8. World Geography Part 4 UPSC Notes | EduRev

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The Northern Plains

  • Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
  • Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM

Three main zones:

  1. Bhabar
  2. Tarai
  3. Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)

Bhabar

  • Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
  • Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.

Tarai

  • South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
  • Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.

Alluvial Belt

  • South of Tarai.
  • Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
  • Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.

Peninsular Plateau

  • Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
  • Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
  • One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.
  • Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.
  • Black soil in western and northwestern parts.
  • Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)
  • NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.

Three broad regions:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Highlands
  3. Northwestern Plateau

Deccan Plateau

  • Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
  • Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
  • EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
  • Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
  • Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.

Central Highlands

  • Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
  • Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
  • Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
  • Elevation: 700-1000 m
  • Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
  • Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.

Northeastern Plateau

  • Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
  • Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
  • Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
  • Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
  • Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon.  Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.

Indian Desert

  • Aka MarusthalI
  • Northwest of the Aravali hills
  • Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
  • Low rainfall: >150 mm per year                           Low vegetation cover
  • Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
  • Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
  • Rivers are ephemeral: Luni.                      Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.

Coastal Plains

Two divisions:

  1. Western coastal plains
  2. Eastern Coastal Plains

Western Coastal Plains

  • Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
  • Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
  • Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
  • May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
  • Rivers don’t form delta.
  • Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.

Eastern Coastal Plains

  • Broader
  • Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
  • Delta formation

The Islands

Two major Divisions: 

  1. Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Lakshwadeep & Minicoy

Andaman and Nicobar

  • Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
  • The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
  • Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
  • Barren Island
  • Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
  • Coral deposits found
  • Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.

Lakshadweep and Minicoy

  • Entire group built of coral deposits.
  • Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
  • Smallest UT
  • Minicoy is the largest island
  • Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.
  • These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.

Drainage System

  • Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system .
  • Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries.
  • Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other.
  • River basins are larger watersheds.
  • Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and structure of rocks, topography, rocks, slope, amount of water and periodicity of flow.

Important drainage patterns:

  1. Dendritic: Resembling the branches of a tree. Eg. Northern Plain rivers
  2. Radial: Originate from a hill and flow in all directions. Eg. Rivers in Amarkantak
  3. Trellis: Primary tributaries parallel to each other and secondary tributaries join them at right angles.
  4. Centripetal: Rivers discharge waters from all directions in a lake or depression

A river drains the water collected from a specific area, which is called its catchment area.

Nearly 77 pc of drainage is towards the Bay of Bengal while about 23 pc is towards the Arabian Sea.

The Himalayan Drainage System

Mainly includes the Ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra river basins.

Over the plains, rivers of this system change the course often. River Kosi is also known as the ‘sorrow of Bihar’ due to flooding by its frequent change of course by deposition of sediments.

Evolution

Geologists believe that a mighty river called Shivalik or Indo-Brahma traversed the entire length of the Himalayas some 5-24 million years ago. Over time this got dismembered into the present three major river systems.

The Indus System

Indus river originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in Tibet in the Kailash Mountain range. Known as Singi Khamban (Lion’s mouth) in Tibet. It forms a spectacular gorge near Gilgit in J&K. Enters Pakistan near Chillar in the Dardistan region. Flows only through the Leh distt of J&K.

Smaller tributaries: Shyok, Gilgit, Zaskar, Nubra, Hunza, Shigar, Gasting, Dras. On right bank: Kabul river, Khurram, Tochi, Gomal, Viboa and hte Sangar.

Major tributaries: Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum

Jhelum

Origin: Verinag at foot of Pir Pinjal.

Flows through Srinagar and the Wular lake. Joins Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan

Chenab

Origin: Two streams (Chandra and Bhaga) which join at Tandi near Keylong in HP.

Largest tributary of Indus. Aka Chandrabhaga. Flows for 1180 KM before entering Pakistan

Ravi

Origin: Kullu hills of HP near Rohtang Pass. Enters Pakistan and joins Chenab near Sarai Sidhu

Beas

Origin: Beas Kund near Rohtang pass.

Forms gorges at Kati and Largi in the Dhaoladhar range. Meets Satluj near Harike.

Satluj

Origin: Rakas lake near Mansarowar in Tibet. Known as Langchen Khambab in Tibet.

Enters India at Ropar. Antecedent river. Bhakra Nangal Project is on this river.

 

The Ganga System

It is the largest river system in India.

Ganga rises in the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in the Uttarkashi district. Here it is known as the Bhagirathi. At Devprayag, Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda and is known as Ganga hereafter.

Panchprayag

Vishnu Ganga

Joshimath

Dhauli and Vishnu Ganga meet to form Alaknanda

Alaknanda

Origin: Satopanth glacier above Badrinath. Consists of Dhauli and Vishnu Ganga.

Yamuna

Origin: Yamnotri glacier on Banderpunch range. Joins Ganga at Prayag (Allahabad).

RBT: Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken

LBT: Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Varuna.

Agra canal

Chambal

Origin: Mhow in Malwa plateau.

Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar dam.

Famour for Chambal ravines.

Gandak

Origin: In Nepal between Dhaulgiri and Mt. Everest. Enters Ganga plain in Champaran and joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna.

Two streams: Kaliganfak and Trishulganga.

 

Ghaghra

Origin: Glaciers of Mapchachungo

Tributaries: Tila, Seti and Beri

Deep gorge at Shishpani

Sarda (Kali) joint it and meet Ganga at Chhapra.

Kosi

Origin: North of Mt. Everest in Tibet.

Tributaties: Son Kosi, Tamur Kosi, Arun

Changes course often. Sorrow of Bihar.

 

  • Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar.
  • Left Bank tributaries (LBT): Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and Mahananda.
  • Right Bank tributaries (RBT): Son
  • Discharges into Bay of Bengal near Sagar island.

 

Energy Resources of India

 

1CoalJharkhandJharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj,
   Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal
2 OrissaTalcher, Rampur
3 M.P (Former)Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria
   Satupura Coalfields - Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera
   North Chhattisgarh - Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili,
   Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola
   South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh
4 West BengalRaniganj, Darjeeling
5 Andhra Pr.Singareni, Kothgundam, Tandur
6 MaharashtraChanda-Wardha, Kamptee, Bander
7TetiaryMeghalayaDaranggiri, Cherpunji, Laitryngew, Mawlong, Langrin, Pendengru,
 coal Longoi, Waimong
8 AssamMakum, Jaipur, Nazira
9 Arunachal PrNamchuk-Namphuk
10 J & KKalakot, Mohogala, Metka
11 RajasthanPalana (lignite) & Khari
12PetroleumNorth-EastDigboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki, Hugrijan, Nigru,
   Borholla
13 GujaratAnkeleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana,
   Barkol,Mehsana, Sanand, Lunej, Aliabet island
14 Mumbai HighBombay high, Bassein
15 East CoastNarimanam, Kovillapal, Amlapur, Rawa
16 OtherJaiselmer, Jwalamukhi Area (Punjab)
17NaturalMumbaiBombay high, Bassein
18GasGujaratJagatia, Gogha
19 AssamNahorkatiya & Moran
20 Tamil NaduNeypaltur, Mangamadam, Avadi, Virugambakam
21 TripuraBaranura, Atharnure
22 RajasthanBarmer, Charaswala
23 Arunachal PrNon Chick, Mia-Pung, Laptan pung
24 Himachal PrJwalamukhi, Kangra
25 West BengalMedinipur
26Uranium Jaduguda (Jharkhand), Bhatin, Narwapahar under Uranium
   Corportation in India are the only mines worked at present
27Thorium Beach Sands (Kerala), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pr, Orissa

 

Mineral Resources of India

 

1Iron OreChhattisgarh 24 %Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri
2 Goa (21%)Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim
3 Karnataka (20%)Bellary, Hospet, Sandur
4 Jharkhand (17 %)Noamund, Gua
5 Orissa (15 %)Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj),
   Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh).
6 MaharashtraChandrapur, Ratnagiri, Bhandara
7 Andhra Pr.Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnod, Cuddapah, Anantpur district
8 Tamil NaduTirthmalai, Yadapalli, Killimalai, kanjamalai, & Gondumalai
9CopperM. P (46%)Balghat (Malanjkhand)
10 Rajasthan (33%)Khetri (Jhunjhunu & Alwar)
11 Jharkhand (21%)Singhbum
12ManganeseKarnataka (38%)Bellary, North Kanara, Shimoga
13 Orissa (17%)Kendujhar, Sundargarh, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir
14 M.P. (10 %)Balghat
15 Maharashtra (8%)Nagpur & Bhandara
16BauxiteOrissa (44 %)Koraput, Kalahandi, Sundargarh
17 Jharkhand (18 %)Gumla, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Palamau
18 Maharashtra (13%)Kolhapur, Ratnagir
19 Chhattisgarh(11%)Bastar, Bilaspur, Surguja district
20 M.P. (11 %)Mandla, Satna, Jabalpur, Shahdol
21 Gujarat (8 %)Jamnagar, Kachchh, Junagarh
22 Tamil Nadu (4 %)Salem, Nilgiri
23ChromiteOrissa (97 %)Sukinda, Kendujhar, Dhenkanal ditricts
24 Karnataka (2.3 %)Hassan
25 Maharashtra (%)Chandrapur
26 Jharkhand (%)Purbi & Paschmi Singhbum district
27 Andhra Pr (%)Khammam
28LeadRajasthan (80 %)Zawar region (Udaipur), Dariba, Rajura
29 Orissa (11%)
30 Andhra Pr (8 %)
31ZincRajasthan (99 %)Zawar –a. Pipli khan to Barla khan b. Mochia, Magra, Balaria
32 Sikkim 
33GoldKarnataka (67 %)Kolar, Hutti gold fields (Raichur), Gulbarga
34 Jharkhand (26 %)Subarnarekha, Sona, Sanjai, South koel, Garra rivers
35 Andhra Pr (7 %)Ramgiri Gold Fields (Anantapur district)
36SilverAndhra Pr (42 %)
37 Bihar Jharkhand32
38 Rajashtan (25 %)Zawar
39 Karnataka
40NickelOrissaCuttack, Kyonjhar, & Maiyurbhanj

 

 

 

 

Non Metallic Minerals

1.

Limestone

M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan

2.

Dolomite

Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P &Chhattisgarh

3.

Phosphate

Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur)

4.

Kaolin

Kerala is largest producer.

5.

Mica

Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan

6.

Gypsum

Rajasthan & J & K.

7.

Steatite

Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone.

8.

Magnesite

Tamil Nadu

9.

Pyrite

Bihar is sole producer

10.

Graphite

Orissa, Rajasthan

11.

Diamond

M.P. (Pinna)

12.

Beryllium

Rajasthan, Jharkhand

13.

Salt (NaCl)

Gujarat (60%), Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra

14.

Marble

Rajasthan

15.

Zircon

Beach Sand of Kerala

16.

Kyanite

Singh bumdistrict in Jharkhand-largest. Used as refractory material

17.

Antimony

Punjab

18.

Asbestos

Karnataka & Rajasthan

19.

Beryllium

Rajasthan

20.

Sulphur

Tamil Nadu

21.

Tin

Bihar, Jharkhand

 

 

 

Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

 

Project

River

State

1

Damodar Valley Project

Damodar

West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon

 

 

 

& Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar

 

 

 

Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar).

2

Rihand Dam

Rihand

Uttar Pradesh

3

Nagarjunasagar Project

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals – Lal

 

 

 

Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right).

4

Tungabhadra Project

Tungabhadra

JV of Andhra Pr & Karnataka.

5

Gandak Project

Gandak

JV between UP, Bihar & Nepal

6

Kosi Project

Kosi

JV of Bihar & Nepal

7

Beas Project

Beas

Includes Pong Dam

8

Mayurkashi Project

Mayurkashi

Mayurkashi is a tributary of Hugli.

9

Indira Gandhi Canal

 

It consists of Rajastan Feeder Canal (taking off

 

 

 

from Harike Barrage, 204 km long, fully lined

 

 

 

masonry canal) & Rajasthan main canal (445

 

 

 

Km)

10

Narmada Valley Project

 

Involves  Sardar  Sarovar  dam  in  Gujarat  &

 

 

 

Narmada sagar (or Indira Sagar) dam in M.P.

11

Pochampad Project

Godavari

Andhra Pradesh.

12

Tehri Dam

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal.  Implemented with Soviet Aid.

 

 

 

Highest rock fall dam in the country.

13

Parambikulam Project

 

JV between Tamil Nadu & Kerala.

 

 

Hydro-Electric Projects

14

Mata Tella Dam

Betwa

Near Jhansi in U.P.

15

Kangsbati Project

 

West Bengal

16

Rajasthan Canal Project

Sutlej, Beas

JV of Punjab & Rajastan. Ravi water is also

 

 

 

Used.

17

Kadana Project

Mahi

Gujarat

18

Tata Hydroelectric Scheme

Indravati

Maharashtra. Called Bhivpuri dam.

19

Koyna Hydroelectic Dam

Koyna

Maharashtra

20

Sivasamudram

Cauvery Falls

Karnataka

21Pykara Hydro Elec ProjectPykaraTamil Nadu (along Nilgiris)
22Mettur ProjectCauveryTamil Nadu
23Papansam SchemeTambraparniTamil Nadu
24Sabargiri Hydel ProjectPampaKerala
25Idukki ProjectPeriyarKerala
26Sholayar ProjectSholayarKerala. JV between Kerala & Tamil Nadu
27Machkund Power ProjectMachkundOrissa. JV between A.P & Orissa
28Srisailam Power ProjectKrishnaAndhra Pradesh
29Balimela Hydro ProjectSileru riverJV between A.P & Orissa
30Umiam ProjectUmiamMeghalaya
31Salal Hydro ProjectChenabJ & K
32Thein Dam ProjectRaviPunjab
33Banasagar ProjectSonJV between MP, UP & Bihar
34Jayakwadi ProjectGodavariMaharashtra
35Kakrapara ProjectTapiGujarat
36Mahi ProjectMahiGujarat
37Malprabha ProjectMalprabhaKarnataka
38Pallivasal projectMudirapujhaKerala
39PoochampadGodavariAndhra Pradesh
40Rajghat Dam ProjectBetwa 
41Sarda SahayakGhagaraUttar Pradesh
42Hansdev Bango ProjectHansdevM.P.
43Tawa ProjectTawaM.P. Tawa is tributary of Narmada
44Ukai ProjectTapiGujarat
45Purna ProjectPurnaMaharashtra
46Rana Pratap SagarChambalRajasthan (Rawatbhata)
47Jawahar Sagar DamChambalRajasthan (Kota)
48Gandhi Sagar DamChambalChurasigarh Fort at MP-Rajasthan border
49ChibroTonsUttar Pradesh
50Dool HastiChenabJ & K.
51Nathpa JhakriSatluj

Himachal Pr. Biggest hydel power project in India

52Panchet DamDamodarWest Bengal

 

 

Thermal Power Projects in India

 

1.

Kothagundam Project

Singareni Coalfields

Andhra Pradesh

2.

Dhuraran Project

Kheda district

Gujarat

3.

Satpura Power Station

 

M.P.

4.

Korba Project

 

Chhattisgarh

5.

Talcher Power Station

Talcher

Orissa

6.

Obra Power Station

Obra

U.P.

7.

Bhusawal Power Station

 

Maharashtra

8.

Hardauganj Power Station

 

U.P.

9.

Bandel Power Station

 

West Bengal

10.

Chandrapura Power Station

 

Bihar

11.

Kolaghat Power Station

 

West Bengal

12.

Bakreshwar (Birbhum) Station

 

West Bengal

 

 

 

 

Soils & Their Properties

1.

Alluvial Soils

22

Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture,

 

 

 

Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter

 

 

 

Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus

2.

Regur/Black Soils

30

Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50%

 

 

 

Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium

 

 

 

Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content

3.

Red & Yellow Soils

28

Known as omnibus group.

 

 

 

Rich in oxides of iron

 

 

 

Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus

4.

Laterite Soils

2.62

Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall

 

 

 

Rich in iron oxide & potash

 

 

 

Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium

5.

Arid Soils

6.13

Rich in phosphate

 

 

 

Poor in Nitrogen & humus

6.

Saline Soils

1.29

Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar

 

 

 

Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium

 

 

 

Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium

7.

Peaty & Organic

2.17

Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic.

 

 

 

Rich in organic matter

 

 

 

Poor in phosphate & potash

8.

Forest Soils

7.94

Acidic with low humus content

 

 

 

Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime

 

 

Sobriquets

 

1.

Bolton of the east

Ahmedabad

2.

Manchester of South India

Coimbatore

3.

Granary of South India

Thanjavur

 

 

Agricultural Crops of India

Crop

State

Prod

Prod

Yield

Rainfall

Temp

Soil

 

 

%

(MilT)

Kg/Ha

cm

Deg C

 

Rice

W. Bengal

15

87

1900

125-200 cm

>23 C

Deep Fertile

 

UP

14

 

 

 

 

Clayey or loamy

 

Andhra Pr

13

 

 

 

 

soil

 

Punjab

11

 

 

 

 

 

Wheat

UP

35

74

2700

80 cm

10-25 C

Light loam

 

Punjab

20

 

 

 

 

Sandy Loam

 

Haryana

172

 

 

 

 

Clay Loam

 

M.P.

11

 

 

 

 

 

Jowar

Maharashtra

47

7.7

770

30-65 cm

27-32 C

Black clayey soil

 

Karnataka

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

M.P.

10

 

 

 

 

 

Bajra

Rajasthan

33

7.1

720

40-50 cm

25-30 C

Light sandy

 

UP

18

 

 

 

 

Shallow black

 

Gujarat

16

 

 

 

 

Red upland soil

 

Maharashtra

14

 

 

 

 

 

Maize

U.P.

15

12.1

1850

50-75 cm

21-27 C

Well drained

 

Karnataka

15

 

 

 

 

alluvial or red

 

Rajasthan

11

 

 

 

 

loamy soil

 

Bihar/MP

10

 

 

 

 

 

Barley

UP

44

1.7

1750

70-90 cm

10-18 C

Light soil

 

Rajasthan

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

MP

7

 

 

 

 

 

Ragi

Karnataka

60

2.3

1350

 

 

 

 

TamilNadu

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.P.

8

 

 

 

 

 

Pulses

M.P.

25

14

 

 

 

 

 

U.P.

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajasthan

17

 

 

 

 

 

Gram

M.P.

40

3.5

720

35-50 cm

20-25 C

Drained loamy

 

Rajasthan

31

 

 

 

 

soil

 

U.P.

12

 

 

 

 

 

Tur/Arhar

Maharashtra

22

2.3

620

40-80 cm

20-25 C

Range of soil

 

U.P.

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

M.P./Gujar.

15

 

 

 

 

 

Sugarcane

U.P.

43

300

70 tonne

150 cm

20-25 C

Deep rich loamy

 

Maharashtra

14

 

 

 

 

soil

 

Tamil Nadu

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Karnataka

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial & Plantation Crops of India

Crop

State

Prod

Prod

Yield

Rainfall

Temp

Soil

 

 

%

(MilT)

Kg/Ha

Cm

Deg C

 

Cotton

Gujarat

28

11.6

226

50-75 cm

21-30 C

Black Soil

 

Maharashtra

15

Million

 

 

 

 

 

Andhra Pr

11

Bales

 

 

 

 

 

Haryana

10

170 Kg

 

 

 

 

Jute

W. Bengal

75

10

1960

125-200 cm

25-35 C

Light sandy or

 

Bihar

14

Million

 

 

 

Clayey Loams

 

Assam

9

Bales

 

 

 

 

 

Orissa

1

180 kg

 

 

 

 

Tobacco

Andhra Pr.

31

.65

1400

50 cm

15-38 C

Well Drained

 

Gujarat

29

 

 

 

 

Friable sandy

 

U.P.

23

 

 

 

 

loams

Groundnut

Gujarat

33

9.2

1220

50-100 cm

20-30 C

Sandy loam, red,

 

Andhra Pr.

15

 

 

 

 

yellow, black soil

 

Tamil Nadu

22

 

 

 

 

 

Sunflower

Karnataka

47

1.3

620

50 cm

15-25 C

Loamy soils

 

Maharashtra

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andhra Pr.

17

5

 

 

 

 

Soya been

M.P.

75

 

1000

50 cm

14-24 C

Friable loamy

 

Maharashtra

13

 

 

 

 

Acidic Soil

 

Rajasthan

9

 

 

 

 

 

Tea

Assam

55

0.78

1900

150-250 cm

25-30 C

Well drained deep

 

W. Bengal

22

 

 

 

 

friable loams or

 

Tamil Nadu

15

 

 

 

 

Acidic Forest soil

Coffee

Karnataka

71

0.3

960

150-250 cm

15-28 C

Well drained

 

Kerala

21

 

 

 

 

friable forest loam

 

Tamil Nadu

8

 

 

 

 

 

Rubber

Kerala

90

0.6

1600

300 cm

25-35 C

Deep, well

 

Tamil Nadu

 

 

 

 

 

drained loams


 

 

 

Oilseeds

1.

Ground Nut

Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu

2.

Rapeseed &

Rajasthan (45%), U.P, M.P.

 

Mustard

 

3.

Seasum

Gujarat (28 %), W. Bengal

4.

Linseed

U.P, Maharashtra

5.

Castorseed

Gujarat (82%)

6.

Soyabeen

Madhya Pradesh (75%), Maharashtra, Rajasthan

7.

Sunflower

Karnataka (47%), Maharashtra (23%), Andhra Pradesh (17%)

8.

Coconut

Kerala (45%), Tamil Nadu (28 %)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spices

1.

Black Pepper

Kerala (97 %)

2.

Chillies

Andhra Pradesh (37%)

3.

Turmeric

Andhra Pradesh (56%)

4.

Ginger

Kerala (22), Meghalaya (20%)

5.

Cardamom

Karnataka (57%)

6.

Arecanut

Karnataka (41%), Kerala (30%)

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