of Malwa.The Hammira-Mahakavyasuggests that he also defeated Arjuna's successor Bhoja II. He also subjugated the Paramara branch of Abu. He is said to have marched to Chitrakuta (Chittor). He raided several neighbouring Rajput territories, including Medapata (Mewar) and Vardhamanpura (modern Wadhwan).Hammira's wars with fellow Hindu Rajputs ultimately left him without any allies against the Delhi Sultanate. He successfully resisted invasions by Jalal-ud-din and Ala-ud-din's general Ulugh Khan. But he was killed in an invasion led by Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1301.

 

Chauhans of Jalore

 Kirtipala, the youngest son of Alhana, the Chahamana ruler of Nadol, was the founder of the Jalore line of Chauhans. He captured it from the Parmars in 1181 and took the clan name Songara, after the place. His son Samarsimha succeeded him in 1182.

Udayasimha was the next ruler under whom Jalore had a golden period. He was a powerful and able ruler ruling over a large area. He recaptured Nadol & Mandor from the Muslims. In 1228, Iltutmish circled Jalore but Udayasimha offered stiff resistance. He was succeeded by Chachigadeva & Samantasimha. Samantasimha was succeeded by his son Kanhadadeva.

During the reign of Kanhad Dev Songara, Jalor was attacked and destroyed in 1311 by Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi. Kanhad Dev Songara and his son Viramdeo Songira died defending Jalore. The Muslim rulers of Palanpur State of Gujarat briefly ruled Jalor in the 16th century and it became part of the Mughal Empire. It was restored to Marwar in 1704, and remained part of the kingdom until shortly after Indian Independence in 1947

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