Causes of New Movement
Know The Important Facts
- The Pali works mention that, at the time of Buddha, there existed no less than sixty-two different sects. According to the Jain texts, their number was 363.
- The important among these were the Ajivikas, Jatilakas, Munda-Savakas, Parivrajakas, Mangandikas, Gotamakas, Tendikas etc.
- The most important teachers of the time, besides the Buddha, and Mahavira, were: Purana-Kassapa, Makkhali-Gosala, Nigantha Nataputta, Ajita-Kesakambalin, Pakuddha Kacchayana, Sanjaya-Belathaputta.
- The Third Council was held at Pataliputra during the reign of Ashoka, 236 years after the death of Buddha. It was held under the Presidentship of MoggliputtaTissa to revise the scriptures.
- The Fourth Council was held during the reign of Kanishka in Kashmir under the Presidentship of Vasumitra and Asvaghosha and resulted in the division of Buddhists into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.
Know The Important Facts
- In the Pali texts the Gamabhojaka appears as a tyrant who fleeces the people with arbitrary exactions and sometimes interferes with the autonomous and associate life of the village.
- The Buddha extended the teaching of two elder contemporaries, Alara of an Aryan Kalama tribe, and Uddaka, son of Rama.
- Buddhism believes in non-self, no god, no soul or spirit.
- There is no authority in Buddhism.
- There is very little theological or philosophical speculation involved in Buddhism.
- Buddhism is scientific in approach, a search for cause and effect relationships and a knowledge of reality as it is experienced by each individual human being.
- Buddhism is psychological in approach, is that it begins with human beings rather than with the universe.
- “The different schools are constantly at variance, and their utterances rise like angry waves of the sea. There are 18 schools, each claiming pre-eminence.”
- — Hien-Tsang on Buddhist Schools
- “If women was not admitted into the monasteries, Buddhism would have continued for thousand of years, but because this admission has been granted it would last only five hundred years”
Roots of Buddhism in the Past
Four Noble Truths
Eight Fold Path
Three Ratna or Jewels of Buddhism
Five Great Events of Buddha’s Life and their Symbols
Famous Bhikhus at the Time of Buddha
younger monks and nuns who have attained the position of arhats. The Buddhavamsa is a legend in verse, which narrates the life and activities of the 24 Buddhas, who preceded Gautama. Among the non-canonical literature Milindapanho, Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa are important.
The later two are the great chronicles of Ceylon. Sutta Nipatta and the four Nikayas say regarding people and caste, countries and towns, brahmins, and sacrifice of the period. Digha Nikaya contains discourses by the Buddha and other monks. They contain parables, similes, and anecdotes giving sociological datas, descriptions, objective observations and religious advice.
Anguttara Nikaya is mainly concerned with numerical categorisation. Majjihima Nikaya contains religious and philisophical controversies. It also deals with the brahmanic claim to social and ritual superiority. Samutta Nikaya deals with the behaviour of groups and individuals and also the discourses they have with Buddha and with one another.
Sutta Pitaka is a collection of verses containing religious doctrine. Shippikani or coury shells are once mentioned in Jataka. The Masaka, the Pava, the Kakanika, and the Kamasa were the bronze or copper tokens.
During the period the flexibility of a market economy was facilitated by three innovations; the use of a script, the consequent issuing of promissory notes, the letters of credit and pledges, and the introduction money in the form of silver and copper punch-marked coins.
Know The Important Facts
- Asvaghosha—Contemporary of Kanishka. He was a poet, dramatist, musician, scholar and debator. He took Buddhism to every heart and home
- Nagarjuna—He was a friend and contemporary of the Satavahana king Yajnasri Gautamiputra of Andhra. He propounded the Madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy popularly known as Sunyavada.
- Asanga and Vasubandhu—Who were brothers, flourished in the Punjab in the fourth century A.D. Asanga was the most important teacher of the Yogacara or Vijnanavada school founded by his guru, Maitreyanatha.
- Vasubandhu’s greatest work, the Abhidharmakosa is still considered an important encyclopaedia of Buddhism.
- Buddhaghosha—Who lived in the fifth century A.D. was a great Pali scholar. The commentaries and the Visuddhimaga written by him are a great achievement in the Post-Tripitaka literature.
- Buddhapalita and Bhavariveka—were important exponents, in the fifth century, of the Sunyavada doctrine propounded by Nagarjuna.
- Dinnaga—The last mighty intellectual of the fifth century, is well known as the founder of the Buddhist logic.
- Dharmakirti—lived in the seventh century A.D. was another great Buddhist logician. He was a subtle philosophical thinker and dialectician.