Analog Communication Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Notes | EduRev

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) : Analog Communication Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
1 
 
 
 
 
 
ANALOG                                  
COMMUNICATIONS 
(III B.Tech ECE I Semester) 
  
 
 
 
        
 
              
 
                K.Prabhakara Rao 
      
 
Page 2


 
1 
 
 
 
 
 
ANALOG                                  
COMMUNICATIONS 
(III B.Tech ECE I Semester) 
  
 
 
 
        
 
              
 
                K.Prabhakara Rao 
      
 
 
2 
 
 
 
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS 
SYLLABUS 
 
III B.Tech ECE I Semester 
 
UNIT-1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 
Introduction, Orientation Introduction to communication system, Need for 
modulation, Amplitude modulation, Time domain and Frequency domain 
description, Power relations in AM wave, , Square law modulator, Switching 
modulator, Detection of AM waves, Square law detector, Envelope detector. 
UNIT-2. DSB MODULATION 
DSB-SC modulation, time domain and frequency domain description, Generation of 
DSB-SC waves, Balanced Modulator, Ring Modulator, Coherent detection of DSB-SC 
Modulated waves, COSTAS Loop, Radio transmitter, Classification, AM Transmitter 
block diagram 
UNIT-3. SSB MODULATION 
Frequency domain description, Frequency discrimination method for generation of 
AM- SSB Modulated wave, Time domain description, Phase discrimination method 
for generating of AM SSB Modulated waves, Demodulation of SSB Waves, Vestigial 
side band modulation, Generation of VSB modulated wave, Time domain 
description, Envelop detection of  VSB wave pulse carrier, Comparison of AM 
techniques, Applications of different AM waves. 
UNIT-4. ANGLE MODULATION CONCEPTS 
Frequency Modulation, Single tone frequency modulation, Spectrum Analysis of 
Sinusoidal FM Wave, Narrow band FM, Wide band FM, Constant Average Power, 
Transmission band width of FM wave, Generation of FM Waves, Comparison of AM 
& FM 
UNIT-5. ANGLE MODULATION METHODS 
Generation of FM wave: Direct method, Parametric variation method, varactor 
diode, Reactance modulator, Armstrong method, Detection of FM waves, Balanced 
frequency discriminator, Zero crossing detector, Phase locked loop, Foster seely 
discriminator, ratio detector, FM transmitter block diagram. 
UNIT-6. NOISE 
Nose in DSB and SSB system, Nose in A M system, Nose in angle modulated system, 
Threshold effect in Angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 
UNIT-7. RECEIVERS 
Receiver types, Tuned Radio Frequency receivers, Super heterodyne receiver, RF 
section and characteristics, Frequency changing and Tracking, Intermediate 
frequency, AGC, FM receiver, Comparison with AM receiver, amplitude limiting. 
UNIT-8. PULSE MODULATION 
Types of pulse modulation PAM, PWM, Generation and Demodulation of PWM, 
PPM, Generation and Demodulation of PPM 
 
Page 3


 
1 
 
 
 
 
 
ANALOG                                  
COMMUNICATIONS 
(III B.Tech ECE I Semester) 
  
 
 
 
        
 
              
 
                K.Prabhakara Rao 
      
 
 
2 
 
 
 
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS 
SYLLABUS 
 
III B.Tech ECE I Semester 
 
UNIT-1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 
Introduction, Orientation Introduction to communication system, Need for 
modulation, Amplitude modulation, Time domain and Frequency domain 
description, Power relations in AM wave, , Square law modulator, Switching 
modulator, Detection of AM waves, Square law detector, Envelope detector. 
UNIT-2. DSB MODULATION 
DSB-SC modulation, time domain and frequency domain description, Generation of 
DSB-SC waves, Balanced Modulator, Ring Modulator, Coherent detection of DSB-SC 
Modulated waves, COSTAS Loop, Radio transmitter, Classification, AM Transmitter 
block diagram 
UNIT-3. SSB MODULATION 
Frequency domain description, Frequency discrimination method for generation of 
AM- SSB Modulated wave, Time domain description, Phase discrimination method 
for generating of AM SSB Modulated waves, Demodulation of SSB Waves, Vestigial 
side band modulation, Generation of VSB modulated wave, Time domain 
description, Envelop detection of  VSB wave pulse carrier, Comparison of AM 
techniques, Applications of different AM waves. 
UNIT-4. ANGLE MODULATION CONCEPTS 
Frequency Modulation, Single tone frequency modulation, Spectrum Analysis of 
Sinusoidal FM Wave, Narrow band FM, Wide band FM, Constant Average Power, 
Transmission band width of FM wave, Generation of FM Waves, Comparison of AM 
& FM 
UNIT-5. ANGLE MODULATION METHODS 
Generation of FM wave: Direct method, Parametric variation method, varactor 
diode, Reactance modulator, Armstrong method, Detection of FM waves, Balanced 
frequency discriminator, Zero crossing detector, Phase locked loop, Foster seely 
discriminator, ratio detector, FM transmitter block diagram. 
UNIT-6. NOISE 
Nose in DSB and SSB system, Nose in A M system, Nose in angle modulated system, 
Threshold effect in Angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 
UNIT-7. RECEIVERS 
Receiver types, Tuned Radio Frequency receivers, Super heterodyne receiver, RF 
section and characteristics, Frequency changing and Tracking, Intermediate 
frequency, AGC, FM receiver, Comparison with AM receiver, amplitude limiting. 
UNIT-8. PULSE MODULATION 
Types of pulse modulation PAM, PWM, Generation and Demodulation of PWM, 
PPM, Generation and Demodulation of PPM 
 
 
3 
 
 
 
 
 
TEXT BOOKS: 
1. Principles of Communication Systems –Taub & Schilling, Gautam Sahe, TMH, 3
rd
 
Ed. 
2. Principles of Communication Systems - Simon Haykin, John Wiley, 2nd Ed.  
 
REFERENCES: 
1. Electronics & Communication System – George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, TMH  
2. Analog communications-K.N.Hari Bhat & Ganesh Rao, Pearson Publication, 2
nd
 
Ed- 
3. Communication Systems Second Edition – R.P. Singh, SP Sapre, TMH, 2007. 
4. Communication Systems – B.P. Lathi, BS Publication, 2006. 
 
 
PRE REQUISITES: 
 
1. Engineering Mathematics 
2. Basic Electronics 
3. Signals & Systems 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page 4


 
1 
 
 
 
 
 
ANALOG                                  
COMMUNICATIONS 
(III B.Tech ECE I Semester) 
  
 
 
 
        
 
              
 
                K.Prabhakara Rao 
      
 
 
2 
 
 
 
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS 
SYLLABUS 
 
III B.Tech ECE I Semester 
 
UNIT-1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 
Introduction, Orientation Introduction to communication system, Need for 
modulation, Amplitude modulation, Time domain and Frequency domain 
description, Power relations in AM wave, , Square law modulator, Switching 
modulator, Detection of AM waves, Square law detector, Envelope detector. 
UNIT-2. DSB MODULATION 
DSB-SC modulation, time domain and frequency domain description, Generation of 
DSB-SC waves, Balanced Modulator, Ring Modulator, Coherent detection of DSB-SC 
Modulated waves, COSTAS Loop, Radio transmitter, Classification, AM Transmitter 
block diagram 
UNIT-3. SSB MODULATION 
Frequency domain description, Frequency discrimination method for generation of 
AM- SSB Modulated wave, Time domain description, Phase discrimination method 
for generating of AM SSB Modulated waves, Demodulation of SSB Waves, Vestigial 
side band modulation, Generation of VSB modulated wave, Time domain 
description, Envelop detection of  VSB wave pulse carrier, Comparison of AM 
techniques, Applications of different AM waves. 
UNIT-4. ANGLE MODULATION CONCEPTS 
Frequency Modulation, Single tone frequency modulation, Spectrum Analysis of 
Sinusoidal FM Wave, Narrow band FM, Wide band FM, Constant Average Power, 
Transmission band width of FM wave, Generation of FM Waves, Comparison of AM 
& FM 
UNIT-5. ANGLE MODULATION METHODS 
Generation of FM wave: Direct method, Parametric variation method, varactor 
diode, Reactance modulator, Armstrong method, Detection of FM waves, Balanced 
frequency discriminator, Zero crossing detector, Phase locked loop, Foster seely 
discriminator, ratio detector, FM transmitter block diagram. 
UNIT-6. NOISE 
Nose in DSB and SSB system, Nose in A M system, Nose in angle modulated system, 
Threshold effect in Angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 
UNIT-7. RECEIVERS 
Receiver types, Tuned Radio Frequency receivers, Super heterodyne receiver, RF 
section and characteristics, Frequency changing and Tracking, Intermediate 
frequency, AGC, FM receiver, Comparison with AM receiver, amplitude limiting. 
UNIT-8. PULSE MODULATION 
Types of pulse modulation PAM, PWM, Generation and Demodulation of PWM, 
PPM, Generation and Demodulation of PPM 
 
 
3 
 
 
 
 
 
TEXT BOOKS: 
1. Principles of Communication Systems –Taub & Schilling, Gautam Sahe, TMH, 3
rd
 
Ed. 
2. Principles of Communication Systems - Simon Haykin, John Wiley, 2nd Ed.  
 
REFERENCES: 
1. Electronics & Communication System – George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, TMH  
2. Analog communications-K.N.Hari Bhat & Ganesh Rao, Pearson Publication, 2
nd
 
Ed- 
3. Communication Systems Second Edition – R.P. Singh, SP Sapre, TMH, 2007. 
4. Communication Systems – B.P. Lathi, BS Publication, 2006. 
 
 
PRE REQUISITES: 
 
1. Engineering Mathematics 
2. Basic Electronics 
3. Signals & Systems 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4 
 
 
 
PREFACE 
  
As we approach the close of 21
ST
 century, we live in a world in which 
electronic communication is so commonplace that we pick up our cell phones 
without a second thought. Yet the importance of such communication in 
today’s world is so crucial that we cannot imagine modern society with out it. 
We are in an era of change, which same people refer to as the ‘information 
age’, much like the era –more than 100 years ago- when the world underwent 
drastic changes because of the industrial revolution. The prosperity and 
continued development of modern nations depends primarily on the 
originating and disseminating of information, rather than of manufacture 
goods. For example, a hotel in Saudi Arabia mite will be designed by an 
architectural firm in the United States, built with steel produced in Japan, and 
constructed by workers from Korea. All phases of such a project depend for 
their successful completion on rapid worldwide communications. 
                  
Almost every day we are aware, or make use, of concepts such as 
electronic mail, wired cities, overnight stock market quotes fed into our home 
computers, tele conferencing, and a host of space and military applications of 
electronic communication.  This subject is concerned with the theory of 
systems for the conveyance of information.  
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page 5


 
1 
 
 
 
 
 
ANALOG                                  
COMMUNICATIONS 
(III B.Tech ECE I Semester) 
  
 
 
 
        
 
              
 
                K.Prabhakara Rao 
      
 
 
2 
 
 
 
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS 
SYLLABUS 
 
III B.Tech ECE I Semester 
 
UNIT-1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 
Introduction, Orientation Introduction to communication system, Need for 
modulation, Amplitude modulation, Time domain and Frequency domain 
description, Power relations in AM wave, , Square law modulator, Switching 
modulator, Detection of AM waves, Square law detector, Envelope detector. 
UNIT-2. DSB MODULATION 
DSB-SC modulation, time domain and frequency domain description, Generation of 
DSB-SC waves, Balanced Modulator, Ring Modulator, Coherent detection of DSB-SC 
Modulated waves, COSTAS Loop, Radio transmitter, Classification, AM Transmitter 
block diagram 
UNIT-3. SSB MODULATION 
Frequency domain description, Frequency discrimination method for generation of 
AM- SSB Modulated wave, Time domain description, Phase discrimination method 
for generating of AM SSB Modulated waves, Demodulation of SSB Waves, Vestigial 
side band modulation, Generation of VSB modulated wave, Time domain 
description, Envelop detection of  VSB wave pulse carrier, Comparison of AM 
techniques, Applications of different AM waves. 
UNIT-4. ANGLE MODULATION CONCEPTS 
Frequency Modulation, Single tone frequency modulation, Spectrum Analysis of 
Sinusoidal FM Wave, Narrow band FM, Wide band FM, Constant Average Power, 
Transmission band width of FM wave, Generation of FM Waves, Comparison of AM 
& FM 
UNIT-5. ANGLE MODULATION METHODS 
Generation of FM wave: Direct method, Parametric variation method, varactor 
diode, Reactance modulator, Armstrong method, Detection of FM waves, Balanced 
frequency discriminator, Zero crossing detector, Phase locked loop, Foster seely 
discriminator, ratio detector, FM transmitter block diagram. 
UNIT-6. NOISE 
Nose in DSB and SSB system, Nose in A M system, Nose in angle modulated system, 
Threshold effect in Angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. 
UNIT-7. RECEIVERS 
Receiver types, Tuned Radio Frequency receivers, Super heterodyne receiver, RF 
section and characteristics, Frequency changing and Tracking, Intermediate 
frequency, AGC, FM receiver, Comparison with AM receiver, amplitude limiting. 
UNIT-8. PULSE MODULATION 
Types of pulse modulation PAM, PWM, Generation and Demodulation of PWM, 
PPM, Generation and Demodulation of PPM 
 
 
3 
 
 
 
 
 
TEXT BOOKS: 
1. Principles of Communication Systems –Taub & Schilling, Gautam Sahe, TMH, 3
rd
 
Ed. 
2. Principles of Communication Systems - Simon Haykin, John Wiley, 2nd Ed.  
 
REFERENCES: 
1. Electronics & Communication System – George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, TMH  
2. Analog communications-K.N.Hari Bhat & Ganesh Rao, Pearson Publication, 2
nd
 
Ed- 
3. Communication Systems Second Edition – R.P. Singh, SP Sapre, TMH, 2007. 
4. Communication Systems – B.P. Lathi, BS Publication, 2006. 
 
 
PRE REQUISITES: 
 
1. Engineering Mathematics 
2. Basic Electronics 
3. Signals & Systems 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4 
 
 
 
PREFACE 
  
As we approach the close of 21
ST
 century, we live in a world in which 
electronic communication is so commonplace that we pick up our cell phones 
without a second thought. Yet the importance of such communication in 
today’s world is so crucial that we cannot imagine modern society with out it. 
We are in an era of change, which same people refer to as the ‘information 
age’, much like the era –more than 100 years ago- when the world underwent 
drastic changes because of the industrial revolution. The prosperity and 
continued development of modern nations depends primarily on the 
originating and disseminating of information, rather than of manufacture 
goods. For example, a hotel in Saudi Arabia mite will be designed by an 
architectural firm in the United States, built with steel produced in Japan, and 
constructed by workers from Korea. All phases of such a project depend for 
their successful completion on rapid worldwide communications. 
                  
Almost every day we are aware, or make use, of concepts such as 
electronic mail, wired cities, overnight stock market quotes fed into our home 
computers, tele conferencing, and a host of space and military applications of 
electronic communication.  This subject is concerned with the theory of 
systems for the conveyance of information.  
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5 
 
 
UNIT I 
 
 INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 
 
 
Objective:  
 
The transmission of information-bearing signal over a band pass 
communication channel, such as telephone line or a satellite channel usually 
requires a shift of the range of frequencies contained in the signal to another 
frequency range suitable for transmission. A shift in the signal frequency 
range is accomplished by modulation. This chapter introduces the definition of 
modulation, need of modulation, types of modulation- AM, PM and FM, 
Various types of AM, spectra of AM, bandwidth requirements, Generation of 
AM & DSB-SC, detection of AM & DSB-SC, and power relations. After 
studying this chapter student should be familiar with the following 
? Need for modulation 
? Definition of modulation 
? Types of modulation techniques – AM, FM, PM 
? AM definition - Types of AM –Standard AM, DSB, SSB, and 
VSB 
? Modulation index or depth of modulation and % modulation 
? Spectra and Bandwidth of all types of AM  
? Generation of AM wave using Square law modulator & 
Switching modulator  
? Generation of DSB wave using Balanced modulator & Ring 
modulator 
? Detection of AM wave using Square law detector & Envelope 
detector 
? Detection of DSB wave using Synchronous detection & Costas 
loop 
? Power and current relations 
? Problems 
? Frequency Translation 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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