Chapter 2 - Faslo ka Tyohar, NCERT Textbook of CBSE Class 5 Hindi Notes | Study Hindi Class 5 - Class 5

Class 5: Chapter 2 - Faslo ka Tyohar, NCERT Textbook of CBSE Class 5 Hindi Notes | Study Hindi Class 5 - Class 5

The document Chapter 2 - Faslo ka Tyohar, NCERT Textbook of CBSE Class 5 Hindi Notes | Study Hindi Class 5 - Class 5 is a part of the Class 5 Course Hindi Class 5.
All you need of Class 5 at this link: Class 5
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13
lkjk fnu cksjlh osQ vkxs cSBdj gkFk rkirs g
q
, xqT
+
kj tkrk gSA
dgk¡ rks f[kpM+h osQ le; èkwi esa xjekgV dh 'kq#vkr gksuh
pkfg, vkSj ;gk¡ ge lwjt osQ barT
+
kkj esa vkl yxk, cSBs gq,
gSaA iwjs nl fnu gks x, lwjt ykirk gSA vkt lqcg rks jT
+
kkbZ
ls fudyus dh fgEer ugha gks jgh FkhA
ckgj ns[kus ls rks le; dk vankT
+
k fcYoqQy ugha gks jgk ysfdu ?kj esa gks
jgh pgy&igy vc irk py jgh gSA jg&jgdj dkuksa esa dHkh pk¡ikdy osQ
pyus vkSj ikuh osQ fxjus dh vkokt
+
 rks dHkh fdlh osQ gk¡d yxkus dh vkokT
+
k
vk jgh Fkh] ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\ cksy tYnh rS;kj gks[klA¸
vc rks mBus esa gh HkykbZ gSA
ugk&èkksdj ge lHkh ,d dejs esa bdêòk g
q
,A nknk vkSj pkpk us D;k lI
+
ksQn
pdkpd ek¡M+ yxh èkksrh vkSj oqQrkZ iguk g
q
vk gS! ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu BkM+
ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[k uh lkjk nsg duduk ns rk!¸ ikik us dgkA 'kk;n
vkt /ksrh esa mUgsa BaM oqQN T
+
;knk yx jgh gSA
lkeus efp;k ij [kknh dh lI
+
ksQn lkM+h igus g
q
, nknh cSBh FkhaA vkt nknh
us vius cky èkks, gSaµ>d lI
+
ksQn lsey dh #bZ tSls gYosQ&iqQyosQ ckyA xkSj
ls ns[kus ij Hkh ,d dkyk cky uT
+
kj ugha vkrkA fcYoqQy èkqyh&èkqyh lh yx
jgh gSa nknhA muosQ lkeus osQys osQ oqQN iÙks drkj esa j[ks gSa ftl ij fry]
feêòk (xqM+)] pkoy vkfn osQ NksVs&NksVs <sj iM+s g
q
, gSaA gesa ckjh&ckjh ls mu
lHkh phT
+
kksa dks Nwus vkSj iz.kke djus osQ fy, dgk x;kA tc lcus ,slk dj
fy;k rks mu lHkh phT
+
kksa dks ,d txg bdêòk djosQ nku ns fn;k x;kA
vkt rks vIih fnfn;k cqjh i¡QlhA mUgsa u rks pwM+k&ngh gh ilan gS vkSj u
gh f[kpM+h] ij vkt rks I
+
kQjekb'kh uk'rk ugha pysxkA mUgsa nksuksa gh phT
+
ksa [kkuh
iM+saxh--- vkt f[kpM+h tks gS! f[kpM+h [kkus osQ ckn lHkh us ^x;k* ls vk, fry]
2
I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj
13
Page 2


13
lkjk fnu cksjlh osQ vkxs cSBdj gkFk rkirs g
q
, xqT
+
kj tkrk gSA
dgk¡ rks f[kpM+h osQ le; èkwi esa xjekgV dh 'kq#vkr gksuh
pkfg, vkSj ;gk¡ ge lwjt osQ barT
+
kkj esa vkl yxk, cSBs gq,
gSaA iwjs nl fnu gks x, lwjt ykirk gSA vkt lqcg rks jT
+
kkbZ
ls fudyus dh fgEer ugha gks jgh FkhA
ckgj ns[kus ls rks le; dk vankT
+
k fcYoqQy ugha gks jgk ysfdu ?kj esa gks
jgh pgy&igy vc irk py jgh gSA jg&jgdj dkuksa esa dHkh pk¡ikdy osQ
pyus vkSj ikuh osQ fxjus dh vkokt
+
 rks dHkh fdlh osQ gk¡d yxkus dh vkokT
+
k
vk jgh Fkh] ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\ cksy tYnh rS;kj gks[klA¸
vc rks mBus esa gh HkykbZ gSA
ugk&èkksdj ge lHkh ,d dejs esa bdêòk g
q
,A nknk vkSj pkpk us D;k lI
+
ksQn
pdkpd ek¡M+ yxh èkksrh vkSj oqQrkZ iguk g
q
vk gS! ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu BkM+
ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[k uh lkjk nsg duduk ns rk!¸ ikik us dgkA 'kk;n
vkt /ksrh esa mUgsa BaM oqQN T
+
;knk yx jgh gSA
lkeus efp;k ij [kknh dh lI
+
ksQn lkM+h igus g
q
, nknh cSBh FkhaA vkt nknh
us vius cky èkks, gSaµ>d lI
+
ksQn lsey dh #bZ tSls gYosQ&iqQyosQ ckyA xkSj
ls ns[kus ij Hkh ,d dkyk cky uT
+
kj ugha vkrkA fcYoqQy èkqyh&èkqyh lh yx
jgh gSa nknhA muosQ lkeus osQys osQ oqQN iÙks drkj esa j[ks gSa ftl ij fry]
feêòk (xqM+)] pkoy vkfn osQ NksVs&NksVs <sj iM+s g
q
, gSaA gesa ckjh&ckjh ls mu
lHkh phT
+
kksa dks Nwus vkSj iz.kke djus osQ fy, dgk x;kA tc lcus ,slk dj
fy;k rks mu lHkh phT
+
kksa dks ,d txg bdêòk djosQ nku ns fn;k x;kA
vkt rks vIih fnfn;k cqjh i¡QlhA mUgsa u rks pwM+k&ngh gh ilan gS vkSj u
gh f[kpM+h] ij vkt rks I
+
kQjekb'kh uk'rk ugha pysxkA mUgsa nksuksa gh phT
+
ksa [kkuh
iM+saxh--- vkt f[kpM+h tks gS! f[kpM+h [kkus osQ ckn lHkh us ^x;k* ls vk, fry]
2
I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj
13 14
xqM+ vkSj phuh osQ fryoqQV dks cM+s pko ls [kk;kA [kkrs&[kkrs eSa lksp
jgh Fkh fd fdruh vyx gS u ;g f[kpM+h tks vHkh ge euk jgs gSaA
LowQy esa ge tks f[kpM+h eukrs Fks mldh vyx gh eLrh gqvk djrh FkhA
Nqêðh dk fnu] uko esa cSBdj xaxk unh dh lSj vkSj fiQj Vkiw ij ckyw eas nkSM+rs
gq, irax mM+kuk ;k mM+kus dh dksf'k'k djukA fdruk eT
+
kk vkrk FkkA b/j ge
irax mM+krs Fks vkSj ogha FkksM+h nwj ij xq#th] foeyk fník] vkuan th] f>yfeV
HkS;k lc feydj b±V ls cus pwYgs ij cM+s&cM+s dM+kgksa esa f[kpM+h cukrs FksA
ge Hkh chp&chp esa viuh iraxksa dks lqLrkus dk ekSdk nsrs gq, eVj vkSj I;kt
Nhyus cSB tkrsA oSlh f[kpM+h fiQj nqckjk [kkus dks ugha feyhA okdbZ] <ax oSQlk
Hkh gks] ij gS ;s [kqf'k;ksa dk R;ksgkj!
tuojh ekg osQ eè; esa Hkkjr osQ yxHkx lHkh izkarksa esa I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k
dksbZ&u&dksbZ R;ksgkj euk;k tkrk gSA dksbZ I
+
kQlyksa osQ rS;kj gks tkus ij [kq'kh
ck¡Vrk gS rks oqQN yksx bl mEehn esa [kq'k gksrs gSa fd vc ikyk de gksxk]
lwjt dh xehZ c<+us ls [ksrksa esa [kM+h I
+
kQly rsT
+
kh ls c<+sxhA lHkh izkarksa vkSj
bykdksa dk viuk jax vkSj viuk <ax ut
+
j vkrk gSA bl fnu lc yksx vPNh
iSnkokj dh mEehn vkSj I
+
kQlyksa osQ ?kj esa vkus dh [kq'kh dk bT
+
kgkj djrs gSaA mÙkj
izns'k] fcgkj] eè; izns'k esa edj&laØkafr ;k fry laØkar] vle esa chgw] osQjy
esa vks.ke] rfeyukMq esa iksaxy] iatkc esa yksgM+h] >kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y] xqtjkr esa
irax dk ioZ lHkh [ksrh vkSj I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s R;ksgkj gSaA bUgsa tuojh ls eè;
vizSy rd vyx&vyx le; euk;k tkrk gSA
>kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y cM+s tks'kks&[kjks'k osQ lkFk euk;k tkrk gSA pkj
fnuksa rd bldk t'u pyrk jgrk gSA
vyx&vyx tutkfr;k¡ bls vyx&vyx le; esa
eukrh gSaA laFkky yksx iQjojh&ekpZ esa] rks vksjkao yksx
bls ekpZ&viSzy esa eukrs gSaA vkfnoklh vkerkSj ij
izo`Qfr dh iwtk djrs gSaA ljgqy osQ fnu fo'ks"k :i ls
^lky* osQ isM+ dh iwtk dh tkrh gSA ;gh le; gS tc
lky osQ isM+ksa esa iwQy vkus yxrs gSa vkSj ekSle cg
q
r
gh [kq'kuqek gks tkrk gSA L=kh&iq#"k nksuksa gh <ksy&eathjs
Page 3


13
lkjk fnu cksjlh osQ vkxs cSBdj gkFk rkirs g
q
, xqT
+
kj tkrk gSA
dgk¡ rks f[kpM+h osQ le; èkwi esa xjekgV dh 'kq#vkr gksuh
pkfg, vkSj ;gk¡ ge lwjt osQ barT
+
kkj esa vkl yxk, cSBs gq,
gSaA iwjs nl fnu gks x, lwjt ykirk gSA vkt lqcg rks jT
+
kkbZ
ls fudyus dh fgEer ugha gks jgh FkhA
ckgj ns[kus ls rks le; dk vankT
+
k fcYoqQy ugha gks jgk ysfdu ?kj esa gks
jgh pgy&igy vc irk py jgh gSA jg&jgdj dkuksa esa dHkh pk¡ikdy osQ
pyus vkSj ikuh osQ fxjus dh vkokt
+
 rks dHkh fdlh osQ gk¡d yxkus dh vkokT
+
k
vk jgh Fkh] ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\ cksy tYnh rS;kj gks[klA¸
vc rks mBus esa gh HkykbZ gSA
ugk&èkksdj ge lHkh ,d dejs esa bdêòk g
q
,A nknk vkSj pkpk us D;k lI
+
ksQn
pdkpd ek¡M+ yxh èkksrh vkSj oqQrkZ iguk g
q
vk gS! ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu BkM+
ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[k uh lkjk nsg duduk ns rk!¸ ikik us dgkA 'kk;n
vkt /ksrh esa mUgsa BaM oqQN T
+
;knk yx jgh gSA
lkeus efp;k ij [kknh dh lI
+
ksQn lkM+h igus g
q
, nknh cSBh FkhaA vkt nknh
us vius cky èkks, gSaµ>d lI
+
ksQn lsey dh #bZ tSls gYosQ&iqQyosQ ckyA xkSj
ls ns[kus ij Hkh ,d dkyk cky uT
+
kj ugha vkrkA fcYoqQy èkqyh&èkqyh lh yx
jgh gSa nknhA muosQ lkeus osQys osQ oqQN iÙks drkj esa j[ks gSa ftl ij fry]
feêòk (xqM+)] pkoy vkfn osQ NksVs&NksVs <sj iM+s g
q
, gSaA gesa ckjh&ckjh ls mu
lHkh phT
+
kksa dks Nwus vkSj iz.kke djus osQ fy, dgk x;kA tc lcus ,slk dj
fy;k rks mu lHkh phT
+
kksa dks ,d txg bdêòk djosQ nku ns fn;k x;kA
vkt rks vIih fnfn;k cqjh i¡QlhA mUgsa u rks pwM+k&ngh gh ilan gS vkSj u
gh f[kpM+h] ij vkt rks I
+
kQjekb'kh uk'rk ugha pysxkA mUgsa nksuksa gh phT
+
ksa [kkuh
iM+saxh--- vkt f[kpM+h tks gS! f[kpM+h [kkus osQ ckn lHkh us ^x;k* ls vk, fry]
2
I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj
13 14
xqM+ vkSj phuh osQ fryoqQV dks cM+s pko ls [kk;kA [kkrs&[kkrs eSa lksp
jgh Fkh fd fdruh vyx gS u ;g f[kpM+h tks vHkh ge euk jgs gSaA
LowQy esa ge tks f[kpM+h eukrs Fks mldh vyx gh eLrh gqvk djrh FkhA
Nqêðh dk fnu] uko esa cSBdj xaxk unh dh lSj vkSj fiQj Vkiw ij ckyw eas nkSM+rs
gq, irax mM+kuk ;k mM+kus dh dksf'k'k djukA fdruk eT
+
kk vkrk FkkA b/j ge
irax mM+krs Fks vkSj ogha FkksM+h nwj ij xq#th] foeyk fník] vkuan th] f>yfeV
HkS;k lc feydj b±V ls cus pwYgs ij cM+s&cM+s dM+kgksa esa f[kpM+h cukrs FksA
ge Hkh chp&chp esa viuh iraxksa dks lqLrkus dk ekSdk nsrs gq, eVj vkSj I;kt
Nhyus cSB tkrsA oSlh f[kpM+h fiQj nqckjk [kkus dks ugha feyhA okdbZ] <ax oSQlk
Hkh gks] ij gS ;s [kqf'k;ksa dk R;ksgkj!
tuojh ekg osQ eè; esa Hkkjr osQ yxHkx lHkh izkarksa esa I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k
dksbZ&u&dksbZ R;ksgkj euk;k tkrk gSA dksbZ I
+
kQlyksa osQ rS;kj gks tkus ij [kq'kh
ck¡Vrk gS rks oqQN yksx bl mEehn esa [kq'k gksrs gSa fd vc ikyk de gksxk]
lwjt dh xehZ c<+us ls [ksrksa esa [kM+h I
+
kQly rsT
+
kh ls c<+sxhA lHkh izkarksa vkSj
bykdksa dk viuk jax vkSj viuk <ax ut
+
j vkrk gSA bl fnu lc yksx vPNh
iSnkokj dh mEehn vkSj I
+
kQlyksa osQ ?kj esa vkus dh [kq'kh dk bT
+
kgkj djrs gSaA mÙkj
izns'k] fcgkj] eè; izns'k esa edj&laØkafr ;k fry laØkar] vle esa chgw] osQjy
esa vks.ke] rfeyukMq esa iksaxy] iatkc esa yksgM+h] >kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y] xqtjkr esa
irax dk ioZ lHkh [ksrh vkSj I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s R;ksgkj gSaA bUgsa tuojh ls eè;
vizSy rd vyx&vyx le; euk;k tkrk gSA
>kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y cM+s tks'kks&[kjks'k osQ lkFk euk;k tkrk gSA pkj
fnuksa rd bldk t'u pyrk jgrk gSA
vyx&vyx tutkfr;k¡ bls vyx&vyx le; esa
eukrh gSaA laFkky yksx iQjojh&ekpZ esa] rks vksjkao yksx
bls ekpZ&viSzy esa eukrs gSaA vkfnoklh vkerkSj ij
izo`Qfr dh iwtk djrs gSaA ljgqy osQ fnu fo'ks"k :i ls
^lky* osQ isM+ dh iwtk dh tkrh gSA ;gh le; gS tc
lky osQ isM+ksa esa iwQy vkus yxrs gSa vkSj ekSle cg
q
r
gh [kq'kuqek gks tkrk gSA L=kh&iq#"k nksuksa gh <ksy&eathjs
15
ysdj jkr Hkj ukprs&xkrs gSaA pkjksa vksj
iSQyh g
q
bZ NksVh&NksVh ?kkfV;k¡] yacs&yacs
lky osQ o`{kksa dk taxy vkSj ogha vkl&ikl
cls NksVs&NksVs xk¡oA fyis&iqrs] djhus ls cqgkjs
vkSj ltk, x, vius ?kjksa osQ lkeus yksx ,d
iafDr esa dej esa ck¡gsa Mkydj u`R; djrs gSaA
vxys fnu os u`R; djrs g
q
, ?kj&?kj tkrs gSa
vkSj iwQyksa osQ ikSèks yxkrs gSaA ?kj&?kj ls pank ek¡xus dh Hkh izFkk gSA ij
pans esa ekywe gS D;k ek¡xrs gSa\ eqxkZ] pkoy vkSj feJhA fiQj pyrk gS
[kkus&ihus vkSj [ksyksa dk nkSjA rhljs fnu tkdj iwtk gksrh gS ftlosQ ckn
yksx vius dkuksa esa ljbZ dk iwQy igurs gSaA
blh fnu ls olar Írq dh 'kq#vkr ekuh tkrh gSA èkku dh Hkh iwtk gksrh
gSA iwtk fd;k g
q
vk vk'khokZnh èkku vxyh I
+
kQly esa cks;k tkrk gSA
rfeyukMq esa edj&laØkafr ;k I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k R;ksgkj
^iksaxy* osQ :i esa euk;k tkrk gSA bl fnu [kjhI
+
kQ dh I
+
kQlysa
pkoy] vjgj] elwj vkfn dVdj ?kjksa esa ig
q
¡prh gSa vkSj yksx
u, èkku owQVdj pkoy fudkyrs gSaA gj ?kj esa feêðh dk u;k
eVdk yk;k tkrk gS ftlesa u, pkoy] nwèk vkSj xqM+ Mkydj mls idkus osQ
fy, èkwi esa j[k nsrs gSaA gYnh 'kqHk ekuh tkrh gS blfy, lkcqr gYnh dks eVosQ
osQ eq¡g osQ pkjksa vksj ck¡èk nsrs gSaA ;g eVdk fnu esa lk<+s nl&ckjg cts rd
/wi esa j[kk tkrk gSA tSls gh nwèk esa mIkQku vkrk gS vkSj nwèk&pkoy eVosQ ls
ckgj fxjus yxrk gS rks ¶iksaxyk&iksaxy] iksaxyk&iksaxy¸ (f[kpM+h esa mIkQku vk
x;k) osQ Loj lqukbZ nsrs gSaA
nwljh vksj] xqtjkr esa iraxksa osQ fcuk rks edj&laØkafr
dk t'u vèkwjk gh ekuk tk,xkA bl fnu vkleku
dh vksj ;fn uT
+
kj mBk,¡ rks 'kk;n gj vkdkj
vkSj jax&:i dh iraxsa vkdk'k esa ygjkrh g
q
bZ
feysaA izR;sd xqtjkrh pkgs og fdlh Hkh èkeZ]
tkfr ;k vk;q dk gks] irax mM+krk gSA gT
+
kkjksa&yk[kksa iraxksa ls lw;Z
Hkh <¡d&lk tkrk gSA
Page 4


13
lkjk fnu cksjlh osQ vkxs cSBdj gkFk rkirs g
q
, xqT
+
kj tkrk gSA
dgk¡ rks f[kpM+h osQ le; èkwi esa xjekgV dh 'kq#vkr gksuh
pkfg, vkSj ;gk¡ ge lwjt osQ barT
+
kkj esa vkl yxk, cSBs gq,
gSaA iwjs nl fnu gks x, lwjt ykirk gSA vkt lqcg rks jT
+
kkbZ
ls fudyus dh fgEer ugha gks jgh FkhA
ckgj ns[kus ls rks le; dk vankT
+
k fcYoqQy ugha gks jgk ysfdu ?kj esa gks
jgh pgy&igy vc irk py jgh gSA jg&jgdj dkuksa esa dHkh pk¡ikdy osQ
pyus vkSj ikuh osQ fxjus dh vkokt
+
 rks dHkh fdlh osQ gk¡d yxkus dh vkokT
+
k
vk jgh Fkh] ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\ cksy tYnh rS;kj gks[klA¸
vc rks mBus esa gh HkykbZ gSA
ugk&èkksdj ge lHkh ,d dejs esa bdêòk g
q
,A nknk vkSj pkpk us D;k lI
+
ksQn
pdkpd ek¡M+ yxh èkksrh vkSj oqQrkZ iguk g
q
vk gS! ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu BkM+
ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[k uh lkjk nsg duduk ns rk!¸ ikik us dgkA 'kk;n
vkt /ksrh esa mUgsa BaM oqQN T
+
;knk yx jgh gSA
lkeus efp;k ij [kknh dh lI
+
ksQn lkM+h igus g
q
, nknh cSBh FkhaA vkt nknh
us vius cky èkks, gSaµ>d lI
+
ksQn lsey dh #bZ tSls gYosQ&iqQyosQ ckyA xkSj
ls ns[kus ij Hkh ,d dkyk cky uT
+
kj ugha vkrkA fcYoqQy èkqyh&èkqyh lh yx
jgh gSa nknhA muosQ lkeus osQys osQ oqQN iÙks drkj esa j[ks gSa ftl ij fry]
feêòk (xqM+)] pkoy vkfn osQ NksVs&NksVs <sj iM+s g
q
, gSaA gesa ckjh&ckjh ls mu
lHkh phT
+
kksa dks Nwus vkSj iz.kke djus osQ fy, dgk x;kA tc lcus ,slk dj
fy;k rks mu lHkh phT
+
kksa dks ,d txg bdêòk djosQ nku ns fn;k x;kA
vkt rks vIih fnfn;k cqjh i¡QlhA mUgsa u rks pwM+k&ngh gh ilan gS vkSj u
gh f[kpM+h] ij vkt rks I
+
kQjekb'kh uk'rk ugha pysxkA mUgsa nksuksa gh phT
+
ksa [kkuh
iM+saxh--- vkt f[kpM+h tks gS! f[kpM+h [kkus osQ ckn lHkh us ^x;k* ls vk, fry]
2
I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj
13 14
xqM+ vkSj phuh osQ fryoqQV dks cM+s pko ls [kk;kA [kkrs&[kkrs eSa lksp
jgh Fkh fd fdruh vyx gS u ;g f[kpM+h tks vHkh ge euk jgs gSaA
LowQy esa ge tks f[kpM+h eukrs Fks mldh vyx gh eLrh gqvk djrh FkhA
Nqêðh dk fnu] uko esa cSBdj xaxk unh dh lSj vkSj fiQj Vkiw ij ckyw eas nkSM+rs
gq, irax mM+kuk ;k mM+kus dh dksf'k'k djukA fdruk eT
+
kk vkrk FkkA b/j ge
irax mM+krs Fks vkSj ogha FkksM+h nwj ij xq#th] foeyk fník] vkuan th] f>yfeV
HkS;k lc feydj b±V ls cus pwYgs ij cM+s&cM+s dM+kgksa esa f[kpM+h cukrs FksA
ge Hkh chp&chp esa viuh iraxksa dks lqLrkus dk ekSdk nsrs gq, eVj vkSj I;kt
Nhyus cSB tkrsA oSlh f[kpM+h fiQj nqckjk [kkus dks ugha feyhA okdbZ] <ax oSQlk
Hkh gks] ij gS ;s [kqf'k;ksa dk R;ksgkj!
tuojh ekg osQ eè; esa Hkkjr osQ yxHkx lHkh izkarksa esa I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k
dksbZ&u&dksbZ R;ksgkj euk;k tkrk gSA dksbZ I
+
kQlyksa osQ rS;kj gks tkus ij [kq'kh
ck¡Vrk gS rks oqQN yksx bl mEehn esa [kq'k gksrs gSa fd vc ikyk de gksxk]
lwjt dh xehZ c<+us ls [ksrksa esa [kM+h I
+
kQly rsT
+
kh ls c<+sxhA lHkh izkarksa vkSj
bykdksa dk viuk jax vkSj viuk <ax ut
+
j vkrk gSA bl fnu lc yksx vPNh
iSnkokj dh mEehn vkSj I
+
kQlyksa osQ ?kj esa vkus dh [kq'kh dk bT
+
kgkj djrs gSaA mÙkj
izns'k] fcgkj] eè; izns'k esa edj&laØkafr ;k fry laØkar] vle esa chgw] osQjy
esa vks.ke] rfeyukMq esa iksaxy] iatkc esa yksgM+h] >kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y] xqtjkr esa
irax dk ioZ lHkh [ksrh vkSj I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s R;ksgkj gSaA bUgsa tuojh ls eè;
vizSy rd vyx&vyx le; euk;k tkrk gSA
>kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y cM+s tks'kks&[kjks'k osQ lkFk euk;k tkrk gSA pkj
fnuksa rd bldk t'u pyrk jgrk gSA
vyx&vyx tutkfr;k¡ bls vyx&vyx le; esa
eukrh gSaA laFkky yksx iQjojh&ekpZ esa] rks vksjkao yksx
bls ekpZ&viSzy esa eukrs gSaA vkfnoklh vkerkSj ij
izo`Qfr dh iwtk djrs gSaA ljgqy osQ fnu fo'ks"k :i ls
^lky* osQ isM+ dh iwtk dh tkrh gSA ;gh le; gS tc
lky osQ isM+ksa esa iwQy vkus yxrs gSa vkSj ekSle cg
q
r
gh [kq'kuqek gks tkrk gSA L=kh&iq#"k nksuksa gh <ksy&eathjs
15
ysdj jkr Hkj ukprs&xkrs gSaA pkjksa vksj
iSQyh g
q
bZ NksVh&NksVh ?kkfV;k¡] yacs&yacs
lky osQ o`{kksa dk taxy vkSj ogha vkl&ikl
cls NksVs&NksVs xk¡oA fyis&iqrs] djhus ls cqgkjs
vkSj ltk, x, vius ?kjksa osQ lkeus yksx ,d
iafDr esa dej esa ck¡gsa Mkydj u`R; djrs gSaA
vxys fnu os u`R; djrs g
q
, ?kj&?kj tkrs gSa
vkSj iwQyksa osQ ikSèks yxkrs gSaA ?kj&?kj ls pank ek¡xus dh Hkh izFkk gSA ij
pans esa ekywe gS D;k ek¡xrs gSa\ eqxkZ] pkoy vkSj feJhA fiQj pyrk gS
[kkus&ihus vkSj [ksyksa dk nkSjA rhljs fnu tkdj iwtk gksrh gS ftlosQ ckn
yksx vius dkuksa esa ljbZ dk iwQy igurs gSaA
blh fnu ls olar Írq dh 'kq#vkr ekuh tkrh gSA èkku dh Hkh iwtk gksrh
gSA iwtk fd;k g
q
vk vk'khokZnh èkku vxyh I
+
kQly esa cks;k tkrk gSA
rfeyukMq esa edj&laØkafr ;k I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k R;ksgkj
^iksaxy* osQ :i esa euk;k tkrk gSA bl fnu [kjhI
+
kQ dh I
+
kQlysa
pkoy] vjgj] elwj vkfn dVdj ?kjksa esa ig
q
¡prh gSa vkSj yksx
u, èkku owQVdj pkoy fudkyrs gSaA gj ?kj esa feêðh dk u;k
eVdk yk;k tkrk gS ftlesa u, pkoy] nwèk vkSj xqM+ Mkydj mls idkus osQ
fy, èkwi esa j[k nsrs gSaA gYnh 'kqHk ekuh tkrh gS blfy, lkcqr gYnh dks eVosQ
osQ eq¡g osQ pkjksa vksj ck¡èk nsrs gSaA ;g eVdk fnu esa lk<+s nl&ckjg cts rd
/wi esa j[kk tkrk gSA tSls gh nwèk esa mIkQku vkrk gS vkSj nwèk&pkoy eVosQ ls
ckgj fxjus yxrk gS rks ¶iksaxyk&iksaxy] iksaxyk&iksaxy¸ (f[kpM+h esa mIkQku vk
x;k) osQ Loj lqukbZ nsrs gSaA
nwljh vksj] xqtjkr esa iraxksa osQ fcuk rks edj&laØkafr
dk t'u vèkwjk gh ekuk tk,xkA bl fnu vkleku
dh vksj ;fn uT
+
kj mBk,¡ rks 'kk;n gj vkdkj
vkSj jax&:i dh iraxsa vkdk'k esa ygjkrh g
q
bZ
feysaA izR;sd xqtjkrh pkgs og fdlh Hkh èkeZ]
tkfr ;k vk;q dk gks] irax mM+krk gSA gT
+
kkjksa&yk[kksa iraxksa ls lw;Z
Hkh <¡d&lk tkrk gSA
oqQekm¡Q esa edj laØkafr dks ?kq?kqfr;k Hkh dgrs gSaA bl fnu
vkVs vkSj xqM+ dks xw¡/dj idoku cuk, tkrs gSaA bu idokuksa
dks rjg&rjg osQ vkdkj fn, tkrs gSa tSls&Me:] ryokj]
nkfM+e dk iwQy vkfnA idoku dks ryus osQ ckn ,d ekyk
esa fijks;k tkrk gSA ekyk osQ chp esa larjk vkSj xUus dh xaMsjh
fijksbZ tkrh gSA ;g dke cPps cg
q
r #fp vkSj mRlkg osQ lkFk djrs gSaA lqcg
cPpksa dks ekyk nh tkrh gSA cg
q
r BaM osQ dkj.k i{kh igkM+ksa ls pys tkrs gSaA
mUgsa cqykus osQ fy, cPps bl ekyk ls idoku rksM+&rksM+dj if{k;ksa dks f[kykrs
gSa vkSj xkrs gSa&
dkSvk vkvks
?kq?kwr vkvks
ys dkSvk cM+kS
e oSQ ns tk lksus dk ?kM+kS
[kk yS iwjh
e oSQ ns tk lksus dh Nqjh
blosQ lkFk gh ftl ph”k dh dkeuk gks] og ek¡xrs gSaA
gS u fdrus vyx&vyx vankT
+
k edj&laØkafr dks eukus osQA dgha nwèk]
pkoy vkSj xqM+ dh [khj curh gS rks dksbZ ik¡p izdkj osQ u, vukt dh f[kpM+h
cukrk gSA dgha&dgha yksxksa dk lSykc unh esa Luku osQ fy, meM+ iM+rk gSA
yksx BaM ls fBBqjrs jgsaxs ij cI
+
kQhZys ikuh esa de&ls&de ,d Mqcdh rks T
+
k:j
yxk,¡xsA gky ;g gksrk gS fd bu txgksa ij fry j[kus dh Hkh txg ugha gksrhA
fry ls ;kn vk;k edj laØkafr osQ fnu ikuh esa fry Mkydj Luku djuk]
fry nku djuk] vkx esa fry Mkyuk] fry osQ idoku cukuk fo'ks"k egRo
j[krk gSA rqEgkjs ?kj ;k bykosQ esa bl R;ksgkj dks oSQls euk;k
tkrk gS\ bls f[kpM+h] iksaxy] edj&laØkafr ;k oqQN vkSj dgk
tkrk gS\ ;k rqe I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s dksbZ vkSj R;ksgkj eukrh gks\
;fn rqe vkil esa ckr djks rks rqEgsa ;g tkudj gSjkuh gksxh
fd dbZ ckj ,d gh bykosQ esa jgus okys yksx Hkh bl R;ksgkj
dks vyx&vyx <ax ls eukrs gSaA
16
Page 5


13
lkjk fnu cksjlh osQ vkxs cSBdj gkFk rkirs g
q
, xqT
+
kj tkrk gSA
dgk¡ rks f[kpM+h osQ le; èkwi esa xjekgV dh 'kq#vkr gksuh
pkfg, vkSj ;gk¡ ge lwjt osQ barT
+
kkj esa vkl yxk, cSBs gq,
gSaA iwjs nl fnu gks x, lwjt ykirk gSA vkt lqcg rks jT
+
kkbZ
ls fudyus dh fgEer ugha gks jgh FkhA
ckgj ns[kus ls rks le; dk vankT
+
k fcYoqQy ugha gks jgk ysfdu ?kj esa gks
jgh pgy&igy vc irk py jgh gSA jg&jgdj dkuksa esa dHkh pk¡ikdy osQ
pyus vkSj ikuh osQ fxjus dh vkokt
+
 rks dHkh fdlh osQ gk¡d yxkus dh vkokT
+
k
vk jgh Fkh] ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\ cksy tYnh rS;kj gks[klA¸
vc rks mBus esa gh HkykbZ gSA
ugk&èkksdj ge lHkh ,d dejs esa bdêòk g
q
,A nknk vkSj pkpk us D;k lI
+
ksQn
pdkpd ek¡M+ yxh èkksrh vkSj oqQrkZ iguk g
q
vk gS! ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu BkM+
ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[k uh lkjk nsg duduk ns rk!¸ ikik us dgkA 'kk;n
vkt /ksrh esa mUgsa BaM oqQN T
+
;knk yx jgh gSA
lkeus efp;k ij [kknh dh lI
+
ksQn lkM+h igus g
q
, nknh cSBh FkhaA vkt nknh
us vius cky èkks, gSaµ>d lI
+
ksQn lsey dh #bZ tSls gYosQ&iqQyosQ ckyA xkSj
ls ns[kus ij Hkh ,d dkyk cky uT
+
kj ugha vkrkA fcYoqQy èkqyh&èkqyh lh yx
jgh gSa nknhA muosQ lkeus osQys osQ oqQN iÙks drkj esa j[ks gSa ftl ij fry]
feêòk (xqM+)] pkoy vkfn osQ NksVs&NksVs <sj iM+s g
q
, gSaA gesa ckjh&ckjh ls mu
lHkh phT
+
kksa dks Nwus vkSj iz.kke djus osQ fy, dgk x;kA tc lcus ,slk dj
fy;k rks mu lHkh phT
+
kksa dks ,d txg bdêòk djosQ nku ns fn;k x;kA
vkt rks vIih fnfn;k cqjh i¡QlhA mUgsa u rks pwM+k&ngh gh ilan gS vkSj u
gh f[kpM+h] ij vkt rks I
+
kQjekb'kh uk'rk ugha pysxkA mUgsa nksuksa gh phT
+
ksa [kkuh
iM+saxh--- vkt f[kpM+h tks gS! f[kpM+h [kkus osQ ckn lHkh us ^x;k* ls vk, fry]
2
I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj I
+
kQlyksa osQ R;ksgkj
13 14
xqM+ vkSj phuh osQ fryoqQV dks cM+s pko ls [kk;kA [kkrs&[kkrs eSa lksp
jgh Fkh fd fdruh vyx gS u ;g f[kpM+h tks vHkh ge euk jgs gSaA
LowQy esa ge tks f[kpM+h eukrs Fks mldh vyx gh eLrh gqvk djrh FkhA
Nqêðh dk fnu] uko esa cSBdj xaxk unh dh lSj vkSj fiQj Vkiw ij ckyw eas nkSM+rs
gq, irax mM+kuk ;k mM+kus dh dksf'k'k djukA fdruk eT
+
kk vkrk FkkA b/j ge
irax mM+krs Fks vkSj ogha FkksM+h nwj ij xq#th] foeyk fník] vkuan th] f>yfeV
HkS;k lc feydj b±V ls cus pwYgs ij cM+s&cM+s dM+kgksa esa f[kpM+h cukrs FksA
ge Hkh chp&chp esa viuh iraxksa dks lqLrkus dk ekSdk nsrs gq, eVj vkSj I;kt
Nhyus cSB tkrsA oSlh f[kpM+h fiQj nqckjk [kkus dks ugha feyhA okdbZ] <ax oSQlk
Hkh gks] ij gS ;s [kqf'k;ksa dk R;ksgkj!
tuojh ekg osQ eè; esa Hkkjr osQ yxHkx lHkh izkarksa esa I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k
dksbZ&u&dksbZ R;ksgkj euk;k tkrk gSA dksbZ I
+
kQlyksa osQ rS;kj gks tkus ij [kq'kh
ck¡Vrk gS rks oqQN yksx bl mEehn esa [kq'k gksrs gSa fd vc ikyk de gksxk]
lwjt dh xehZ c<+us ls [ksrksa esa [kM+h I
+
kQly rsT
+
kh ls c<+sxhA lHkh izkarksa vkSj
bykdksa dk viuk jax vkSj viuk <ax ut
+
j vkrk gSA bl fnu lc yksx vPNh
iSnkokj dh mEehn vkSj I
+
kQlyksa osQ ?kj esa vkus dh [kq'kh dk bT
+
kgkj djrs gSaA mÙkj
izns'k] fcgkj] eè; izns'k esa edj&laØkafr ;k fry laØkar] vle esa chgw] osQjy
esa vks.ke] rfeyukMq esa iksaxy] iatkc esa yksgM+h] >kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y] xqtjkr esa
irax dk ioZ lHkh [ksrh vkSj I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s R;ksgkj gSaA bUgsa tuojh ls eè;
vizSy rd vyx&vyx le; euk;k tkrk gSA
>kj[kaM esa ljg
q
y cM+s tks'kks&[kjks'k osQ lkFk euk;k tkrk gSA pkj
fnuksa rd bldk t'u pyrk jgrk gSA
vyx&vyx tutkfr;k¡ bls vyx&vyx le; esa
eukrh gSaA laFkky yksx iQjojh&ekpZ esa] rks vksjkao yksx
bls ekpZ&viSzy esa eukrs gSaA vkfnoklh vkerkSj ij
izo`Qfr dh iwtk djrs gSaA ljgqy osQ fnu fo'ks"k :i ls
^lky* osQ isM+ dh iwtk dh tkrh gSA ;gh le; gS tc
lky osQ isM+ksa esa iwQy vkus yxrs gSa vkSj ekSle cg
q
r
gh [kq'kuqek gks tkrk gSA L=kh&iq#"k nksuksa gh <ksy&eathjs
15
ysdj jkr Hkj ukprs&xkrs gSaA pkjksa vksj
iSQyh g
q
bZ NksVh&NksVh ?kkfV;k¡] yacs&yacs
lky osQ o`{kksa dk taxy vkSj ogha vkl&ikl
cls NksVs&NksVs xk¡oA fyis&iqrs] djhus ls cqgkjs
vkSj ltk, x, vius ?kjksa osQ lkeus yksx ,d
iafDr esa dej esa ck¡gsa Mkydj u`R; djrs gSaA
vxys fnu os u`R; djrs g
q
, ?kj&?kj tkrs gSa
vkSj iwQyksa osQ ikSèks yxkrs gSaA ?kj&?kj ls pank ek¡xus dh Hkh izFkk gSA ij
pans esa ekywe gS D;k ek¡xrs gSa\ eqxkZ] pkoy vkSj feJhA fiQj pyrk gS
[kkus&ihus vkSj [ksyksa dk nkSjA rhljs fnu tkdj iwtk gksrh gS ftlosQ ckn
yksx vius dkuksa esa ljbZ dk iwQy igurs gSaA
blh fnu ls olar Írq dh 'kq#vkr ekuh tkrh gSA èkku dh Hkh iwtk gksrh
gSA iwtk fd;k g
q
vk vk'khokZnh èkku vxyh I
+
kQly esa cks;k tkrk gSA
rfeyukMq esa edj&laØkafr ;k I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+k R;ksgkj
^iksaxy* osQ :i esa euk;k tkrk gSA bl fnu [kjhI
+
kQ dh I
+
kQlysa
pkoy] vjgj] elwj vkfn dVdj ?kjksa esa ig
q
¡prh gSa vkSj yksx
u, èkku owQVdj pkoy fudkyrs gSaA gj ?kj esa feêðh dk u;k
eVdk yk;k tkrk gS ftlesa u, pkoy] nwèk vkSj xqM+ Mkydj mls idkus osQ
fy, èkwi esa j[k nsrs gSaA gYnh 'kqHk ekuh tkrh gS blfy, lkcqr gYnh dks eVosQ
osQ eq¡g osQ pkjksa vksj ck¡èk nsrs gSaA ;g eVdk fnu esa lk<+s nl&ckjg cts rd
/wi esa j[kk tkrk gSA tSls gh nwèk esa mIkQku vkrk gS vkSj nwèk&pkoy eVosQ ls
ckgj fxjus yxrk gS rks ¶iksaxyk&iksaxy] iksaxyk&iksaxy¸ (f[kpM+h esa mIkQku vk
x;k) osQ Loj lqukbZ nsrs gSaA
nwljh vksj] xqtjkr esa iraxksa osQ fcuk rks edj&laØkafr
dk t'u vèkwjk gh ekuk tk,xkA bl fnu vkleku
dh vksj ;fn uT
+
kj mBk,¡ rks 'kk;n gj vkdkj
vkSj jax&:i dh iraxsa vkdk'k esa ygjkrh g
q
bZ
feysaA izR;sd xqtjkrh pkgs og fdlh Hkh èkeZ]
tkfr ;k vk;q dk gks] irax mM+krk gSA gT
+
kkjksa&yk[kksa iraxksa ls lw;Z
Hkh <¡d&lk tkrk gSA
oqQekm¡Q esa edj laØkafr dks ?kq?kqfr;k Hkh dgrs gSaA bl fnu
vkVs vkSj xqM+ dks xw¡/dj idoku cuk, tkrs gSaA bu idokuksa
dks rjg&rjg osQ vkdkj fn, tkrs gSa tSls&Me:] ryokj]
nkfM+e dk iwQy vkfnA idoku dks ryus osQ ckn ,d ekyk
esa fijks;k tkrk gSA ekyk osQ chp esa larjk vkSj xUus dh xaMsjh
fijksbZ tkrh gSA ;g dke cPps cg
q
r #fp vkSj mRlkg osQ lkFk djrs gSaA lqcg
cPpksa dks ekyk nh tkrh gSA cg
q
r BaM osQ dkj.k i{kh igkM+ksa ls pys tkrs gSaA
mUgsa cqykus osQ fy, cPps bl ekyk ls idoku rksM+&rksM+dj if{k;ksa dks f[kykrs
gSa vkSj xkrs gSa&
dkSvk vkvks
?kq?kwr vkvks
ys dkSvk cM+kS
e oSQ ns tk lksus dk ?kM+kS
[kk yS iwjh
e oSQ ns tk lksus dh Nqjh
blosQ lkFk gh ftl ph”k dh dkeuk gks] og ek¡xrs gSaA
gS u fdrus vyx&vyx vankT
+
k edj&laØkafr dks eukus osQA dgha nwèk]
pkoy vkSj xqM+ dh [khj curh gS rks dksbZ ik¡p izdkj osQ u, vukt dh f[kpM+h
cukrk gSA dgha&dgha yksxksa dk lSykc unh esa Luku osQ fy, meM+ iM+rk gSA
yksx BaM ls fBBqjrs jgsaxs ij cI
+
kQhZys ikuh esa de&ls&de ,d Mqcdh rks T
+
k:j
yxk,¡xsA gky ;g gksrk gS fd bu txgksa ij fry j[kus dh Hkh txg ugha gksrhA
fry ls ;kn vk;k edj laØkafr osQ fnu ikuh esa fry Mkydj Luku djuk]
fry nku djuk] vkx esa fry Mkyuk] fry osQ idoku cukuk fo'ks"k egRo
j[krk gSA rqEgkjs ?kj ;k bykosQ esa bl R;ksgkj dks oSQls euk;k
tkrk gS\ bls f[kpM+h] iksaxy] edj&laØkafr ;k oqQN vkSj dgk
tkrk gS\ ;k rqe I
+
kQlyksa ls tqM+s dksbZ vkSj R;ksgkj eukrh gks\
;fn rqe vkil esa ckr djks rks rqEgsa ;g tkudj gSjkuh gksxh
fd dbZ ckj ,d gh bykosQ esa jgus okys yksx Hkh bl R;ksgkj
dks vyx&vyx <ax ls eukrs gSaA
16
ekSle dk vankt+
1. ¶f[kpM+h esa vblu tkM+k ge ifgys dCcks uk ns[kuhaA¸
;gk¡ rqe ^f[kpM+h* ls D;k eryc fudky jgh gks\
2. D;k dHkh ,slk gks ldrk gS fd lwjt fcYoqQy gh u fudys\
vxj ,slk gks rks 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
vius lkfFk;ksa osQ lkFk ckrphr djosQ fy[kksA
3. ckgj ns[kus ls le; dk vankT
+
k D;ksa ugha gks ik jgk Fkk\
ftuosQ ikl ?kM+h ugha gksrh os le; dk vuqeku fdl rjg ls yxkrs gSa\
rqEgkjh t
+
qcku
(d) ¶vkt bZ yksx osQ mBs osQ ubZ[ks dk\¸
([k) ¶tk Hkkx osQ ns[k osQjk osQ iÙkk vkby dh uk\¸
bu okD;ksa dks vius ?kj dh Hkk"kk esa fy[kksA
Hkkjr rsjs jax vusd
1- fofo/rk gekjs ns'k dh igpku gSA I
+
kQlyksa dk R;ksgkj gekjs ns'k osQ fofo/ jax&:iksa dk
,d mnkgj.k gSA uhps fofoèkrk osQ oqQN vkSj mnkgj.k fn, x, gSaA ik¡p&ik¡p cPpksa dk
lewg ,d&,d mnkgj.k ys vkSj ml ij tkudkjh bdêòh djsA (tkudkjh fp=k] I
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dgkuh] dfork] lwpukijd lkexzh osQ :i esa gks ldrh gSA) gj lewg bl tkudkjh dks
d{kk esa izLrqr djsA
• Hkk"kk • diM+s • u;k o"kZ
• Hkkstu • yksd dyk • yksd laxhr
2- rqEgsa dkSu&lk R;ksgkj lcls vPNk yxrk gS vkSj D;ksa\ bl fnu rqEgkjh fnup;kZ D;k
jgrh gS\
vUu osQ ckjs esa
(d) I
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kQly osQ R;ksgkj ij ^fry* dk cgqr egRo gksrk gSA fry dk fdu&fdu :iksa
esa bLrseky fd;k tkrk gS\ irk djksA
([k) rqe tkurh gks fd fry ls rsy curk gS\ vkSj fdu phT
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kksa ls rsy curk gS vkSj
oSQls\ gks losQ rks rsy dh nqdku esa tkdj iwNksA
17
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