9. World Geography Part 5 UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Horticulture Crops

Mango

UP (32), Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Accounts for 40 percent of all fruits

Banana

Maharashtra (28%), Gujarat (10%), Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district

 

alone supplies more than 80 % of Maharashtra’s Banana

Cashew

Kerala (31%), Maharashtra (18%), Andhra Pradesh (14%). Cashew is a

 

Genus ofBrazil. Largest foreign exchange earner

Orange

Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka. Genus from China

Grapes

Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Native plant of Armenia. Grapes are

 

Importedin India.

Guava

U.P., Bihar. Native plant of Tropical America

Apple

J & K, Himachal Pr, Uttaranchal

Potato

U.P (35%), West Bengal (33%)

Onion

Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

 


 

 

Types of Crops

Kharif Crops

Rice, Maize, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton,

 

Jute, Seasum, Groundnut, Soyabeen,

Rabi Crops

Wheat, Barley, Jowar, Rapeseed, Mustard, Linseed, Lentil,

 

Gram, Peas

Zaid Crops

Sown during march to June. E.g. Water Melon, Melon,

 

Cucumber, Vegetables, Moong, Urad.

Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Crop.

 

 

 

National Parks of India

1.

Wandur National Park

Andaman & Nicobar

2.

Kaziranga National Park

Assam

3.

Manas National Park

Assam

4.

Palamau National Park

Jharkhand

5.

Hazaribagh National Park

Jharkhand (Rhinoceros)

6.

Dachigam National Park

J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)

7.

Hemis National Park

J & K

8.

Kishtwar National Park

J & K

9.

Silent Valley National Park

Kerala

10.

Eravikulam National Park

Kerala

11.

Bandhavgarh National Park

M.P.

12.

Kanha National Park

M.P.

13.

Madhav National Park

M.P.

14.

Pench National Park

M.P.

15.

Shivpuri National Park

M.P. – Birds

16.

Indravati National Park

Chhattisgarh

17.

Keoladeo National Park

Rajasthan

18.

Ranthambore National Park

Rajasthan

19.

Desert National Park

Rajasthan

20.

Sariska National Park

Rajasthan

21.

Namdapha National Park

Arunachal Pradesh

22.

Marine National Park

Gujarat

23.

Pin Valley National Park

Himachal Pradesh

24.

Bandipur National Park

Karnataka

25.

Nagarhole National Park

Karnataka

26.

Bannerghatta National Park

Karnataka

27.

Tadoba National Park

Maharashtra

28.

Boriveli National Park

Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)

29.

Balpakram National Park

Meghalaya

30.

Nokrek National Park

Meghalaya

31.

Nandan Kanan National Park

Orissa

32.

Chandka Elephant Reserve

Orissa

33.

Simlipal Tiger Reserve

Orissa

34.

Corbett National Park

Uttaranchal

35.

Rajaji National Park

Uttaranchal

36.

Valley of Flower N. Park

Uttaranchal

37.

Nandadevi National Park

Uttaranchal

38.

Dudhwa National Park

U.P.

39.

Govind National Park

U.P.

 

Wildlife Sanctuaries of India

1.

Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary

Andhra Pradesh

2.

Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary

Tamil Nadu

3.

Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary

Andhra Pradesh

4.

Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary

Assam

5.

Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary

Bihar (largest)

6.

Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary

Karnataka

7.

Periyar Wildlife sanctuary

Kerala

8.

National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary

M.P., U.P & Rajasthan

9.

Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary

Maharashtra (Ahmednagar)

10.

Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary

Chhattisgarh

11.

Harike Headworks

Punjab

12.

Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary

West Bengal

13.

Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Haryana

14.

Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary

Karnataka

15.

Madumalai Sanctuary

Tamil Nadu

16.

Pulicat Sanctuary

Andhra Pradesh

17.

Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary

U.P (Varanasi)

18.

Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury

Karnataka

19.

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Tamil Nadu

 

 

 

 

Breeds of Cattle

1.

Cow

Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi,

 

 

Tharparkar. Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.

2.

Buffalo

Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.

3.

Sheep

Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawar.

4.

Goats

Jamnapuri, Barbari

 

High Yielding Varieties of Seed

 

1.

Wheat

Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.

2.

Rice

Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna

3.

Maize

Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid

4.

Jowar

CSV-1 to CSV-7

5.

Ragi

Sharda

6.

Cotton

V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Devi raj, Virnar.

 

Roads, Railways & Waterways in India

1.

National Highways

67700 Km

Broad Guage

46800 km

2.

State Highways

137000 Km

Meter Guage

13000 km

3.

District Roads

12 Lakh Km

Narrow Guage

3100 km

4.

Village Roads

15 Lakh Km

Total Railway guage

63200 km

5.

Border Roads

30,000 Km

No of Trains

13500

6.

Total Roads

33 Lakh Km

No of Stations

7100

7.

Total Waterways

14500 Km

Electrified route

28%

 

National Waterways

1.

National Waterways-1

Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system

2.

National Waterways-2

Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system

3.

National Waterways-3

The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the

 

 

Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).

 


 

Indian Railways, Headquarters

1.

Nothern Raiway

Delhi

2.

Southern Railway

Chennai

3.

Eastern Raiway

Kolkata

4.

Western Railway

Mumbai (Churchgate)

5.

North-Western Railway

Jaipur

6.

North-Central Railway

Allahabad

7.

North-Eastern Railway

Gorakhpur

8.

North-East Frontier Railway

Guwahati

9.

East Coast Railway

Bhubaneshwar

10.

East Central Railway

Hazipur

11.

West Central Railway

Jabalpur

12.

Central Railway

Mumbai (V.T)

13.

South-Central Railway

Secundarabad

14.

South Eastern Railway

Kolkata

15.

South-Western Railway

Bangalore

16.

South-East Central Railway

Bilaspur

 

 

India Pipelines

1.

Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline

2.

Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum

3.

Haldia-Maurgram-Rajbandh pipeline

4.

Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat

5.

Mumbai High Koyali pipeline

6.

Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.

7.

Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km)

 

 

 

 

Airways-International Airports

1.

Mumbai

Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar)

2.

Delhi

Indira Gandhi International Airport

3.

Chennai

Anna International Airport (Meenambakam)

4.

Kolkata

Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport

5.

Ahmedabad

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport

6.

Amritsar

Raja Sansi Airport

7.

Bangalore

Needumbassery International Airport

8.

Goa

Dabolim International Airport

9.

Guwahati

Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport

10.

Hyderabad

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

11.

Thiruvananthapuram

Trivandrum International Airport

12.

Kochi

Nedumbassery International Airport.

 


 

 

 

India’s Foreign Trade

 

1.

Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL)

27 %

1.

Gems & Jewellery

17 %

2.

Pearls & Precious stones

9 %

2.

Readymade Garments

13 %

3.

Gold & Silver

8.5 %

3.

Chemicals

11 %

4.

Capital goods

12 %

4.

Cotton Textile

8 %

5.

Electronic goods

9 %

5.

Machine & Transport

6 %

6.

Chemicals

7 %

6.

Agricultural Exports

13.5 %

7.

Edible Oils

3 %

7.

 

 

8.

Coke, Coal & briquettes

2 %

8.

 

 

Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value.

 

India’s major trading partners

1.

USA

11.6 %

2.

UAE

5.0 %

3.

China

5 .0%

4.

UK

4.4 %

5.

Belgium

4.1 %

6.

Germany

3.9 %

7.

Japan

3.1 %

8.

Switzerland

2.7 %

9.

Hongkong

3.4 %

10.

Singapore

3.0 %

 

 

Cities located on Rivers

City

River

State

Agra

Yamuna

UP

Badrinath

Alaknanda

Uttaranchal

Cuttack

Mahanadi

Orissa

Dibrugarh

Brahmaputra

Assam

Ferozpur

Sutlej

Punjab

Guwahati

Brahmaputra

Assam

Hyderabad

Musi

AP

Jabalpur

Narmada

MP

Kanpur

Ganga

UP

Kota

Chambal

Rajasthan

Lucknow

Gomti

UP

Ludhiana

Sutlej

Punjab

Nasik

Godavari

Maharashtra

Pandharpur

Bhima

Maharashtra

Patna

Ganga

Bihar

Sambalpur

Mahanadi

Orissa

Srinagar

Jhelum

J&K

Surat

Tapti

Gujarat

Tiruchirapalli

Cauvery

Tamil Nadu

Varanasi

Ganga

UP

Vijaywada

Krishna

AP

 

 

 

Industries of India

1.

Iron & Steel

IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel

 

 

Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka.

 

 

Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.

2.

Cotton Textile

4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.

3.

Sugar Industry

 

4.

Aluminum

HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras

 

Industry

Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO

 

 

(Koraput)

5.

Copper Smelting

HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper

 

 

complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat,

 

 

M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).

6.

Jute Textile

Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore,

 

 

Bhadreshware, Shyamnagar.

7.

Silk Textile

Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)

8.

Woolen Textile

Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most

 

 

important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.

9.

Heavy Industry

Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd

 

 

(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)

 

 

Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).

10.

Machine Tools

HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad,

 

 

Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp

 

 

of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.

11.

Automobiles

TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune).

 

 

Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.

12.

Pesticides

Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra)

 

 

Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)

13.

Cement Industry

Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul

 

 

is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan

14.

Leather Industry

India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.

15.

Glass Industry

Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for

 

 

bangles.

 

16.

Paper Industry

Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal)

 

 

Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)

17.

Liquor Industry

U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.

18.

Aircraft industry

Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are

 

 

Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.

 

19.

Railway

Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal

 

Equipments

Diesel Locomotive works

– Varanasi

 

 

Integral Coach Factory

– Perambur, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Rail Coach Factory

– Kapurthala, Punjab.

 

 

Diesel Componets Works

- Patiala

 

 

Railway wheels & Axels

- Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.

20.

Ship Building

Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders

 

 

(Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).

21.

Pharmaceuticals

IDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur

 

 

Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking

 

 

in this industry

 

22.

Zinc & Lead

Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead)

23.

Fertilizers

FCI-Sindri

 

 

Industry

National Fertilizers Limited – Nangal

 

 

Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur.

 

 

Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay, Thal

 

 

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order.

24.

Heavy Electricals

BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu,

 

 

Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur.

 

 

Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone

 

 

industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore),

 

 

Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)

 

 

 

Industrial Regions of India

1.

Mumbai-Pune region

Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna

 

 

Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar

2.

Hugli Industrial Belt

From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to

 

 

Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra,

 

 

Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria,

 

 

Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur.

6.

Bangalore-Tamil Nadu

Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai,

 

 

Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya.

7.

Ahmedabad-Vadodara

Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station,

 

 

Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar,

 

 

Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar

8.

Chhotanagpur Region

Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur,

 

 

Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj.

9.

Gurgaon Delhi Meerut

Faridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura

 

 

Six Largest National Highways

 

National Highway

Route

Length Km

NH 7

Varanasi-Kanyakumari

2369

NH 6

Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur.

1932

NH 5

Baharagora-Chennai

1533

NH 2

Delhi-Kolkata

1490

NH 8

Delhi-Mumbai

1428

NH 17

Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka)

1270

 

 

Important National Highways

 

NH-1

Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala &Jalandhar

456

NH-1A

Jalandhar& Uri via Jammu, Srinagar &Bramble

 

NH 22

Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border

460

NH 28 A

Pipra to Nepal border

68

NH 35

Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border

61

NH 39

Numaligarh-Indo Burma border.

436

NH 3

Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior

 

NH 4

Chennai with Thane

 

 

 

Important Industrial Centers of India

1.

Firozabad

Glass Bangles

2.

Mirzapur

Pottery

3.

Jaipur

Gems Industry

4.

Trivandrum

Wood Carving

5.

Kadi

Mineral Oil

6.

Korba

Aluminium

7.

Bhatinda

Fertilizers

 

 

 

Racial Profile of India

1.

Negritos

Only on Andaman& Nicobar

2.

Proto-Australoid

Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs,

 

 

Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative.

3.

Mongoloids

Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla

4.

Mediterranean

Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting

 

 

southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern &

 

 

Western part of the country.

5.

Brachycephals

Characterized by broad heads. Corgis& Parsis are representative.

 

 

They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids

6.

Nordics/Indo-Aryans

Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the

 

 

upper castes in northern India esp. in Punjab

 

Demographic Profile of India

 

S.

Parameter

Top in Parameter

Bottom in Parameter

1.

Population

U.P, Maharashtra, Bihar, W.

Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal

 

(1027 million)

Bengal & Andhra Pr.

Pradesh & Goa

 

 

Delhi (UTs)

Lakshadweep (UT)

2.

Population Density

West Bengal (904), Bihar (880),

Arunachal PR (13), Mizoram,

 

(324 per/Sq. km)

Kerala, U.P, Punjab.

Sikkim

 

 

Delhi

Andaman & Nicobar.

3.

Poplin Growth

Nagaland (64%), Sikkim

Kerala (9.4%)

4.

Growth Urban population

Arunachal Pradesh

Kerala

 

 

Dadra & Nagar Havel

 

5.

Growth rural population

Nagaland

Tamil Nadu

6.

Proportion of Urban Populn

Goa (50%)

Arunachal Pradesh (5%)

 

 

 

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

7.

Average size of Villages

Kerala (~15000 people)

Arunachal (~200)

8.

Sex Ratio (933)

Kerala (1058)

Haryana (861), Punjab &

 

 

Pondicherry

Sikkim

 

 

 

Daman & Diu

9.

Death Rate

Orissa

Kerala (6 per thousand)

10.

Infant Mortality Rate

Orissa

Kerala

11.

Literacy

Kerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa,

Bihar (47%), Jharkhand,

 

 

Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh

J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P.

 

 

Lakshadweep (UT)

Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)

 

There are many geopolitical conflict zones across the globe. Few of them are:-

Syrian Civil War

Russia and Turkey

Afghanistan and Pakistan

India and Pakistan

India and Nepal

South China Sea

Libyan Crisis

Sudan Internal ethnic conflict

Nigeria: Boko Haram terrorists

Iraq

Israel and Palestine

EU: Inflow of refugees from West Asia & N.Africa

Iran and Saudi Arabia

Yemen

Russia and Ukraine

Greece and EU

Myanmar

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