Ques 1: Mention any two main regions of commercial dairy farming.
Ans: The main regions for dairy farming on commercial basis in the world are:
(i) The largest is North-Western Europe.
(ii) Canada and North-Eastern USA.
(iii) South-Eastern Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania.
Ques 2: Which inland waterway of the world is most heavily used?
Ans: The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence waterways in North America constitutes the most important system of inland water transportation in the world.
Ques 3: Name any two towns of India, initially developed as educational centre.
Ans: Some towns of India were initially developed as education as their primary function are: Roorkee, Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani, etc.
Ques 4: Describe any three features of open-cast mining.
Ans: Features of open - cast mining are:
(i) This is the cheapest and easiest method of mining and is used for mining those minerals which occur close to the surface.
(ii) The overhead cost such as safety precautions and equipment?s is relatively low.
(iii) The output is both large and rapid.
Ques 5: Classify the population of the world on the basis of their residence into two groups. How are they different from each other? Explain.
The division of population into rural and urban is based on the residence.
The population living in a village is known as rural population.
The population living in towns and cities is known as urban population.
It supports small size population.
Urban population is engaged in secondary and territory activities.
Rural population is mostly engaged in agricultural and other primary occupation.
Urban population in engaged in secondary and territory activities.
Share of the rural population is 55% of the whole population of the world.
Share of the urban population is 45% of the whole population is the world.
This division is necessary because rural and urban life styles differ from each other in terms of their livelihood and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban areas.
Ques 6: What was the main aim of the 'Tribal Sub-Plan? introduced in 1974 in Bharmaur area? Review its contribution in the development of the Bharmaur region.
Ans: The process of development of tribal area of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis were included among 'scheduled tribes'. Under die Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh. This area development plan was aimed at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of Himachal Pradesh. This plan laid, the highest priority on development of transport, communications, agriculture and allied activities, social and community services. The most significant contribution of tribal sub plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity.
But the villages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main beneficiaries of infrastructural development. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 65 per cent in 2011. Traditionally, the Gaddis had subsistence agricultural-cum-pastoral economy having emphasis on food grains and livestock production. But during the last three decades of twentieth century, the cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased in Bharmaur region. But the crop cultivation is still done with traditional technology. The declining importance of pastoralism in the economy of the region can be gauged from the fact that at present only about one-tenth of the total households practise transhumance.
Ques 7: Classify trading centres into two categories. How are they different from each other? Explain.
Ans: Trade may be categorised into two types:
(a) Bilateral Trade: Bilateral trade is done by two countries with each other. They enter into agreement to trade specified commodites amongst them. For example, country A may agree to trade some raw material with agreement to purchase some other specified item to country B or vice-versa.
(b) Multi-lateral Trade: As the term suggests multi-lateral trade is conducted with many trading countries. The same country can trade with a number of other countries. The country may also grant the status of the "Most Favoured Nation" MFN on some of the trading partners.
Difference between Bilateral and Multi-lateral Trade:
Bilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between two countries.
Multi ? Lateral Trade is the exchange of goods of services among a number of countries.
Here only commodities are exchange e.g., one country providing raw material and the other manufactured goods in exchange.
Here goods and services are bought or sold in terms of value.
Here commodities of two countries are complementary.
Here raw material, finished goods and services, all becomes items of trade. The trade is not complementary but supplementary.
This type of trade is possible only to a limited extent of certain commodities.
This type of trade is trade based on which has no limit for same commodities only.