CHAPTER – 4 PLANNING
•Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do when to do, and who is to do it.Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It is one of the basic managerial functions. Planning involves setting objective sand developing appropriate courses of action to achieve these objectives. Thus, it is closely connected with creativity and innovation.
Importance of Planning
(a) Planning provides directions: By stating in advance how the work is to be done planning provides direction for action. If there was no planning, employees would be working in different directions and the organization would not be able to achieve its goals efficiently.
(b) Planning reduces the risk of uncertainty: Planning is an activity which enables a manager to look ahead, anticipate change, consider the impact of change and develop appropriate responses.
(c) Planning reduces wasteful activities: Planning serves as the basis of coordinating the activities and efforts of different departments and individuals whereby useless and redundant activities are mentioned.
(d) Planning promotes innovative ideas: Planning is the first function of management. Managers get the opportunity to develop new ideas and new ideas can take the shape of concrete plans.
(e) Planning facilities decision making: Under planning targets are laid down. The manager has to evaluate each alternative and select the most viable option.
(f) Planning establishes standards for controlling: Planning provides the standards against which the actual performance can be measured and evaluated. Control is blind without planning. Thus planning provides the basis for control.
•Limitations of Planning:
1. Internal Limitations:
Planning leads to rigidity: Planning discourages individual’s initiative &creativity. The managers do not make changes according to changing business environment. They stop taking or giving suggestions and new ideas. Thus detailed planning may create a rigid in the organization.
Planning may not work in dynamic environment: Planning is based on anticipation of future happenings and since future is uncertain and dynamic therefore, the future anticipations are not always true.
Planning involves huge costs: When plans are drawn up, huge cost is involved in their formulation.
Planning is time consuming: Sometimes plans to be drawn up take so much of time that there is not much time left for their implementation.
Planning does not guarantee success: The success of an enterprise is possible only when plans are properly drawn and implement. Sometimes managers depend on previously tried successful plans, but it is not always true that a plan which has worked before will work effectively again.
Planning reduces creativity: In planning, work is to be done as per pre-determined plans. It is decided in advance what is to be done, how it is to be done and who is going to do it. Moreover, planning is done by top management which leads to reduction of creativity of other levels of management.
2. External Limitations: They are those limitations of planning which arises due to external factors over which an organization has no control.
Changes in Government policies way leads to failure of planning.
Natural calamities such as flood; earthquake etc. also adversely affect the success of planning. Changes in the strategies of competitors also leads to failure of planning many times.
Regular technological changes may affect planning. Changes in the Economic and Social Conditions also reduces the effectiveness of
(a) Setting Objectives: The first and foremost step is setting objectives. Objectives may be set for the entire organization and each department.
(b) Developing premises: Planning premises are the assumptions about the likely shape of events in future. It forecasts the obstacles, problems or limitations in the path of the effective planning because of which the plans may deviate. Planning premises supply relevant facts & information relating to future.
(c) Identifying alternative courses of action: Once objectives are set and premises are developed. Then the next step would be to act upon them. All the alternative courses of action should be identified.
(d) Evaluating alternative Courses: The next step is to be weigh pros and cons of each alternative. Each course will have many variables which have to be weighed against each other.
e) Selecting an alternative: After comparison and evaluation, the best alternative is chosen for reaching organization objectives. On the basis of merits, demerits, resources and consequences, the best plan has to be adopted, which must be the most feasible, profitable and with best negative consequences.
(f) Implementing the plan: Once the plans are developed they are put into action. Successful implementation of the plan ensures understanding and whole-hearted cooperation of all the employees.
(g) Follow up action: To see whether plans are being implemented, activities are performed according to schedule. In case of any deviations, changes are made in the plans.
•Types of Plan:
Plan: A Plan is a specific action proposed to help the organization achieve its objectives. It is a document that outlines how goals are going to be met. The importance of developing plans is evident from the fact that there may be more than one means of reaching a particular goal. So with the help of logical plans, objectives of an organization could be achieved easily.
Single use plan: A Single use plan in a business refers to plan developed for a one-time project or event that has one specific objective. It applies to activities that do not reoccur or repeat. It is specifically designed to achieve a particular goal. Such plan is developed to meet the needs of a unique situation. The length of a single use plan differs greatly depending on the project in question, as a single event plan may only last one day while a single project may last one week or months. For example, an outline for an advertising campaign. After the campaign runs its course, the short term plan will lose its relevance except as a guide for creating future plans.
Types of Single Use Plan:
(a) Programme: A programme is a single use plan containing detailed statements about project outlining the objectives, policies, procedures, rules, tasks, physical and human resources required to implement any course of action.
(b) Budget: A budget is a statement of expected result expressed in numerical terms for a definite period of time in the future.
•Standing Plans: Standing plans are used over and over again because they focus on organizational situations that occur repeatedly. They are usually made once and retain their value over a period of years while undergoing revisions and updates. That is why they are also called repeated use plans. For example, Businessman plans to establish a new business Entrepreneur drafts business plan before opening the doors to their business, and they can use their plan to guide their efforts for years into the future.
Types of Standing Plans:
Objectives: Objectives are defined as ends for the achievement of which an organization goes on working. They may be designed as the desired future position that the management would like to reach. The first and foremost step of the planning process is setting organizational objectives. Examples increasing sales by 10%, Getting 20% return on Investment etc. Objectives should be clear and achievable.
Strategy: Strategies refer to those plans which an organization prepares to face various situations, threats and opportunities. When the managers of an organization prepare a new strategy for the business it is called internal strategy and when some strategies are prepared to respond to the strategies of the competitors, then such strategies are called external strategies. Examples, selection of the medium of advertisement, selection of the channel of distribution etc.
Policy: Policies refers to the general guidelines which brings uniformity in decision-making for achievement of organizational objectives. They provide directions to the managers of an organization. They are flexible as they may be changed as per requirement. Example, selling goods on cash basis only, reserving some post for women in the organization. carry out some work/activity. They indicate which work is to be done in which sequence/way. They help in the performance of work. Procedures are guides to action. Example: Process adopted in the Selection of Employees.
Rule: Rules are specific statement that tell what is to be done and whatnot to be done in a specified situation. They help in indicating which points are to be kept in mind while performing task/work. Rules are rigid which ensure discipline in the organization. Example: ‘No smoking in the office premises’. Violation of rules may invite penalty.
Method: Methods are standardized ways or manners in which a particular task has to be performed. There may be many ways/method of completing a task but that method/way must be selected by which work can be done early at the minimum possible cost. Methods are flexible. Example, various methods of training are adopted by an organization to train its employees like apprenticeship training, vestibule training etc.
Basis of Difference Single use plans and Standing Plans
1. Meaning- A single use plans in a business project onetime r event that using over and over again has same objective. because they focus on organizational situations that occur repeatedly.
2. Objective - Single use plans are developed is to carry out a course of action developed for activities that is not likely to be repeated of in future time.
3. Scop - Single use plans generally a narrow scope encompass plans generally a specific project or involving more than one event.
4. Stability - Single use plans are discarded when the situation, project or stable and used event is occurring again modifications or updating.
5. Example -Budget for Annual General Recruitment and selection with necessary
1. Meaning- A standing plan in a business refers to plans developed for using over and over again has same objective. because they focus on organizational situations that occur repeatedly.
2. Objective -Standing plans however is to carry out a course of action developed for activities occur regularly over a period of in time.
3. Scop -Standing encompas wider scope targeting more then one department function or business .
4. Stability -Standing plans are relatively stable and used over and over modifications or updating.
5. Example - Recuritment and selection procedure for a particular post in a company.