Ques 1: Describe the basis on which archaeologists identified the centers of craft production in the Harappan culture.
Ans: The main craft production in Harappan culture were bead making, shell cutting, seal making, cubical weights making, stone blades making, etc. These things were found in Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan, and Gujarat. On this basis, archaeologists identified that these were the centers of craft production.
Ques 2: Explain the sources of revenue of Village Panchayats during the Mughal rule in India.
Ans: Sources of revenue of Village Panchayats during the Mughal rule in India were:
Land revenue, control over agricultural production, and fixation of tax.
Land revenue was based on two stages:
2. Actual collection and payment of tax as it was fixed as per area of land.
Ques 3: Examine the impact of 'Limitation Laws' passed by the British in 1859.
Ans: In 1859, the Britishers passed the Law of Limitation, stating that the loan bonds signed between the money-lenders and the ryots would have validity for three years only.
Effects of the law were:
1. Money-lenders refused to extend the loan to the ryots.
2. Manipulation and forgery of peasants accounts by money-lenders.
Ques 4: 'There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in the Harappan society.' In light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society.
Ans: Some archaeologists say that Harappan society had no rulers but others feel that there were several rulers. They said this on the basis of:
1. Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers, plans, and layouts of the city were prepared.
2. Huge buildings, forts, tanks, wells, canals, granaries, etc., were constructed under the supervision of the rulers.
3. Roads, drains were also constructed under the supervision of the rulers.
4. The ruler might have taken a keen interest in promoting the farmers to increase production and craftsmen to promote different kinds of handicrafts.
Ques 5: Describe the economic and social conditions of the people living in rural areas from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE.
Ans: There was a differentiation amongst the people of rural areas:
1. Economic condition of the cultivators was miserable, as landlords controlled all the money and production.
2. During this period, agricultural settlements emerged in many parts of the sub-continent, including North India, the Deccan plateau, and other parts of Karnataka.
3. After marriage girl had to give up her father's gotra and opt for her husband's gotra.
4. Brahmans claimed that they were ranked first while placing groups classified as Sudras and untouchables at the bottom of the social order. Positions within the order were supposedly determined by birth.
Ques 6: 'Ibn Battuta found cities in the Indian subcontinent full of exciting opportunities.' Explain the statement with reference to the city of Delhi.
Ans: Ibn Battuta found cities in the Indian subcontinent full of exciting opportunities, especially the city of Delhi:
1. Delhi covers a wide area and has a dense population.
2. There is a rampart round the city that is without parallel. The breadth of its wall is eleven cubics; and inside it, there are houses for the night sentry and gatekeepers.
3. Inside the ramparts, there are storehouses for storing edibles, magazines, ballista, and siege machines.
4. There are twenty-eight gates in the city which are called Darwaza in which, Budaun Darwaza is the biggest Darwaza.
5. In Gul Darwaza there is an orchard. It has a fine cemetery in which graves have domes over them, and those that do not have a dome, have an arch for sure.
Ques 7: 'Sufism evolved as a reaction to the growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political institution.' Elucidate.
Ans: 1. One of the most striking religious examples is evident at Puri, Odisha, where the principal deity was identified, by the twelfth century, as Jagannatha as literally, the lord of the world, a form of Vishnu. This phase was of the increasing visibility of Gods and Goddesses.
2. Tantric practices were widespread in several parts of the sub-continent.
3. Social seclusion of women and Shudras, who were generally excluded from Vedic learning.
4. Brahmans accepting and re-working these beliefs and practices and other social categories. The Cast system was very prominent at that time.
Ques 8: Examine the participation of the Taluqdars of Awadh in the Revolt of 1857.
Ans: 1. The Taluqdars of Awadh, for many generations, had controlled the lands and power in the countryside and had maintained armed retainers, built forts, and enjoyed a degree of autonomy as long as they accepted the suzerainty of the Nawabs and paid the revenues of their Taluqas but British were unwilling to tolerate the power of the Taluqdars. The Taluqdars were disarmed and their forts were destroyed.
2. The British land revenue policy also hit the position of Taluqdars. In Southern Awadh, the Taluqdars lost more than half of the total villages they previously held.
3. British revenue flows for the state increased and the burden of demand on the peasants did not decline, the increase in the revenue demand increased from 30 to 70 percent. Thus, neither the Taluqdars nor the peasants had any reason to be happy with the annexation of Awadh.
4. The loyalty of the peasants to the Taluqdars was lost by the dispossession of the taluqas by the Taluqdars, in the time of crops failure as the hardships of the peasants were not supported by the Taluqdars.
Ques 9: Explain why some hill stations were developed during the colonial period in India.
Ans: 1. The cold climate of the Indian hills was seen as an advantage. Particularly, since the British associated the hot weather with epidemics.
2. Hill stations were established mainly for the army, to protect them from diseases like cholera and malaria.
3. These hill stations were also developed as Sanatoriums i.e., places where soldiers could be sent for rest.
4. These places were suitable for British rulers due to the cold climate where new rulers and viceroy could go for rest in the summer.
Ques 10: 'By 1922 Gandhiji and transformed Indian nationalism, thereby redeeming the promise he made in his BHU speech of February 1916. It was no longer a movement, of professionals and intellectuals; now, hundreds of thousands of peasants, workers, and artisans also participated in it. Many of them venerated Gandhiji, referring to him as their 'Mahatma'. They appreciated the fact that he dressed like them, lived like them, and spoke their language, unlike other leaders he did not stand apart from the common folk, but empathized and even identified with them.?
In light of the above passage, highlight any four values upheld by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans: 1. Gandhiji transformed Indian nationalism all over the country.
2. He spread this movement among common people like peasants, workers, and artisans also.
3. In critical social conditions under British rule, a new leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi appeared. He suggested a new method of action, and he was popularly known as Bapu or Mahatma Gandhi.
4. He stood with common people, talked to them and empathised them, and made them believe that they are in the mainstream of the country.
5. He himself also did not stand apart from the common folk and even identified with the common man.
Ques 11: Trace out the growth of Buddhism. Explain the teachings of Buddha.
Trace out how stupas were built. Explain why the stupa at Sanchi survived, but not at Amravati.
Ans: Siddhartha (Buddha) one day persuaded, his charioteer to take him to the city. His first journey to the city acquainted him with the traumatic world outside. He was deeply anguished. When he saw an old man; a sick man and corpse, he realized that decay and destruction of dead human body were inevitable. He also saw a homeless mendicant, who, it seemed to him, had come to terms with old age, disease, and death and found peace. So he decided that he too would adopt the same path, after which he left his place and set out in search of his own truth. Under the tree in Bodh Gaya, he enlightened with knowledge and gave his teachings to disciples and his teachings became very popular because many people were dissatisfied with the existing religious practices and were confused by the rapid social changes. The importance to conduce the values, rather than just claims of superiority on basis of birth.
1. The world is transient (anicca) and changing constantly.
2. There is nothing permanent or eternal.
3. In the transient world, sorrow is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these wordly troubles.
4. Buddha emphasized individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation.
5. We are the same as plants, as trees, as other people, and as the rain that falls. We consist of that which is around us. If we destroy something around us, we destroy ourselves. If we cheat another, we cheat ourselves. Under this light of knowledge, Buddha and his followers never killed any animal.
Inscriptions found on the railings and pillars of the stupas record donations made for buildings and decorations made on them. Some donations were made by kings, others were made by guilds such as that of ivory workers who financed a part of one of the gateways at Sanchi. Hundreds of donations were made by women and men who mention their names sometimes adding the name of the place from where they came as well as their occupations and names of their relatives.
Bhikkhus and bhikkunis also contributed towards building these monuments: stupas have Buddhist ideas and practices. Perhaps Amaravati was discovered before the scholars understood the value of the findings and realized how critical it was to preserve such things where they had been found instead they thought of removing them from the site. Also when Sanchi was discovered in "1818", three of its four gateways were still standing and the forth was lying on the ground.
Amaravati stupas at Amaravati were changed and some of the slabs from the Amaravati stupas had been taken to different places, for example, they are taken to Kolkata, Chennai, and London and were used in other structures.
Sanchi: The stupas of Sanchi build in 1818 are still standing. Three of the gateways are still standing but the fourth had fallen mound. It was decided to take it to Paris or London. Finally, a number of factors helped to keep Sanchi as it was and so it stands.
Ques 12: Explain why the nobility was recruited from different races and religious groups by the Mughal rulers in India.
Explain the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire.
Ans: 1. The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups which ensured that no function was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.
2. The officers of the Mughals were described as a bouquet of flowers held together by loyalty to the emperor. Emperor was very respectful among the religious saints and scholars.
3. Turani and Iranian nobles were the earliest in Akbar's imperial service. Akbar was a great and intelligent king and wanted skillful people to join him in his state.
4. Two ruling groups of Indian origin entered the imperial service the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims. Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha of Amber to whose daughter Akbar got married was the reason behind the Rajputs to entered the Mughal empire.
5. The nobles participated in military campaigns and also served as officers of the empire in their respective provinces. So why execute the empire when the emperor skillfully recruited the nobles of different races and religions.
1. After Noor Jahan, Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources.
2. Shan Jahan's daughters Jahanara and Roshanara enjoyed an annual income often equal to that of high imperial Mansabdars.
3. Control over the resources enabled important women of the Mughal household to commission buildings and gardens.
4. The throbbing center of Shahajanabad, was the bazaar of Chandni Chowk which was designed by Jahanara.
5. Gulbadan Begum, the daughter of Babar and Humayun's sister who wrote Humayun-nama, depicting a glimpse of the domestic world of Mughals.
6. Gulbadan described in great detail, the conflicts and tension among the princes and kings.
7. Elderly women of the family played an important role in resolving conflicts.
Ques 13: 'The communal politics that started during the early decades of the 20th century was largely responsible for the partition of the country.' Examine the statement.
'Partition of India had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of separate electorates.' Examine the statement.
Ans: 1. Separate electorates for Muslims were created by the colonial government in 1909 and expanded in 1919. It crucially shaped the nature of communal politics. Separate electorates meant that Muslims could now elect their own representatives in designated constituencies.
2. Working politicians used their own slogans and gathered in masses by distributing favours to their own religious groups.
3. There was active opposition and hostility between the communities.
4. In the 1920's and early 1930's, Muslims were angered by music played outside the mosque.
5. Cow protection movement by Arya Samaj brought back the people to the Hindu fold those who had recently converted to Islam.
6. Lucknow Pact of December 1916 was responsible for it.
7. Hindus were angered by the rapid spread of tablighi and tanzim after 1923.
8. Communal riots deepened the differences between the communities, creating disturbing memories of violence.
Separate electoral was demanded Muslims and was created by the colonial Government in 1909 and expanded in 1919, crucially shaping the nature of communal politics as:
1. The leaders believed it indicated differences in faiths and believes.
2. It was a representation of active opposition and hostility between the communities.
3. It had a profound impact on Indian politics.
4. Communal identities were consolidated by a host of other developments in the early twentieth century.
5. Muslims were angered by the music playing outside the mosque.
6. Cow protection campaign by Arya Samaj was an issue.
7. Middle-class publicists and communal activists sought to build greater solidarity within their communities, mobilizing people against other communities.
8. Leaders were afraid that it was the symptom of partition.
Ques 14: Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
'Proper' Social Roles
Here is a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata:
Once Drona, a Brahmana who taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Ekalavya, a forest-dwelling mishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Ekalavya returned to the forest, prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practice on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru princes went hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Ekalavya. When the dog smelt the dark mishada wrapped in black deerskin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekalvya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Ekalavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.
Drona had once told his favorite student Arjuna, that he would unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Ekalavya, who immediately acknowledged and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word: no one was better than Arjuna.
(i) Why did Drona refuse to have Ekalavya as his pupil?
(ii) How had Drona kept his word given to Arjuna?
(iii) Do you think Drona's behaviour with Ekalavya was justified? If so, give reason.
Ans: (i) Drona, who was a Brahmana and taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Ekalvya, a forest-dwelling Nishada (a hunting community) to teach him archery Drona refused to have Ekalavya as his pupil.
(ii) Yes, Drona kept his world given to Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst the pupils. To prove this Drona demanded Eklavyas right thumb as his fee, Eklavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it to the guru.
(iii) Drona's behaviour with Eklavya was justified because he promised to Arjuna to be the best in archery but when he saw Eklavyas he was amazed at the superior display of archery by him. Eklavya will be better at archery than Arjuna thus, to keep his promise to Arjuana. Drona demanded the right-hand thumb as a fee from Ekalavya.
Ques 15: Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Born in 1754, Colin Machenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India's past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that it struggled long under the miseries of bad management? Before the South came under the benign Influence of the British government.? By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the east India Company could gain? Much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs? Whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass or the population to this day?
(i) Who was Colin Mackenzie?
(ii) How did Mackenzie try to rediscover the Vijayanagara Empire?
(iii) How was the study of the Vijayanagara Empire useful to the East India Company?
Ans: (i) Colin Mackenzie was a famous engineer, surveyor and cartographer. He surveyed historic sites in order to better understand India's past and make the governance of the colony easier.
(ii) He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India's past which included Vijayanagara in South of India.
(iii) By studying Vijayanagra, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain useful information on many of these institution laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of natives forming the general mass of population of this day.
Ques 16: Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law?
On 5 April 1930, Mahatma Gandhi spoke at Dandi:
When I left Sabarmati with my companions for this seaside hamlet of Dandi, I was not certain in my mind that we would be allowed to reach this place. Even while I was at Sabarmati there was a rumor that I might be arrested. I had thought that the Government might perhaps let my party come as far as Dandi, but not me certainly. If someone says that this betrays imperfect faith on my part, I shall not deny the charge. That I have reached here is in no small measure due to the power of peace and non-violence: that power is universally felt. The Government may, if it wishes, congratulate itself on acting as it has done, for it could have arrested every one of us. In saying that it did not have the courage to arrest this army of peace, we praise it. It felt ashamed to arrest such an army He is a civilized man who feels ashamed to do anything which his neighbors would disapprove. The Government deserves to be congratulated on not arresting us, even if it desisted only from fear of world opinion.
Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law. Whether the Government will tolerate that is a different question. It may not tolerate it, but it deserves congratulations on the patience and forbearance it has displayed in regard to this party...... What if I and all the eminent leaders in Gujarat and in the rest of the country are arrested? This movement is based on the faith that when a whole nation is roused and on the march no leader is necessary.
(i) What were the apprehensions of Mahatma Gandhi when he started his Dandi March?
(ii) Why did Gandhiji say that the Government deserved to be congratulated?
(iii) Why was the Salt March very significant?
Ans: (i) He was not certain that he would be allowed to reach Dandi. Gandhiji suspected he might be arrested, as he said, Government might perhaps let my party come as far as Dandi but not me certainly?.
(ii) The Government deserved to be congratulated on acting as it did, for it could have arrested everyone but it did not have the courage to arrest an army of peace.
(iii) Salt March was very significant:
(a) It broke the law of salt top.
(b) It showed that the nation was roused and on the march, no leader was necessary.
(c) It was a great action by the people of India under the leadership of Gandhiji against British rule.
Ques 17: (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following appropriately:
(A) Amritsar - an important center of the National Movement.
(B) Agra-a territory under Babur.
(ii) On the same political outline map of India, three Places which are major Buddhist sites have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.