Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes

Social Studies (SST) Class 7

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 7 : Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes

The document Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes is a part of the Class 7 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 7.
All you need of Class 7 at this link: Class 7

1. Democracy 
A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections a government of the people, by the people and for the people.

2. Equality 
Equality is a condition in which adequate opportunities are given to all.

3. Universal Adult Franchise

  • The right to vote to be given to all the citizens of the country.
  • They should not be bifurcated on the grounds of religion, culture, gender etc.

Equal Right to Vote: In a democratic country like India, adults, irrespective of their religion, caste education, status or place of birth, are given the right to vote under Universal Adult Franchise.  
Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev NotesFig: Right to vote

Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes

Fig: On comparison between Kanta and Her Employers

4. Caste System
Indian society divide into four primary castes:

Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev NotesFig: Caste System 

5. Dalit
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi. It is a term mostly used for the lower caste members in India. The term is used for those who have been subjected to untouchability.

Joothan refers to scraps of food left on a plate, destined for the garbage or animals. India's untouchables have been forced to accept and eat joothan for centuries, and the word encapsulates the pain, humiliation, and poverty of a community forced to live at the bottom of India's social pyramid.

Areas in which Human are treated not treated equally-

  • Caste
  • Colour  
  • Religion
  • Race
  • Gender

6. Dignity
Dignity refers to the thinking of oneself and other persons as worthy of respect.
-When persons are treated unequally, their dignity is violated.
Does Equality Exist
(i) In reality, difference exists between rich and poor.
(ii) Caste system is also rigid.  
(iii) Dalits in India and minorities are denied the right to dignity and equality.  
Against this what does the Constitution of India Say.

7. Constitution

  • Constitution is the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it
  • A written instrument embodying the rules of a political or social organization.

Articles 12-35 of Indian Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These human rights are conferred on the citizens of India for Constitution tells that these rights are inviolable. Right to Life, Right to Dignity, Right to Education etc. all come under one of the six main fundamental rights.
Article 14 of the Indian Constitution deals with equality before law and equal protection of laws while Article 15 declares that the state cannot discriminate against citizens only on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex and also place of birth. Except from  Article 15 of Indian Constitution.

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth:
(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to –

  • access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or
  • the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. 

Example:
Omprakash Valmiki is a famous Dalit writer who has written an autobiography, Joothan

Problems Faced by Omprakash

  • Sat on the floor and was made to sit too far away from all.
  • Sometimes beat without any reason.
  • He was made to sweep the classroom and the ground during the school hours because he was from a Dalit family.

Problems faced by Ansari
Mr and Mrs Ansari were looking to rent an apartment in the city. They had the money and so paying the rent was no problem.

  • They not being given house on the pretext that they belonged to another religion and ate meat
  • They were not ready to change their identities.

EQUALITY IN INDIA DEMOCRACY
(i) The Indian Constitution recognizes every person as equal. However, it does not mean that inequality does not exist in India.  

(ii) Four provisions provide equality in India; equality before the law; no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, religion, race, gender. Everyone has access to all public places and untouchability has been abolished.  

Chapter Notes: Chapter 1 - On Equality, SST, Class 7 | EduRev NotesFig: Equality in Indian democracy(iii) The government has tried to implement equality first through laws and second through government programmes or schemes to help disadvantaged communities.  

(iv) Programmes like mid-day meal scheme have been launched to improve the attendance and enrollment ratio of children in schools.

MID-DAY MEAL
Mid-day meal (MDM) is a wholesome freshly-cooked lunch served to children in government and government-aided schools in India.
On 28 November 2001, the Supreme Court of India passed a mandate stating, "We direct the State Governments/Union Territories to implement the Mid Day Meal Scheme by providing every child in every Government and Government assisted Primary School with a prepared midday meal."

Benefits of the Midday Meal Programme:

  • It has helped increase the enrollment and attendance of poor children in school
  • Students earlier used to go home for lunch and never returned after that. This practice has been stopped.
  • It has also helped reduce caste prejudices because both lower and upper caste children in the school eat this meal together, and in quite a few places, Dalit women have been employed to cook the meal.
  • The midday meal programme also helps reduce the hunger of poor students who often come to school and cannot concentrate because their stomachs are empty.
  • This lead to increase in literacy rate of a state and removal of inequality among rich and poor children from schools.

B.R. Ambedkar a great leader of the Dalits
“It is disgraceful to live at the cost of one's self-respect. Self-respect is the most vital factor in life. Without it, man is a cipher. To live worthily with self-respect, one has to overcome difficulties. It is out of hard and ceaseless struggle alone that one derives strength, confidence and recognition.
“Man is mortal. Everyone has to die some day or the other. But one must resolve to lay down one's life in enriching the noble ideals of self-respect and in bettering one's human life... Nothing is more disgraceful for a brave man than to live life devoid of self-respect.” – B.R. Ambedkar

ISSUES OF EQUALITY IN OTHER DEMOCRACIES
Inequality in United States of America

  • The African–Americans whose ancestors were the slaves who were brought over from Africa, continue to describe their lives today as largely unequal.
  • This was, despite the fact that there was a movement in the late 1950s to push for equal rights for African– Americans.
  • Prior to this, African–Americans were treated extremely unequally in the United States and denied equality through law. For example, when travelling by bus, they either had to sit at the back of the bus or get up from their seat whenever a white person wished to sit.

Contribution of Rosa Parks in changing the course of American History

  • Rosa Parks was an African–American woman. Tired from a long day at work she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man on 1 December 1955. Her refusal that day started a huge agitation against the unequal ways in which African–Americans were.
  • “It is disgraceful to live at the cost of one's self-respect. Self-respect is the most vital factor in life. Without it, man is a cipher. To live worthily with self-respect, one has to overcome difficulties. It is out of hard and ceaseless struggle alone that one derives strength, confidence and recognition.

The Civil Rights Movement Rights Act of 1964 
It prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin.

  • It also stated that all schools would be open to African–American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them.

Status of Inequality in America
Still the inequality continues and they are still poor and their children are not able to attend private schools and some can only afford to go to the government schools with less facilities.

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