Assumptions CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

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CLAT : Assumptions CLAT Notes | EduRev

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Chapter - 16

Assumptions 

Argument: A number of propositions which lead towards the conclusion. For the t to be valid the propositions on the basis of which the conclusion is arrived at must be true.

In logic, we check the validity of the argument on the basis of the rationale on which the conclusion is arrived at.

Reasoning is concerned with the formation of right conclusion based on the propositions (information). Therefore if the propositions are false, the conclusions cannot be correct.

An assumption is something that is assumed, supposed and taken for granted. When somebody says something he does not put every thing, every aspect of his idea into words. There is a lot which he leaves unsaid. That which he leaves unsaid, that which he takes for granted, may be defined as an assumption.

 

  • Assumptions is the missing link of the logical structure of an argument. It is left unsaid and therefore, assumed.
  • There are some standard categories of statements that have standard ways of assuming some things.
  • In judging the validity of a given assumption, special case should be taken of some keywords. 

Some tips for Quick Answers:

(i) No either

An argument may have more than one assumption. But they are almost never exclusive of each other. It implies that if both assumptions look true to you, choose the choice “both are implicit” and not “either of them is implicit.” The answer-choice “either of them is implicit” is very rarely correct for assumption question. You can take this as a thumb-rule.

(ii) Eliminate with the help of the certain

Usually we are unsure of only one or two of the assumptions and we are sure of some other assumptions. We can with the help of these sure ones to eliminate some choices. For examples, suppose that a question has three assumptions – I, II and III. When you read these suggested assumptions you may find that you are certain that I is an assumption and that III is not an assumption, but you are not sure about II. So you can look for those choices that include I and exclude III. This will reduce your number of answer choices from 5 to 2 or maybe 1.

(iii) Remember some examples

Many of the questions form a usual standard pattern. In such cases it helps to keep a similar example at the back of your mind. It would be immensely beneficial for you if you remember Ex 11 to Ex 23 and follow these examples as rules.

 

Directions (1-40): In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions I & II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer 


1. Statement: “Buy ‘LG’ TV for better sound quality.” – An advertisement

Assumptions: 

I. “LG’ TV is the only TV in the market.

II. ‘LG’ TV is the costliest.

III. People generally ignore such advertisements.

1) Only I is implicit.
2) Only II is implicit.
3) Only III is implicit.

4) None is implicit.
Ans: 4


2. Statement: “Look at his audacity. Mohan has not replied to my letter.” – A tells B.

Assumptions: 

I. Mohan received his letter.

II. Mohan did not receive his letter.

III. The letter was sent only  by post.

1) Only I is implicit.
2) Only II is implicit.
3) Only III is implicit.
4) All are implicit.
Ans: 1

3. Statement: “Put a notice on the Board that all the employees should come on time to office.” – An officer tells his assistant.

Assumptions: 

I. All the employees come late.

II. Employees read such notice on the Board.

III. Employees will follow the instructions.

1) Only I and II are implicit.
2) Only II is implicit.
3) Only I and III are implicit.
4) Only II and III are implicit.
Ans: 4

4. Statement: “If you want the best training in computers join our classes” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:

I. People want training related with computers.

II. People read advertisements.

III. People want quality training.

1) Only I and II are implicit
2) Only II is implicit
3) Only I and III are implicit
4) All are implicit
Ans: 4

5. Statement: “As our business is expanding, we need to appoint more staff.” – The owner of a company informs his staff.

Assumptions: I. The present staff is not competent.

II. More staff will further expand the business.

III. Suitable persons to be taken as staff will be available.

1) Only I is implicit.  
2) Only II is implicit.
3) Only III is implicit.
4) All are implicit.
Ans: 3


6. Statement: The General Administration Department has issued a circular to all the employees informing them that henceforth the employees can avail their lunch break at any of the half-hour slots between 1.00 pm and 2.30 pm.

Assumptions:

I. The employees may welcome the decision and avail lunch break at different time slots.

II. There may not be any break in the work of the organization as the employees will have their lunch break at different time slots.

1) Only I.
2) Only II.
3) Only I and II.
4) None of these.
Ans: 3

7. Statement: “There is no dearth of expertise in the country (India) to assist or advice the Planning Commission. Induction of foreign experts in the commission is not justified as it will not only undermine or undervalue our indigenous capabilities, but also not help much in shaping our planning process.” – Mr X

Assumptions:

I. Economic policy is a sensitive issue.

II. Indian experts are the best judge of the ground realities of India.

III. Foreign-bred plans may succeed in one country but fail in another.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and II
3) Only II and III
4) Only I and III
Ans: 4

8. Statement: The Govt has made an appeal to all the citizens to honestly pay income tax and file returns reflecting the true income level to help the Government to carry out developmental activities.


Assumptions: 
I. More people may now start paying taxes in response to the appeal.
II. The total income tax collection may considerably increase in the near future.
1) Only I.  
2) Only II.
3) Only I and II.
4) None of these.
Ans: 3


9. Statement: The state government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions:

I. There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.

II. The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the Government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

1) Only I
2) Only II
3) Only I and II
4) None of these
Ans: 1


10. Statement: The school authority has decided to increase the number of students in each classroom from twenty to thirty from the next academic session to bridge the gap between income and expenditure to a larger extent.

Assumptions:

I. The income generated by way of fees of the additional students will be sufficient enough to bridge the gap.

II. The school will get all the additional students in each class from the next academic session.

1) Only I
2) Only II
3) Only I and II  
4) None of these
Ans: 3


11. Statement: To push for their demand for the constitution of the Sixth Pay Commission, the Central Government employees across the country have threatened to go on indefinite strike from March 1.

Assumptions:

I. Strike is the only way to put pressure on the government for settlement of demands.

II. The government may grant the basic demands of the employees if they go on strike.

III. The basic demand for the immediate setting up of Sixth Pay Commission may grant interim relief to employees.

1) Only I and II
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 2


12. Statement: “Be wise: always insist on buying packaged spice.” – An instruction

Assumptions: 

I. Most of the people prefer loose spices.

II. The loose spices may contain synthetic colours and additives.

III. The synthetic colours and additives may be harmful to human’s health.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III
4) None of these
Ans: 5


13. Statement: Starting this year, the CBSE will give a 15-minute “cool-off” period to students sitting in the boards for class VIII to X. Also, some questions papers have been restructured for the convenience of the students.

Assumptions: 

I. The students may use the 15-minute gap to plan and think about their answer.

II. The extra time may be helpful to students in revising their answer.

III. The students may welcome the decision taken by the CBSE.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III
4) Only I and II
Ans: 2


14. Statement: In order to reduce some social problems the Supreme Court has directed the Centre and the State governments to initiate steps to make the registration of marriages compulsory within three months.

Assumptions: 

I. The compulsory registration of marriages may be helpful in solving some social problems related with marriage.

II. The Centre and State governments may abide by the instruction issued by the Supreme Court.

III. The people may follow the initiatives taken by the Centre or the State governments.

1) Only I and II
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 4

15. Statements: “If you haven’t already registered with the best job site in the country, here’s yet another reason to do so. When you log on to naukri.com to register, update your profile or apply for jobs, you could win yourself a fantastic prize, a 512 MB Nokia.” – An advertisement.

Assumptions:

I. The responses to one’s job search may now sound like music to one’s ears.

II. Naukri.com job site may have the job for those who register with it. 

III. A fantastic prize can attract job-seekers to register themselves with the best job site.

1) Only I and III
2) Only II and III
3) Only III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 2

16. Statement: “You get a lot more than just fuel at our XYZ petrol pumps. Now you can eat, shop, bank, receive money, book tickets, pay bills, buy music and do much more at most of our outlets.” – An advertisement

Assumptions: 

I. XYZ petrol pump runs the largest organized convenience retailing chain in the country.

II. Most of the customers may have interest in convenience retailing.

III. The initiative taken by XYZ petrol pump may increase its business.

1) Only I and II
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III  
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 3

17. Statement: “Do not serve liquor at unlicensed premises without obtaining L-49A licence.” – A notice issued in the public interest by the Department of Excise in all newspapers.

Assumptions: 

I. All people read newspapers but not necessarily the same one.

II. Newspaper can be a successful mode of making people aware of the notice.

III. Consumption of liquor is injurious to health.

1) Only II    
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 1


18. Statement: “Do not buy/consume liquor if you are below 25 years of age.” – A notice on a board issued in public interest by the Department of Excise.

Assumptions: 
I. It is good to know all rules related with excise.

II. Consuming liquor can make the person – below 25 years – penniless.

III. The people may read the notice and adhere to it.

1) Only I  
2) Only II
3) Only I and II
4) None of these
Ans: 4


19. Statement: “Do not pay more than the MRP printed on the bottle.” – An instruction by the Department of Excise.

Assumptions:

I. There may be some unscrupulous shopkeepers who illegally take more than the MRP printed on the bottle.

II. Paying more than the MRP printed on the bottle might encourage black marketing of the product.

III. The consumers can be cheated if they are not acquainted with such instructions.

1) Only I and II  
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III  
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 4


20. Statement: “Always check seal of the bottle and insist on cash memo while buying liquor from the shop.” – A notice issued in public interest by the Department of Excise.

Assumptions:

I. Properly sealed bottle reduces the chances of adulteration or any maltreatment.

II. The shopkeeper may be ready to give cash memo if a customer insists on it.

III. The cash memo given by the shopkeeper reduces chances of unfair dealings.

1) Only I  
2) Only II

3) Only III
4) All of these
Ans: 4


21. Statement: “Never allow children alone near stove or heater in the kitchen and also do not wear loose/flowing and synthetic clothes while cooking.” – A notice in public interest by XYZ fire service.

Assumptions: 
I. Prevention is better than cure.

II. Wearing loose/flowing and synthetic clothes while cooking can be detrimental.
III. Alertness can avert unpleasant incidents related with fire.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only I and II
4) Only II and III
Ans: 1


22. Statement: A special yoga camp was organized by Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) to teach the CISF functionaries the healing powers of “pranayam”.

Assumptions: 

I. The special yoga camp may reduce the communication gap between the higher rank officers in the unit and the jawans.

II. The programme may help make the unit fitter and combat stress.

III. The pranayam may help CISF personnel to overcome fatigue and concentrate better.

1) Only I and II
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 3


23. Statement: XYZ Prudential Life Insurance has launched a comprehensive insurance scheme that covers an individual for the entire expenses incurred on treatment of cancer, starting from the diagnosis stage.

Assumptions: 
I. Cancer is becoming a big problem as treatment is very costly.

II. Cancer is an incurable disease.

III. Cancer is a deadly disease.

1) Only I
2) Only II
3) Only I and II  
4) Only I and III
Ans: 4


24. Statement: The Indian Railways announced the upward revision of fares of Rajdhani and Shatabdi Express trains to factor in the burden of imposition of service tax on board catering services.

Assumptions: 
I. The revision may reduce the burden of service tax on board catering services.

II. The upward revision of fares may not affect the flow of the railway passengers.
III. The move may give an impetus to the flow of air passengers.

1) Only I  
2) Only III
3) Only either I or II  
4) Both I and II
Ans: 4


25. Statement: The XYZ employment department has set up a private placement cell (PPC) in state ‘A’ to provide free placement services to job-seekers as well as employers. And for this it has set up a website.

Assumptions: 

I. The move may be helpful for job-seekers to get themselves registered online on the website.

II. The applicants who are not in a position to get themselves registered online can fill up their details in the form which could be downloaded from the website.

III. The move may be helpful in reducing unemployment in the state.

1) Only I and II  
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 2


26. Statement: The municipal corporation of city ‘X’ has planned to use the services of engineers of other government agencies to speed up the ongoing sealing and demolition drives.

Assumptions: 

I. The engineers of other government agencies may have the expertise required to fulfill the task assigned to them.

II. The engineers of other agencies may abide by the request (for help) sought from the corporation.

III. The engineers of the municipal corporation of the city X may create hurdles while executing the drives.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III

3) Only I and II
4) Only II and III
Ans: 3


27. Statement: The Centre has unveiled a 14-point policy to tackle the naxal menace, and has instructed the states to adopt a collective approach and pursue a coordinated response to counter it.

Assumptions: 

I. A collective approach supported by coordinated response may increase the effectiveness of the plan to tackle naxal menace.

II. The 14-point policy will certainly be able to exterminate the naxal menace.

III. All the concerned states may abide by the policy of the Centre.

1) Only I and II  
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 3


28. Statement: “Use one socket for one appliance. Switch off appliances after use and remove the plug from the socket”. A notice issued in public interest by the Sita Ram Fire Services.

Assumptions: 

I. Most of the people are not aware of the safety tips.

II. The people need to know about safety tips.

III. The people may abide by the notice and may not use one socket for more than one   appliance.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only I and II
4) Only II and III
Ans: 1


29. Statement: “Apart from make – up, you can make your eyes look great by sleeping well and getting your brows shaped properly. Even changing the frame of your glasses can   drastically change your look,” – An advice by a beautician.

Assumptions:

I. People wish to improve their appearance.

II. People may abide by the advice and may prefer to work on their appearance.
III. The key to an overall attractive appearance is projecting a positive friendly attitude.

1) Only I and II  
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III
4) All I, II and III
Ans: 1


30. Statement: “Walk tall, your shoulders pulled back, your spine straight, your chin up! Slouching or looking down when walking tells people that you are under – confident.”– An advice.

Assumptions:

I. Good-looking people generally tend to do better in life, adapt more easily to situations and tend to be more popular.

II. Good grooming and right dressing sense add to one’s personality.

III. When you are in a good health and take care of yourself on the inside, it is bound to radiate on the outside.

1) None  
2) Only II
3) Only III  
4) Only I
Ans: 1


31. Statement: “Pay your taxes honestly. Be a proud partner in nation-building and make yourself able to look straight into your nation’s eyes.” – A notice

Assumptions: 

I. The simplest way to do one’s duty towards one’s nation is by paying one’s taxes.

II. Amount collected through taxes help the nation in funding social infrastructure and essential services.

III. People want to share the pride of nation’s progress.

1) Only I  
2) Only II
3) Only III
4) Only II and III
Ans: 4


32. Statement: “Ironic as it may sound, Punjab ranks high in the urban social indicators but has the lowest child sex ratio of 798 girls to 1,000 boys. Haryana is slightly better at 819 and Gujarat is at 883. The traditional societies, including tribal communities, have an impressive sex ratio of 975 girls to 1,000 boys (Chhattisgarh), 973 (Meghalaya), and 966 in Tripura – much higher than the national figure of 906.” – A report

Assumptions:

I. A state which ranks high in the urban social indicators is supposed to have an impressive sex ratio.

II. A developed society is supposed to have developed nations free from gender discrimination.

III. Having a lower child sex ratio is detrimental for a society.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only II and III
3) Only I and III
4) Only I and II
Ans: 1


33. Statement: The CM of XYZ state has directed the IT department to prepare a profile of all the villages in XYZ state so that a close watch can be kept on their development in order to make the state a developed one.

Assumptions:

I. The profile may help the authority to understand the needs of the villages – what kind of development a particular village needs.  
II. The profile may help the authority to envisage suitable programmes for each village.

III. Unless the development of each village is taken into account, XYZ state can’t be a developed state.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only I and II
4) Only II and III
Ans: 3


34. Statement: The government has decided to take initiatives to make leprosy patients (who are not treated well by the society) self-reliant by providing them professional training in the field of computer applications and repairing of household electronic items.

Assumptions: 
I. Because of social stigma associated with leprosy, its patients may be unable to join the mainstream of the society on their own.
II. Most of the leprosy patients have no perfect tools or expertise to earn their livelihood.

III. In absence of proper options leprosy patients usually start begging.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only I and II  
4) Only II and III
Ans: 3


35. Statement: The government of Gujarat state has planned to set up an Industrial Training Institute (ITI) in each constituency in order to reduce unemployment in the state, Gujarat.

Assumptions: 

I. The state Gujarat is emerging as an industrial hub.

II. The ITIs may provide job-oriented technical training to the rural youth.

III. The move may help to solve the problem of unemployment of Gujarat state.

1) All I, II and III
2) Only I and III
3) Only II and III  
4) Only I and II
Ans: 3


36. Statement: Use PVC pipes, which have 10 years longer life than other pipes, to keep yourself free of worries.

Assumptions:

I. People prefer durable pipes.

II. People would prefer durable pipes.

III. A more durable pipe will make people’s lives more convenient.

1) Only I is implicit.
2) II and either I or III is implicit
3) Only II is implicit
4) I, II and III are implicit  
Ans: 4


37. Statements: Despite a brilliant innings by Tendulkar, India could not win the match.

Assumption:

I. A brilliant innings is likely to help a country win a match.

II. India lost the match.

III. Tendulkar made a good individual score.

1) Only I is implicit
2) Only II is implicit
3) Only III is implicit
4) I and II are implicit
Ans: 1


38. Statements: The climate of the place has not changed appreciably despite hectic afforestation.

Assumption: 

I. Hectic afforestation in some places is going on.

II. The climate of the place is afforestation-resistant.

III. The place is protected by other natural habitats.

1) Only I is implicit
2) Only II is implicit
3) Only III is implicit
4) None is implicit
Ans: 4


39. Statement: The epidemic did not spread to a large extent, thanks to effective prevention measures by the authorities.

Assumptions:

I. The epidemic was lethal.
II. The epidemic was likely to spread.
III. The authorities are alert at bad times.

1) Only I is implicit
2) Only II is implicit
3) Only III is implicit
4) Either II or III is implicit
Ans: 2


40. Statement: “The state department must follow the directives strictly; else their funding may be stopped.” – An official circular.

Assumption: 

I. The state-department is not functioning properly.
II. The state departments are funded by higher bodies.
III. Proper functioning of state departments is desirable.

1) Only I is implicit
2) I and III are implicit

3) II and III are implicit          

4) I, II and III are implicit
Ans: 4


Directions (41-50): In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions I & II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer 

1) if only assumption I is implicit.

2) if only assumption II is implicit.

3) if neither I nor II is implicit.

4) if both I and II are implicit.


41. Statement: “X state’s High Court has rightly quashed the state government ordinance providing five per cent reservation for Muslims in education and public employment.” – A comment by a person

Assumptions:

I. Educational and economic backwardness is prevalent among all communities not just among Muslims.

II. Reservation has to be extended to all those who are economically backward, irrespective of caste and religion.
Ans: 3


42. Statement: “Every time a terrorist attack takes place, it is touted as a major intelligence failure. We cannot over look the administration’s role in averting tragedies of even the greatest magnitude on many occasions.” – View of Mr. X.

Assumptions:
I. Criticism dampens the spirits of our intelligence and security agencies.

II. Society should become more vigilant and appreciate that security is not the responsibility of intelligence or security agencies only.
Ans: 1


43. Statement: A well-planned vegetarian diet with milk can serve the nutritional requirement and prevent the development of deficiency diseases. Only the need is to increase the awareness about the qualities of various plant foods among masses through multimedia approach.

Assumptions:
I. Selection of the right kind of food in right proportion and amount makes the diet balanced in all respect.
II. One who takes food in proper measure lives a long life and lives without disease, gets strength and alertness of mind.
Ans: 1


44. Statement: It is of utmost importance that the child be given the gift of a valuable character and high self-esteem so as to steer the country safely and securely in times to come.

Assumptions: 
I. The children who have been taught ‘character’ and know ‘right’ from ‘wrong’ may have the will to practise what is the right thing to do irrespective of the cost and consequences attached to them.

II. The child is the father of man.
Ans: 4


45. Statement: No country can be economically powerful if its economic and social elite do not feel ashamed at the degradation of the farmers. No society can claim to be civilized if it fails to provide a life of dignity and opportunities to all its members.

Assumptions: 

I. The increasing emotional gap between the urban elite and the rural population has become even more glaring.

II. Prosperity of a country is linked with the prosperity of its citizens.
Ans: 2

46. Statement: The Supreme Court has ruled that tribunals and courts can award only a “just” compensation for accidents and not a “bonanza” and it should not be a source of profit or windfall.

Assumptions:

I. In accidents, compensation awarded should not be inadequate and should be neither unreasonable and excessive nor deficient.

II. There can be no uniform rule for measuring the value of human life and the measure of damage cannot be arrived at by precise mathematical calculations.
Ans: 1


47. Statement: The Supreme Court issued notices to the Archaeological Survey of India and the Centre on yet another petition drawing its attention towards ongoing restoration and conservation work being carried out at the Red Fort.

Assumptions: 
I. The ongoing conservation work is controversial.

II. The fundamental principles of conservation may have been abandoned with regard to the so-called restoration work at Red Fort.
Ans: 4


48. Statement: “Blood cannot be manufactured in factories – it is produced only in human body. Only a human being can give it to another being in distress.”  - A request made by National Aids Control Organization (NACO)

Assumptions: 

I. Many people are filled with humanity.

II. Many people may be ready for blood donation voluntarily.
Ans: 3


49. Statement: After the completion of international Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), Government of India decided to observe October 29 as National Day for Disaster Reduction (NDDR) every year to commemorate the day when a super cyclone had hit one of its states in 1999. 

Assumptions:

I. NDDR may create public awareness and educate the people about the impact of natural disasters.

II. NDDR may create public awareness to feel the importance of disaster-preparedness and – mitigation.
Ans: 4


50. Statement: With Rs 3500 crore in 10th Plan outlay, the North-Eastern Council (NEC) is geared up to kick-start more ambitious plans to take the region into economic self-sufficiency.

Assumptions: 

I. Economic self-sufficiency brings progress and prosperity.

II. The plan outlay is enough to kick-start the ambitious plan.
Ans: 4

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