The word ‘Environment’ is derived from French word “Environer/ Environner” meaning “neighbourhood”.
The natural factors, places, people, things, etc. that surround a living organism is called environment. It is a combination of both natural as well as man-made phenomena.
Fig: Components of Environment
The natural environment comprises of biotic and abiotic conditions, whereas the man-made phenomena comprise the activities and interactions among human beings.
Fig: Natural Environment
Everything around us that is natural and not made by humans is a part of the natural environment.
(i) Land, water, air, plants, and animals comprise the natural environment.
(ii) Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere are the four domains of the natural environment.
Fig: Bio Sphere
(i) It is a system formed by the interaction of all living organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live, all linked by transfer of energy and material.
An Ecosystems are the foundation of ‘Biosphere’ and maintain the natural balance of the earth. All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often, they are also interdependent on each other. This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem.