Chapter – 06 Geography Major Landforms of the Earth
• Within the earth a continuous movement is taking place.
• The first is internal process which leads to upliftment and sinking of the eath’s surface at several places.
• The second is the external process. It is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
• The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
• The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition.
• These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind.
• The different landforms depending on elevation and slope are mountains, plateaus and plains.
i) A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth’s surface with a peak or a summit.
ii) In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
iii) A continuous chain of mountains over a large area is called ‘Range’.
iv) The Himalayas, The Alps and The Andes in Asia, Europe and South America respectively are some leading mountains.
(v) There are three types of mountains-Fold mountains, Block mountains and the Volcanic mountains.
(vi) Mountains are storehouse of water. Further they have forests which give us fuel, fodder, shelter and other products.
Fig: Mountains Plateau:
i) A plateau is a flat-topped table land. It is an elevated flat land.
ii) The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
iii) Plateaus are useful as they are rich in mineral deposits.’
iv) Many plateaus have waterfalls. The lava plateaus have soil good for cultivation.
Fig: Plateau Plains:
i) Plains are low-lying and flat stretches of land.
ii) Plains may be extremely level, slightly rolling and undulating.
iii) Plains are fertile. They are good for cultivation, transport and habitation.
Landforms and the People.
i) Human settlements are dependent upon types of landforms.
ii) Areas which are dangerous or isolated have less habitation as compared to areas which are palm or rich in minerals.