CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

Commerce: CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

The document CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce is a part of the Commerce Course Economics Class 12.
All you need of Commerce at this link: Commerce

Sample Paper (By CBSE)
Economics


General Instructions:
There are total 24 questions
All questions are compulsory


Section A:Microeconomics

Q1 Which of the following is a statement of normative nature in economics?(1)
a) Economics is study of choices/alternatives.
b) Government should be concerned with how to reduce unemployment
c) According to an estimate, in spite of severe shortage, more than 10% of houses in Indian cities are lying vacant.
d) Accommodation of Refugees is posing a big problem for the Europe
Ans:
 b) Government should be concerned with how to reduce unemployment 2

Q2 Define Marginal Physical Product. (1)
Ans: 
Marginal Physical Product is the change in output produced by employing one additional
unit of the variable input. It can be calculated as :
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

Q3 A firm is operating with a Total Variable Cost ofRs 500 when 5 units of the given output are produced and the Total Fixed Costs areRs 200, what will be the Average Total Cost of producing 5 units of output? (1)
i) Rs. 140 ii) Rs.  100 iii ) Rs.  120 iv) Rs.  300
Ans: 
i) 140

Q4 In an imperfectly competitive market, if the Total Revenue is maximum, Marginal Revenue ? (1)
Ans: Zero.

Q5 State and discuss any two factors that will shift the Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)to the right.
Ans: 
Two factors that may shift the Production Possibility Frontier of an economy away from
origin (to the right) are:
(a) Increase in resources available to an economy (natural, physical or human resource). New resources may increase the output potential in an economy resulting in shift of PPF away from origin.
(b) Improvement in technology, when technology improves the production potential increases, i.e. economy may be able to produce more output using existing resources
efficiently.
Or
Draft a hypothetical schedule for a straight line Production Possibility Curve.(3)
Ans: 
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Since Marginal Rate of Transformation is constant, PPC will be a straight line.

Q6 Giving reason, state the impact of each of following on demand curve of a normal good ‘X’ if (3)
i) Price of its complementary good falls.
Ans: 

(i) Demand of the good X will increases, hence demand curve of good X shifts towards right.
ii) News reports claims that consumption of product X has harmful effect on human health.
Ans: 
(ii) Demand of Good X may decrease as people may be inclined to consume less due to media reports of harmful effect of the good X, as a result, demand curve may shift towards left.
iii) Income of consumer increases,
Ans:
(iii)When income of consumer increases the disposable income increases and consumer is in a better position of spending more on the good X. Hence consumer may consume more of the commodity due to which the demand for the good increases and demand curve shifts away from origin.

Q7 a. Arrange the following coefficients of price elasticity of demand in ascending order:-0.87, -0.53, -3.1, -0.80
b. Comment upon the degree of elasticity of demand for commodity X,if the price of the commodity falls fromRs 28 per unit toRs 23 per unit and its quantity demanded rises from 50 units to 100 units. (4)
Ans: 
a) -0.53, -0.80, -0.87,- 3.1 (minus sign only represents the inverse relation between price and quantity demanded)
b)

Price(in

Quality (in units)

Original=28

Original=50

New=23

New=100

CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

 

Q8. What is meant by Price Floor? Discuss in brief, any one consequence of imposition of floor price above equilibrium price with help of a diagram.
Ans:
 A Floor price is the minimum price at which a commodity can be sold legally. Floor price if fixed above the equilibrium price, serves the purpose of welfare of the producers (say farmers). When price floor is fixed at P” quantity demanded will contract to OQ” but at this price, suppliers will be ready to supply OQ’. As a result, surplus of QQ” will emerge.
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Imposition of floor prices above equilibrium price will have the following major
implications:​
a) Surpluses: The quantity actually brought and supplied will shrink as a direct consequence of price flooring, as a result, a part of producer’s stock will remain unsold. As shown in the figure the surplus of Q’Q” arises.

b) Buffer Stock: In order to maintain the support price, the government may design some programmes to enable producers to dispose of their surplus stocks. One such programme can take the form of buffer stock. Government may purchase the surplus to store or sell it at subsidised prices. Subsidy is required to lower the price and make it competitive in the market. Government may also use it as aid and send it to other countries. (any one to be explained)
Or
Q8. How is the price of a commodity determined in a perfectly competitive market? Explain with help of a diagram.
Ans: 
Price of a commodity is determined by market demand and market supply of a commodity, (i.e. industry is the price maker). An individual producer/firm has no role in the
determination of the price of the commodity (firm is a price taker). No individual seller or buyer can influence the price of the commodity.
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
DD and SS are Market demand and market supply curves intersecting at E. OQ quantity (Equilibrium Quantity) would be offered for sale and demanded by the buyers at OP price (Equilibrium Price) per unit. The industry is in equilibrium.

Q9 Explain how the following factors affect the supply of the commodity (any two) (4)
a) Price of factor inputs b) State of technology c) Government taxation Policy
Ans: 
Supply of a commodity is affected by following factors:
a) Price of factor Inputs: If factor input price increases, cost of production generally rises, accordingly producers are willing to supply less at the existing price as the profit probability decreases. This implies leftward shift in supply curve and vice-versa, keeping other factors constant.

b) State of Technology: Improvement in technique of production raises productivity and generally lowers per unit cost of production, consequently the probability to earn more
profit also increases and hence the producer is induced to supply more, as a result supply curve shifts towards right.

c) Government Taxation Policy: If government increases taxes, it will affect the cost of production adversely and hence supply decreases. But if Government decreases the tax the cost of production will fall and the producer will be induced to increase the supply of the commodity,ceteris paribus.

Q10 a) A consumer, Mr Aman is in state of equilibrium consuming two goods X and Y, with
given prices Px and Py . What will happen if ? (2)
Ans: 
b) Identify which of the following is not true for the Indifference Curves theory. Give valid
reasons for choice of your answer: (4)
a. Lower indifference curve represents lower level of satisfaction.
b. Two indifference curves can intersect each other.
c. Indifference curve must be convex to origin at the point of tangency with the budget line
at the consumer’s equilibrium.
d. Indifference curves are drawn under the cardinal approach to consumer equilibrium.
Ans: 
a) If CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce , then it means that satisfaction derived from consumption of good X is greater than the satisfaction derived from consumption of Good Y. Mr Aman will reallocate
his income by spending more on good X. Utility derived from X goes on diminishing and reverse preposition occurs for Good Y, this process will continue till CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce becomes equal to  CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
b)The second statement ‘ Two regular convex to origin indifference curves can intersect each other' is not true as the intersection of two regular indifference curves indicate one such point (point of intersection) which yields the similar satisfaction of two different indifference curves which is not possible. In the figure there are two indifference curves IC1 and IC2 intersecting each other, there is clear violation of assumption of monotonic preference. As per figure satisfaction derived at point A = satisfaction derived at point C ( on IC1) And satisfaction derived at point D = satisfaction derived at point E ( on IC2) At intersecting point B;
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Satisfaction derived by consumer at points A, C and B is equal and
A = C = B (On IC1)
D = E = B (On IC2)
Consequently A = D (which is absurd) Thus we can say that IC’s can’t intersect each other.
OR
Q10. A consumer has total money income ofRs 500 to be spent on two goods X and Y with prices ofRs 50 andRs 10 per unit respectively. On the basis of the given information, answer the following questions:
a. Give the equation of the budget line for the consumer.
b. What is the value of slope of the budget line?
c. How many units can the consumer buy if he is to spend all his money income on good X?
d. How does the budget line change if there is a 50% fall in price of good Y?

Ans:
 
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
IfQy= Zero, then
50Qx + 10Qy = 500
50Qx + 10(0) = 500
d)CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Old Py = 10
New Py = 5
(50% of 10 = 5)
If Py falls the consumer will be able to buy more of good Y in the same money income pushing the Y-intercept of the Budget Line away from origin, keeping the X-intercept
constant, it rotates outwards and the equation will be 50Qx +5Qy = 500.

Q11 a) Why is Total Variable Cost curve inverse S- shaped?(2)
Ans: 
a) Total Variable Cost is zero at zero level of output. It initially increases at decreasing rate and later it increases at increasing rate. TVC is an inversely S-shaped curve due to the Law of Variable Proportion.

b) What is Average Fixed Cost of a firm? Why is an Average Fixed Cost Curve a rectangular Hyperbola? Explain with help of a diagram.(4)
Ans: b) Per unit fixed cost is known as Average Fixed Cost. As the value of Total Fixed Cost doesn’t vary at any level of output in short run and if it is divided by an incremental number the result would be diminishing with the same proportion as that of the proportion of increase of the number of units and the product will be same.
CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Since TFC remains same at different levels of output, AFC falls as the level of output is increased.
The AFC keeps on falling as the level of output increases. AFC can never become zero.

Q12 Suppose the value of demand and supply curves of a Commodity-X is given by the following two equations simultaneously: (6)
Qd = 200 –10p
Qs = 50 + 15p
i) Find the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity of commodity X.
ii) Suppose that the price of a factor inputs used in producing the commodity has changed,
resulting in the new supply curve given by the equation
Qs’ = 100 + 15p
Analyse the new equilibrium price and new equilibrium quantity as against the original equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity.
Ans: 

(i) We know that the equilibrium price and quantity are achieved at;
QD= QS
200- 10 p = 50 +15p
150 = 25p
Therefore, Equilibrium Price p = 6
And, Equilibrium Quantity q = 200 – (10) (6) = 140 units
ii) If the price of factor of production has changed, then under the new conditions;
QD = QS
200- 10p = 100 + 15p
25p = 100
Therefore, Equilibrium Price p = 4
And, Equilibrium Quantity q = 200 – (10)(4) = 160 units ,Thus as the equilibrium price is decreasing the equilibrium quantity is increased.

SECTION B : MACROECONOMICS

Q13 Define money supply? (1)
Ans: 
Money supply of a country is a stock of money in circulation at any point of time.

​Q14 State one fiscalmeasure that can be used to reduce the gap between rich and poor. (1)
Ans: 

a. Increasing the investment expenditure which will directly benefit the poor.
b. Increasing the taxes on rich and using the same amount to benefit the poor. (any one or any other relevant measure)

Q15 Define the capital receipts of a government. (1)
Ans: All money mobilised by government that either creates a liability of repayment on Government or involves reduction in some of an asset by selling it off.

Q16From the following data calculate Fiscal Deficit (1) 

S.No

Item

in Billions

1

Capital Receipt

68

2

Revenue Expenditure

160

3

Interest Payment

20

4

Borrowings

32

5

Tax Revenue

50

6

Non- Tax revenue

10

Ans: Fiscal Deficit = Borrowings = Rs32 Billion

Q17 Estimate the value of ex-ante AD, when autonomous investment and consumption expenditure (A) is ₹50 crores, and MPS is 0.2 and level of income is ₹ 300 crores.(3)
Ans:
MPC = 1 – MPS
MPC = 1 – 0.2
MPC = 0.8
AD = C+I
AD = A +bY
AD = 50 + 0.8 (300)
AD = 290 Crores
Or
Q17 Calculate Multiplier when MPC is 4/5 and 1/2. From the calculations establish the relation between size of Multiplier and size of MPC?
Ans: 

CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Observing the same we may conclude that there exist positive or direct relation between MPC and Investment Multiplier.
Investment Multiplier coefficient measures the change in final income with respect to given change in the initial investment in the economy. It carries direct relation with rate of growth in an economy, i.e. higher the MPC more chance of growth exists in an economy. But, it is a two sided sword hence if investment falls in an economy the income may also fall.

Q18 Discuss the significance of 45 degree line in Keynesian Economics. (3)
Ans:
Aggregate Supply is obtained by adding consumption and saving schedules. The straight line obtained which will originate from point of origin will form a 45 degree angle there by establishing the relation of Y = C+S

Level of Income(Y)

Consumption expenditure(C)

Saying(Y-C)

Y=AS=C+S

0

200

-200

0

100

250

-150

100

200

300

-100

200

300

350

-50

300

400

400

0

400

500

450

50

500

600

500

100

600

700

550

150

700

CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
At all points on 45 degree line, Consumption is equal to Income. It helps under the Keynesian Economic analysis.Since the two variables (consumption/Aggregate Expenditure and Income) are measured in the same units, the 45-degree line has a slope of one and it bisects the 90- degree angle formed by the two axes.

​Q19 Elaborate ‘economic growth’ as objective of government budget. (4)
Ans:
Economic Growth implies a sustainable increase in real GDP of an economy, i.e. an increase in volume of goods and services produced in an economy. Budget can be an effective tool to ensure the economic growth in a country.
i) If the government provides tax rebates and other incentives for productive ventures and projects, it can stimulate savings and Investments in an economy.
ii) Spending on infrastructure of an economy enhances the production activity in different sectors of an economy.Government expenditure is a major factor that generates demand for different types of goods and services in an economy which induces growth in private sector too.
However, before planning such expenditure, rebates and subsidies government should check the rate of inflation and tax rates. Also there may be the risk of debt trap if loans are too high to finance the expenditure.

Q20 Use following information of an imaginary country (4)

Year

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

Nominal GDP

6.5

8.4

9

GDP deflator

100

140

125

i) For the year 2011 as it’s the base year
Ans: 

The Real GDP declined in the year 2015-2016. It could be due to high rate of inflation or price levels.

Year

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

Nominal GDP

6.5

8.4

9

GDP deflator

100

140

125

/"•Tm                Nominal GDP \r-tnn

Real GDP= GDP Deflator X100

6.5

6

7.2


Q21 How will ‘Reverse Repo Rate’ and ‘Open Market Operations’ control excess money supply
in an economy?(4)
Ans: 
Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which Central Bank borrows money funds commercial banks. Increase in Reverse Repo Rate induces banks to transfer more funds to Central Bank and reduces banks’ ability to create credit. Open Market Operations refers to buying and selling of government securities by Central Bank from/to public and commercial banks. Sale of such securities reduces the reserve of commercial banks and adversely affects bank’s ability to create credit and hence decreases the money supply in the economy.
Or
Illustrate with the help of an hypothetical numerical example the process of credit creation.
Ans:
The credit creation by commercial banks is determined by amount of initial deposit and the legal reserve ratio. Suppose customer deposits 1000 in bank. Bank has to pay interest on this amount for which bank should lend this money to someone. A part of the amount is to be retained with bank to meet its customer’s obligations. Say, if LRR is 20%, the banks will keep 20% of deposits as reserves and will lend remaining 80% i.e. 800. Those who borrow will spend this money and same 800 will come back to banks in form of deposits. This raises the total deposits to 1,800 now. Banks again keep 20% of 800 as reserve and lend 640 to those who needs. This will further raise the deposits with banks. In this way deposits will go on increasing @ 80% of the last deposit. The number of times the total deposit will become, is determined by money

Q22 a) Define Externality.(2)
b) Find National Income from following using expenditure method(4)

S.no

 

(in crores)

1

Current transfers from rest of the world

50

2

Net Indirect taxes

100

3

Net Exports

-25

4

Rent

90

5

Private Final Consumption Expenditure

900

6

Net Domestic Capital Formation

200

7

Compensation of Employees

500

8

Net Factor Income from Abroad

-10

9

Government Final Consumption Expenditure

400

10

Profit

220

11

Mixed Income of Self Employed

400

12

Interest

230

Or
Will the following factor income be included in domestic factor income of India? Give
reasons for your answer:-
(i) Compensation of employees to the resident of Japan working in Indian embassy in Japan.
(ii) Payment of fees to a Chartered Accountant by a firm
(iii)Rent received by an Indian resident from Russian embassy in India.
(iv)Compensation given by insurance company to an injured worker.

Ans:
a. Externality occurs when the actions of consumers or producers give rise to negative or positive side effects on third party who are not part of these actions, and whose interests are not taken into consideration. E.g. :- introduction of metro rail on one hand has increased the prices of property but has also saved the time and money of general public and has provided safe means of transport

b. National Income by Expenditure Method = Private Final Consumption
Expenditure + Government Final Consumption Expenditure + Net Domestic
Capital Formation + Net Exports + NFIA - NIT
National Income by Expenditure Method = v + ix + vi + iii + viii - ii
National Income by Expenditure Method = 900 + 400 + 200 + (-25 ) + (-10)
- 100
National Income by Expenditure Method = 1365 Crores
Or
Ans:
(i) Yes it will be included as its part of Factor Income earned in domestic territory of the
country.
(ii) Payment of fees to a Chartered Accountant is an intermediate expenditure for the firm. Hence it is to be deducted from the value of output of the firm to obtain value added. Hence it is not included in domestic factor income of India
(iii) No, as rent received be Indian resident from Russian embassy will be part of Fcator Income received from abroad as Russian Embassy is not part of domestic territory of the country.
(iv) No, as compensation is given by insurance company to employee and not by employer.

Q23 State whether the following statements are true or false. Give valid reasons for your answers.(6)
(i) Unplanned inventories accumulate when planned investment is less than planned saving.
Ans:
 i) True, as planned savings are more causing the Marginal Propensity to Consume to reduce thus Aggregate Demand will fall and producers will have accumulation of inventory.

(ii) Deflationary gap exists when aggregate demand is greater than aggregate supply at full employment level.
Ans: 
 ii) False, Inflationary Gap exists when actual Aggregate Demand is more than Aggregate Supply corresponding to full employment level of output in the economy.

(iii) Average propensity to save can never be negative.
Ans: 
iii) False, at income levels which are lower than break-even point, Average propensity to save can be negative as there will be dissaving in the economy.

Q24 a) ‘Devaluation and Depreciation of currency are one and the same thing’. Do you agree?
How do they affect the exports of a country?(3)
Ans: 
a) Depreciation and Devaluation both imply a fall in external value of a currency; however the term depreciation is used under the floating exchange rate system that is when the exchange rate system is determined by the combined market forces of demand and supply. A currency loses or gains value because of fluctuations in demand and supply. The term devaluation is used in a system of fixed exchange rates. In this system, the exchange value of a currency is decided by the government. Devaluation of currency is the deliberate action of the government. Depreciation and devaluation of a currency normally encourages exports from a country, as exports become cheaper for the foreign nationals and foreign currency can now buy more of domestic goods, i.e. the international competitiveness of the goods and services of such a nation gets better.

b) What is meant by ‘official reserve transactions’? Discuss their importance in Balance of Payments.(3)
Ans: 
​b) The transactions carried on by monetary authorities of a country, which causes changes in official reserves are termed as official reserve transactions Autonomous receipts and autonomous payments give rise to either deficit or surplus on balance of payments. The central bank may finance a deficit by :
i. reducing reserves of foreign currency
ii. by borrowing from the IMF or monetary authorities
This will be shown as decrease in reserves. The central bank may use surplus to purchase foreign securities, foreign currency, gold etc. which may result in increase in reserves of the nation.

 

 

The document CBSE Sample Question paper - 04 Economics, Class 12 Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce is a part of the Commerce Course Economics Class 12.
All you need of Commerce at this link: Commerce

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