Bituminous binders used in pavement construction works include both bitumen and tar. Both bitumen and tar have similar appearance, black in colour though they have different characteristics.
Naturally occurring deposits of bitumen are formed from the remains of ancient, microscopic algae and other once-living things. When these organisms died, their remains were deposited in the mud on the bottom of the ocean or lake where they lived. Under the heat and pressure of burial deep in the earth, the remains were transformed into materials such as bitumen, kerogen, or petroleum. Deposits at the La Brea Tar Pitsare an example. There are structural similarities between bitumens and the organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites. However, detailed studies have shown these materials to be distinct.
Asphalt or bitumen can sometimes be confused with "tar", which is a similar black, thermoplastic material produced by the destructive distillation of coal. During the early and mid20th century when town gas was produced, tar was a readily available product and extensively used as the binder for road aggregates. The addition of tar to macadam roads led to the word tarmac, which is now used in common parlance to refer to road-making materials. However, since the 1970s, when natural gas succeeded town gas, asphalt (bitumen) has completely overtaken the use of tar in these applications.
BITUMEN is a petroleum product obtained by the distillation of petroleum crude.
TAR is a thermoplastic material obtained from the destructive distillation. The grade of bitumen used for pavement construction work of roads and airfields are called paving grades and used for water proofing of structures and industrial floors etc. are called industrial grades. The paving bitumen available in India is classified into two categories
1) Paving bitumen from Assam petroleum denoted as A-type and designated as grades A35, A 90.etc.
2) Paving bitumen from other sources denoted as S-type and designated as grades S35, S90 etc.
The viscosity of bitumen is reduced some times by a volatile diluents this material is called Cutback.
The bitumen is suspended in a finely divided condition in an aqueous medium and stabilized with an emulsifier; the material is known as Emulsion.
Difference between Bitumen and Tar
Desirable Properties of Bitumen
The viscosity of the bitumen at the time of mixing and compaction should be adequate. This is achieved by heating the bitumen and aggregate prior to mixing or by use of cutbacks or emulsions of suitable grade.
2) Temperature Susceptibility
The bituminous material should not be highly temperature susceptible. During the hottest weather of the region the bituminous mix should not become too soft or unstable. During cold weather the mix should not become too hard and brittle, causing cracking. The material should be durable.
3) Adhesion Property
In presence of water the bitumen should not strip off from the aggregate. There has to be adequate affinity and adhesion between the bitumen and aggregate used in the mix.
Tests on bitumen
There are a number of tests to assess the properties of bituminous materials. The following tests are usually conducted to evaluate different properties of bituminous materials. 1. Penetration test
2. Softening point test
3. Ductility test
4. Viscosity test
5. Specific gravity test
6. Heat stability test
a. Flash point test
b. Fire point test
c. Loss on heating test
7. Solubility test
8. Thin film oven test
9. Float test
10. Water content test
Bitumen emulsion is a liquid product in which bitumen is suspended in a finely divided condition in an aqueous medium and stabilized by suitable material. Normally cationic type emulsions are used in India. The bitumen content in the emulsion is around 60% and the remaining is water. When the emulsion is applied on the road it breaks down resulting in release of water and the mix starts to set. The time of setting depends upon the grade of bitumen. The viscosity of bituminous emulsions can be measured as per IS:8887- 1995.Threetypes of bituminous emulsions are available, which are Rapid setting(RS),Medium setting (MS),And Slow setting (SC).Bitumen Emulsions are ideal binders for hill road construction. Where Heating of bitumen or aggregates are difficult. Rapid Setting emulsions are used for surface dressing work. Medium Setting emulsions are preferred for premix jobs and patch repairs work. Slow setting Emulsions are preferred in rainy season.
Normal practice is to heat Bitumen to reduce its viscosity. In some situations preference is given to use liquid binders such as cutback bitumen. In cutback bitumen Suitable solvent is used to lower the viscosity of the bitumen. From the environmental point of view also cutback bitumen is preferred. The solvent from the bituminous material will evaporate and the bitumen will bind the aggregate. Cutback bitumen is used for cold weather Bituminous road construction and Maintenance. The distillates used For preparation of cutback bitumen are naphtha, kerosene, diesel, oil and furnace oil. There are different types of cutback bitumen Like rapid curing(RC),medium curing(MC), And slow curing(SC).RC is recommended for Surface dressing and patchwork. MC is recommended For premix With less quantity of fine aggregates.SC is used For premix with appreciable quantity of fine aggregates.