Ques 1: Which form of rural settlement pattern develops along roads, railway-Sines, rivers and canals in the world?
Ans: Linear pattern form of rural settlement develops along roads, railway lines, rivers and canals in the world.
Ques 2: Which stream of migration recorded the highest number of migrants at the level of intra-state migration in India?
Ans: The highest number of migrants at the level of intra-state migration in India is Rural to Rural.
Ques 3: Which is the apex body responsible to improve the quality of roads at national level in India?
Ans: The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) with its Head Office in New Delhi, is the apex body for highways.
Ques 4: Distinguish between clustered and semi clustered rural settlements of India, stating three points of distinction.
Ans: The basic differences between clustered and semi-clustered rural settlement of India are:
(i) Rural settlements derive their life support from land based primary activities while urban settlements depend on industrial production and various services, construction of high rise technological buildings and structures.
(ii) The cities act as a mode of economic growth. They provide goods and services to both urban and rural centres.
(iii) Both settlements differ in social relationship, attitude and outlook.
Ques 5: What are the two types of subsistence agriculture practised in different countries of the world? Describe the main features of these types.
Ans: Farming is practised in various ways across the world depending upon the geographical condition, demand of produce, labour and level of technology.
Farming can be classified into two main types:
(i) Primitive subsistence agriculture and
(ii) Intensive subsistence agriculture.
Main features of primitive subsistence agriculture:
(a) It is also called shifting agriculture and burn/jhuming/milpa/ladang.
(b) It is widely practised by tribes in Africa, South and Central America, South East Asia.
(c) It is practised in thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, Tropical Africa.
(d) The vegetation are cleared by fire and ashes added to soil fertility. In these areas of heavy rainfall quick regeneration of vegetation takes place.
(e) After the soil looses its fertility, land is abandoned and cultivator moves to a new plot.
Main features of intensive subsistence agriculture:
(a) It is practised in densely populated regions of monsoon in Asia.
(b) Land holdings are small.
(c) Farmers use simple tools and more labour including whole family members.
(d) Climate with large number of sunshine days and fertile soil by using farm yard manure permits growing more than one crop annually on the same plot.
(e) The crops grows in such fields are rice, wheat, maize, pulses and oil seeds.
Ques 6: Explain any five factors responsible for the development of 'Hugli Industrial Region'.
Ans: The development of "Hugli Industrial region. This Hugli Industrial Area includes areas around river Hugli in West Bengal.
The main reason of development of belt:
(a) This region is spread in narrow belt from Bansbaria and Naihati in North to Birla Nagar in south along Hugli river in 100 km distance.
(b) The river Hugli offered the best site for the development of Inland river port as nucleus to these industries. It also has better connectivity of road, railways, seaport and airport.
(c) Hugli industrial belt is also very close to Kolkata- Howrah regions.
(d) Opening of coal field of Damodar valley.
(e) Number of Jute mills in the proximity from where large quantity of jute products are exported.
(f) Availability of cheap labour in the surrounding areas.
Ques 7: What is the meaning of density of population? Examine the four geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in the world with suitable examples.
Ans: Meaning of Population Density: The ratio between the number of people to the size of the land/area of state. The number of people inhabiting per unit of land is called population density. As per census 2011, Bihar is most densely populated state with 1106 persons per square km, followed by West Bengal with 1028 persons. Arunachal Pradesh has least density with only 17 person per sq. km.
Geographical factors that influence the population's distribution in the world:
(i) Relief: Relief is the most important factor influencing and distribution of population. High mountains, rugged terrains and some of plateous restrict human settlement. Many parts of the Himalayas, Rockies and Andes are without any population.
(ii) River valleys have fertile soil, abundant water and transport hence these are densely populated.
(iii) Climate: Excessive heat, cold, dryness or wetness restrict human population. Hence areas with normal climate are more dense. Apart from human health, climate affects agriculture as adverse weather conditions result in crop failure.
(iv) Soil: Areas of fertile soil permit high concentration of population because it forms the base for high agricultural activities.
(v) Natural Resources: Due to availability of natural resources, industries grow up, hence area becomes populated.