Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev Notes

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev Notes

The document Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev Notes is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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Water: Some Facts and Figures

  • 96.5 per cent of the total volume of the world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans.
  • 2.5 per cent as freshwater.
  • 70 per cent of this freshwater occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and the mountainous regions of the world.
  • less than 30 per cent is stored as groundwater in the world’s aquifers.
  • India receives nearly 4 per cent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
  • The total renewable water resources of India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.
  • By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.

Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev NotesGlobal Distribution of Water

Try yourself:How much of earth’s surface is covered with water?
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Water scarcity and the Need for Water Conservation and Management

Overexploitation

Most of the houses and farms have private groundwater pumping devices. This is leading to overexploitation of water resources. This is leading to depletion of underground water reservoir.

Deteriorating Quality

Pollution by domestic and industrial waste is harming the quality of potable water. As a result, even areas with abundant water reservoir is facing high concentration of pollutants.

Adverse Effect of Economic Development

Increased business activity is further putting pressure on scarce water resources. Many industries are exploiting water resources.

Hydroelectric Power

22% of total electricity produced in India is through hydroelectric power. This creates additional pressure on water resources.

River Pollution

India’s rivers, especially the smaller ones, have all turned into toxic streams. And even the big ones like the Ganga and Yamuna are far from being pure. The assault on India’s rivers– from population growth, agricultural modernisation, urbanisation and industrialisation– is enormous and growing by the day….. This entire life stands threatened.

Need for Water Conservation

  • To safeguard from health hazard
  • To ensure food security
  • To continue our livelihood
  • To preserve the ecosystem

Multi-Purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management

Dams

Dams are built not just for irrigation but for electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding. 
Hence, dams are now referred to as multi-purpose projects where the many uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another. 
For example, in the Sutluj-Beas river basin, the Bhakra – Nangal project water is being used both for hydel power production and irrigation. Similarly, the Hirakund project in the Mahanadi basin integrates conservation of water with flood control.

Structure of Dams

  • A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. “Dam” refers to the reservoir rather than the structure. 
  • Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over which or through which it is intended that water will flow either intermittently or continuously. Dams are classified according to structure, intended purpose or height. 
  • Based on structure and the materials used, dams are classified as timber dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes. According to the height, dams can be categorised as large dams and major dams or alternatively as low dams, medium height dams and high dams.

Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev NotesHirakud Dam

Adverse Effects of Dams

Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life. 
Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. The reservoirs that are created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time.

Change in Cropping Pattern

Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water-intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. 
At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the rich landowners and the landless poor. As we can see, the dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rooftop rainwater is collected using a PVC pipe.

  • Filtered using sand and bricks
  • Underground pipe takes water to sump for immediate usage
  • Excess water from the sump is taken to the well
  • Water from the well recharges the underground
  • Take water from the well (later)

In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tank for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. 

Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev NotesRainwater Harvesting

The tanks were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. 
Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and be stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. 
The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected. The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers. Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.
Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool. Roof top rainwater harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong, Meghalaya. 
It is interesting because Cherapunjee and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55 km. from Shillong receive the highest rainfall in the world, yet the state capital Shillong faces an acute shortage of water. 
Nearly every household in the city has a rooftop rainwater harvesting structure. Nearly 15-25 per cent of the total water requirement of the household comes from rooftop water harvesting.

Try yourself:Rooftop rainwater harvesting is a technique to recharge
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Bamboo Drip Irrigation System

In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes is prevalent. About 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of metres, and finally reduced to 20-80 drops per minute are the site of the plant.Detailed Chapter Notes - Water Resources, Class 10, SST | EduRev NotesBamboo Drip Irrigation System

Tamil Nadu is the first and the only state in India which has made the rooftop rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters. rainwater harvesting system which is adapted here. Gendathur receives annual precipitation of 1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to 1,00,000 litres.

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