Cascading Counters Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev

Digital Electronics

Electrical Engineering (EE) : Cascading Counters Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev

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Cascading Synchronous Counters

Connecting Synchronous counters in cascade, to obtain greater count ranges, is made simple in ICs such as the 74HC191 by using the ripple carry (Cascading Counters Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev) output of the IC counting the least significant 4 bits, to drive the clock input of the next most significant IC, as show in red in Fig. 5.6.17.

Although it may appear that either the TC or the  Cascading Counters Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev outputs could drive the next clock input, the TC output is not intended for this purpose, as timing issues can occur.

Cascading Counters Electrical Engineering (EE) Notes | EduRev

 

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Counters

Although synchronous counters have a great advantage over asynchronous or ripple counters in regard to reducing timing problems, there are situations where ripple counters have an advantage over synchronous counters.

When used at high speeds, only the first flip-flop in the ripple counter chain runs at the clock frequency. Each subsequent flip-flop runs at half the frequency of the previous one. In synchronous counters, with every stage operating at very high clock frequencies, stray capacitive coupling between the counter and other components and within the counter itself is more likely occur, so that in synchronous counters interference can be transferred between different stages of the counter, upsetting the count if adequate decoupling is not provided. This problem is reduced in ripple counters due to the lower frequencies in most of the stages.

Also, because the clock pulses applied to synchronous counters must charge, and discharge the input capacitance of every flip-flop simultaneously; synchronous counters having many flip-flops will cause large pulses of charge and discharge current in the clock driver circuits every time the clock changes logic state. This can also cause unwelcome spikes on the supply lines that could cause problems elsewhere in the digital circuitry. This is less of a problem with asynchronous counters, as the clock is only driving the first flip-flop in the counter chain.

Asynchronous counters are mostly used for frequency division applications and for generating time delays. In either of these applications the timing of individual outputs is not likely to cause a problem to external circuitry, and the fact that most of the stages in the counter run at much lower frequencies than the input clock, greatly reduces any problem of high frequency noise interference to surrounding components.

 

Counter ICs

synchronous (Ripple) Counters:

  • 74HC390 - Dual decade ripple counter from NXP.
  • 74HC393 - Dual 4-stage binary ripple counter from  ON Semiconductor.
  • 74HC4040 - 12-Stage binary ripple counter from Fairchild Semiconductor.
  • 74HC93 -- 4-Bit binary ripple counter from Texas instruments 
  • CD4060- 14-Stage binary counter plus oscillator from ST Microelectronics.
  • HEF4042B- 7-Stage binary ripple counter from NXP.
  •  

Synchronous Counters:

  • 74HC160 - Pre-settable synchronous BCD counter with asynchronous reset from NXP.
  • 74HC161 - 4-Bit synchronous BCD counter with asynchronous reset and synchronous load from Texas instruments 
  • 74HC163 - 4-Bit synchronous binary counter with asynchronous reset and synchronous load from Texas instruments .
  • 74HC191 - 4-bit synchronous binary up/down counter with asynchronous reset and load from NXP.
  • 74HC192  - 4-Bit synchronous BCD counter with asynchronous reset and load from Texas instruments 
  • 74HC193  - 4-Bit synchronous binary counter with asynchronous reset and load from Texas instruments 
  •  CD4017/4022B- 4-Stage synchronous counters with Decade (1 of 10) or Octal (1 of 8) outputs from Texas instruments.
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