Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultanate, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes

Social Studies (SST) Class 7

Class 7 : Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultanate, SST, Class 7 | EduRev Notes

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Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs, who were defeated by Chuahans (also called Chahamanas) of Ajmer.  

The transformation of Delhi into a capital that controlled vast areas of the subcontinent  

started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate at the beginning of the 13th century.  

Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultanate, SST, Class 7 | EduRev NotesDelhi  Sultanate

The Rulers of Delhi 

  • Tomaras: Early 12th century 1165
  • Chauhans: 1165-1192
  • Prithviraj Chauhan: 1175-1192
  • Slave Dynasty: 1206-1290  
  • Khalji Dynasty: 1290-1320  
  • Tughlaq Dynasty: 1320-1414  
  • Sayyid Dynasty: 1414-1451  
  • Lodi Dynasty: 1451-1526  

Try yourself:Which ruler first established his capital at Delhi?
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Finding out about the Delhi Sultans

  • Inscriptions coins and architecture provide a lot of information.  
  • Further valuable sources are ‘histories’, tarikh (singular)/tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.  
  • The authors of tawarikh were learned men; secretaries administrators, poets and courtiers who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasizing the importance of just rule.  

From Garrison Town to Empire: The Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

  • In the early 13th century the control of the Delhi Sultans rarely went beyond heavily fortified towns occupied by garrisons.  
  • Delhi’s authority was challenged by Mongols and by governors who rebelled at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness.  
  • The expansion of the Delhi Sultanate took place under the reign of Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughlaq.  

A Closer Look: Administration and Consolidation under the Khaljis and Tughluqs 

  • To have reliable governors the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish’ favoured their special slaves purchased for military service called ‘bandagan’ in Persian.  
  • The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and also raised people of humble birth, who were their clients, to high positions like governors and generals.  
  • The Khaljis and Tughluqs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes.  
  • These lands were called iqta and their holder was called muqti or iqtadar. The duty of muqtis was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.  
  • In return, muqtis collected the revenues of their assignments as salary. They also paid their soldiers from this revenue. 
  • Under Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq accountants were appointed to check the amount collected by the muqtis.  
  • As Delhi Sultans brought the hinterland of the cities under their control, they forced the samantas and the rich landlords to accept their authority.  
  • The attack of Mongols under Genghis Khan forced Khaljis and Tughluqs to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi.  

Try yourself: What was the duty of the Muqtis?
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The Sultanate in Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 

  • The Tughluq, the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled from Delhi and Agra until 1526.  
  • By then Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and entire South India had Independent rulers who had established flourishing states and prosperous capitals.  
  • New ruling dynasties like the Afghans and Rajputs also arose during the period.  
  • In 1526, Mughals established their empire, though for a brief period Suri Dynasty ruled in Delhi (1540-1555). This administration became the role model for Akbar, the Mughal Emperor.
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