UP (32), Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Accounts for 40 percent of all fruits
Maharashtra (28%), Gujarat (10%), Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district
alone supplies more than 80 % of Maharashtra’s Banana
Kerala (31%), Maharashtra (18%), Andhra Pradesh (14%). Cashew is a
Genus ofBrazil. Largest foreign exchange earner
Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka. Genus from China
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Native plant of Armenia. Grapes are
U.P., Bihar. Native plant of Tropical America
J & K, Himachal Pr, Uttaranchal
U.P (35%), West Bengal (33%)
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Types of Crops
Rice, Maize, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton,
Jute, Seasum, Groundnut, Soyabeen,
Wheat, Barley, Jowar, Rapeseed, Mustard, Linseed, Lentil,
Sown during march to June. E.g. Water Melon, Melon,
Cucumber, Vegetables, Moong, Urad.
Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Crop.
National Parks of India
Wandur National Park
Andaman & Nicobar
Kaziranga National Park
Manas National Park
Palamau National Park
Hazaribagh National Park
Dachigam National Park
J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)
Hemis National Park
J & K
Kishtwar National Park
J & K
Silent Valley National Park
Eravikulam National Park
Bandhavgarh National Park
Kanha National Park
Madhav National Park
Pench National Park
Shivpuri National Park
M.P. – Birds
Indravati National Park
Keoladeo National Park
Ranthambore National Park
Desert National Park
Sariska National Park
Namdapha National Park
Marine National Park
Pin Valley National Park
Bandipur National Park
Nagarhole National Park
Bannerghatta National Park
Tadoba National Park
Boriveli National Park
Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)
Balpakram National Park
Nokrek National Park
Nandan Kanan National Park
Chandka Elephant Reserve
Simlipal Tiger Reserve
Corbett National Park
Rajaji National Park
Valley of Flower N. Park
Nandadevi National Park
Dudhwa National Park
Govind National Park
Wildlife Sanctuaries of India
Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary
Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary
Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary
Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary
Periyar Wildlife sanctuary
National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary
M.P., U.P & Rajasthan
Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary
Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary
Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary
Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary
Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary
Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary
Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
Breeds of Cattle
Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi,
Tharparkar. Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.
Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.
Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawar.
High Yielding Varieties of Seed
Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.
Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna
Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid
CSV-1 to CSV-7
V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Devi raj, Virnar.
Roads, Railways & Waterways in India
12 Lakh Km
15 Lakh Km
Total Railway guage
No of Trains
33 Lakh Km
No of Stations
Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system
Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system
The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the
Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).
Indian Railways, Headquarters
North-East Frontier Railway
East Coast Railway
East Central Railway
West Central Railway
South Eastern Railway
South-East Central Railway
Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline
Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum
Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat
Mumbai High Koyali pipeline
Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.
Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km)
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar)
Indira Gandhi International Airport
Anna International Airport (Meenambakam)
Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport
Raja Sansi Airport
Needumbassery International Airport
Dabolim International Airport
Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Trivandrum International Airport
Nedumbassery International Airport.
India’s Foreign Trade
Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL)
Gems & Jewellery
Pearls & Precious stones
Gold & Silver
Machine & Transport
Coke, Coal & briquettes
Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value.
India’s major trading partners
Cities located on Rivers
Industries of India
Iron & Steel
IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel
Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka.
Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.
4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.
HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras
Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO
HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper
complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat,
M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).
Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore,
Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)
Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most
important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.
Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd
(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)
Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).
HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad,
Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp
of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.
TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune).
Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.
Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra)
Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)
Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul
is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan
India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.
Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for
Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal)
Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)
U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.
Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are
Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.
Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal
Diesel Locomotive works
Integral Coach Factory
– Perambur, Tamil Nadu
Rail Coach Factory
– Kapurthala, Punjab.
Diesel Componets Works
Railway wheels & Axels
- Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.
Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders
(Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).
IDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur
Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking
in this industry
Zinc & Lead
Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead)
National Fertilizers Limited – Nangal
Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur.
Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay, Thal
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order.
BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu,
Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur.
Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone
industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore),
Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)
Industrial Regions of India
Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna
Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar
Hugli Industrial Belt
From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to
Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra,
Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria,
Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur.
Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai,
Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya.
Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station,
Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar,
Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar
Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur,
Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj.
Gurgaon Delhi Meerut
Faridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura
Six Largest National Highways
Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur.
Important National Highways
Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala &Jalandhar
Jalandhar& Uri via Jammu, Srinagar &Bramble
Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border
NH 28 A
Pipra to Nepal border
Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border
Numaligarh-Indo Burma border.
Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior
Chennai with Thane
Important Industrial Centers of India
Racial Profile of India
Only on Andaman& Nicobar
Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs,
Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative.
Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla
Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting
southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern &
Western part of the country.
Characterized by broad heads. Corgis& Parsis are representative.
They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids
Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the
upper castes in northern India esp. in Punjab
Demographic Profile of India
Top in Parameter
Bottom in Parameter
U.P, Maharashtra, Bihar, W.
Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal
Bengal & Andhra Pr.
Pradesh & Goa
West Bengal (904), Bihar (880),
Arunachal PR (13), Mizoram,
(324 per/Sq. km)
Kerala, U.P, Punjab.
Andaman & Nicobar.
Nagaland (64%), Sikkim
Growth Urban population
Dadra & Nagar Havel
Growth rural population
Proportion of Urban Populn
Arunachal Pradesh (5%)
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
Average size of Villages
Kerala (~15000 people)
Sex Ratio (933)
Haryana (861), Punjab &
Daman & Diu
Kerala (6 per thousand)
Infant Mortality Rate
Kerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa,
Bihar (47%), Jharkhand,
Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh
J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P.
Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)
There are many geopolitical conflict zones across the globe. Few of them are:-
Syrian Civil War
Russia and Turkey
Afghanistan and Pakistan
India and Pakistan
India and Nepal
South China Sea
Sudan Internal ethnic conflict
Nigeria: Boko Haram terrorists
Israel and Palestine
EU: Inflow of refugees from West Asia & N.Africa
Iran and Saudi Arabia
Russia and Ukraine
Greece and EU