Ques 1: What is the meaning of dependency ratio?
Ans: The dependency ratio is a measure which compares the part of a population which is composed of dependents (i.e., elderly people who are very old to work, and children who are very young to work) with the part that is in the working age group, generally defined as 15 to 64 years.
Ques 2: What are the three forms of capital on which social inequality is based?
Ans: The three forms of capital on which social inequality is based are economic capital such as material assets and income, cultural capital such as status and qualification and social capital such as social associations of the person.
Ques 3: State the two factors which encourage regionalism.
Ans: The two factors which encourage regionalism are religion and language. Concentration of a religious or linguistic group in a specific geographical area leads to regionalism.
Ques 4: What are the criteria for forming community identity?
Ans: The community identity is based on birth and belonging to a particular family, caste, religion, kinship, etc. and is ascribed.
Ques 5: Give the meaning of Sanskritisation.
Ans: The term Sanskritisation refers to a process in which the people of lower caste take up the rituals, beliefs, way of life and ideology of the higher caste, specifically twice born caste and latter claim to belong to higher caste.
Ques 6: What do you understand by the term decentralized democracy?
Ans: The term decentralised democracy means transferring functions, resources and decision- making powers to the lower-level democratically elected bodies.
Ques 7: How have 'matrix events' taken place in the rural society?
Ans: The suicides among farmers have become matrix event in rural society. The farmers who commit suicide are marginal farmers who try to increase their productivity particularly by adopting green revolution. But they have; to face several risks, such as rise in cost of production due to decrease in subsidies, instability in market; which eventually forced farmer to borrow money and doomed him in debts.
Ques 8: In what way does 'Time Slavery' influence Industrial society?
Ans: Time slavery refers to employee working for more than 10-12 hour a day in order to meet the deadlines and complete the projects. Sometimes it leads to condition where the employees work overnight and sometimes might put extra stress on them.
Ques 9: What is the meaning of Glocalisation?
Ans: The term Glocalisation refers to process of mixing of the global with the local. It is a strategy adopted by the foreign firms while dealing with the local traditions for improving their marketability. For example, serving of purely vegetarian food by some multinational food chains, like Mc. Donald's.
Ques 10: In what way 'Fordism' influenced the production and marketing of goods?
Ans: Fordism refers to a system of mass production and mass consumption at a centralised place. Due to Fordism the cost of production goes up due to high labour charges and marketing of the goods often becomes difficult in the same market due to mass production.
Ques 11: How has 'Corporate Culture' transformed society?
Ans: The corporate culture aims at enhancing productivity and competence by creating unique organizational culture which involves all the members. It has transformed society by introducing information technology revolution and creating highly paying job opportunities with highly stressful work schedules.
Ques 12: Give two examples of Peasant movements.
Ans: Two examples of Peasant movements are the Tebhaga movement (1946-47) and the Telangana movement (1946-51).
Ques 13: Mention two important reasons that can be attributed for the rise of Dalit Movements.
Ans: Two important reasons that can be attributed for the rise of Dalit movements are quest for equality and eradication of untouchability.
Ques 14: Why do environmental movements take place?
Ans: The environmental movements take place to due to concerns related to uncheck use of natural resources which is followed by exploitation and depletion of the natural resources.
Ques 15: Highlight the main features of demographic dividend in India.
Ans: The main features of demographic dividend in India are as follows:
(i) India has a very young population - that is, the majority of Indians tend to be young, and the average age is also less than that for most other countries.
(ii) India has a large portion of working age population, i.e. between 15 to 64 years.
(iii) It has relatively small proportion of old age population to support.
(iv) The dependent portion population would turn into working age population in some time, due to demographic transition; thus raising the prospects for growth.
Ques 16: What were the major issues of Adivasis struggle after independence?
Ans: The major issues of Adivasis struggle after independence were that during the later part of the nineteenth century the colonial rule has reserved the forest for its use, which also served the rights of the adivasis for food gathering and shifting cultivation. However, the access of forests to the adivasis was denied as they were protected for maximising timber production.
Moreover, the mineral; resources and power generation capacities were mostly concentrated in the Adivasis area; required for industrial growth. Their land was acquired for mining and dams projects, without paying proper compensating or rehabilitation.
Ques 17: Why Communalism is still a challenge to our unity and harmony?
Ans: Communalism refers to aggressive chauvinism which is based on religious identity. The person considers his group superior to all others. It is closely related to politics. It is a threat to unity and harmony as communalist condemn or attack others who don't share their policy. It is recurrent source of communal riots as the selfish motives of the political parties are exploited in the name of communalism.
For example, anti-Sikh riots of Delhi in 1984.
Ques 18: How has Casteism influenced politics?
Ans: Casteism though a different sphere from politics, sometime plays a dominant role in influencing the voting choice of the people. The people of a particular caste becomes the voting bank for a political party as they choose to opt the candidate with the same caste without considering his abilities, qualifications and past achievements.
Here, caste serves the selfish motives of a particular party. The people select the candidate with the same caste considering that he/she would bring welfare for their caste, however all the promise made by the candidate before elections are completely forgotten on winning it.
Ques 19: Elaborate the power and responsibilities of the Panchayat.
Ans: The following powers and responsibility of the Panchayats:
(i) to prepare plans and schemes for economic development
(ii) to promote schemes that will enhance social justice
(iii) to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees
(iv) help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities, especially that of finances to local authorities.
Ques 20: Explain the impact of land reforms on Indian agriculture after independence.
Briefly highlight transformations of rural society after independence.
Ans: The impacts of land reform on Indian agriculture after independence was not able to bring about any significant progress in increasing the productivity as there were many loop holes in the system. The abolition of zamindari system only removed the top layer landowners, but could not wipe of the landlordism, tenancy or share cropping system. The Tenancy Abolition and Regulation Act was failed to implement properly to safe guard the interest of the tenants. The Land Ceiling Act was misused through Benami transfers.
Following are the transformation which has been taken place in rural society after independence:
(i) Rise in number of agricultural labours as cultivation has become an intensive process.
(ii) Instead of payment in kind such as agricultural products or grain, there is shift to payment in cash.
(iii) Increase in a section of labourers, referred as Tree wage labourers.
(iv) Shift in traditional relationship between the landowner and agricultural labourer, which were termed as bonded labour.
Ques 21: Discuss the issues faced by 'migrating labourers'.
Explain the major forms of job recruitment in India.
Ans: The labourers migrate from their native place in search of livelihood. The breaking of patronage bond between landowner and labourer, and seasonal agricultural production are some reasons for migration of the labours. The main migrations are from drought prone areas to the ones which offer better job opportunities.
The other reasons for migrations are the rising inequalities in rural areas, which force them to indulge in multiple employments. They lack roots and are often termed as footloose labour but they lack independence. Such labourers migrate to farms of Punjab or Haryana, or brick Kilns of UP or construction sites in Delhi.
The chief issues faced by migrating labours are they fail to acquire the labours right and get minimum wages. There is no job security as they are employed only when the local labourers are not available. The other reason for employing them is that they can be exploited very easily and can be employed at low wage than the native labourers.
Moreover they face poor working and living conditions. Moreover, they have to spend a lot of time in searching for a job outside their native place. This is often followed by feminisation of agriculture for meeting the both ends meet.
Job recruitment takes different forms in India. Very few jobs are acquired through advertisements. Some people like plumber, electrician, and carpenter are self-employed. Among the educated section, tutors, writers and architects are self-employed. Mobile phones play a dominant role in acquiring work for them. There is a lot of flexibility in their working hours.
A few workers are employed as a permanent worker and get proper compensation, status and position for their work. Usually in factories the workers are employed through a contractor. Such workers are employed only when the regular worker is not available, and the labourers fail to get proper salary, status and security. They are known as contract workers.
Sometimes in construction sites and in brickyards the labours are hired as casual worker. They get some advance money from the contractor which is treated as advance wage and the wages are not paid until the loan is repaid.
Now-a-days due to spread of internet, there is a trend of working from home. It gives a lot of flexibility to the workers in terms of working hours, as the candidate can work as per his/her convenience.
Ques 22: 'The institution of caste is both visible and invisible in many respects.) Justify the statement with suitable examples.
What are the rules and regulation that caste system imposes on its members?
Ans: Caste system refers to a social stratification in which different castes are placed on the horizontal ladder of social status. Traditionally the twice born castes such as Brahmin, Kshatriya. Vaisya enjoyed the privileges and Sudras were considered as the worst section. Though the social reforms have played an important role in. eradiating caste system and untouchability, yet it is still prevalent in our society.
Though apparently caste system is abolished yet it continues to affect the life chances. The affluent and dominant group generally belong to higher strata and the deprived and exploited sections are the lower caste. Though reservation policy in spheres has tried to eliminate this difference by providing educational and employment opportunities to them, yet this difference is further depended due to reservation policy. As a certain section oi the society is demarcated as downtrodden and deprived. Hence, caste system, exists in our society in visible and. invisible forms.
The rules and regulation which a caste imposes on its member are as following:
(i) Inability- to move up or down the status ladder: an individual is required to remain in die same caste in which he had a chance to born. The movement up and down the status ladder is practically impossible.
(ii) Endogamy: The marriage outside the caste is strictly prohibited.
(iii) Restriction on feeding and social intercourse: The twice born caste can't accept kaccha food from Sudra. The social interaction with the lower caste is restricted, for example even the shadow of Sudra is considered, to spell a disaster on a Brahmin.
(iv) Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation: The members of caste are required to follow the occupation which is meant for that particular job. For example the Brahmins are meant for priestly job, Kshatriyas as warriors, Vaisyas as traders and Sudras for worst menial jobs.
(v) Civil and religious disabilities: The people of lower caste are subjected to several discriminations. They are required to live at the outskirts of the village and are not allowed to draw water from the village well. There entry in the temple is strictly restricted.
Ques 23: 'The policy of liberalization has brought about changes in our society.' Elaborate.
Ans: The policy of liberalization has brought about changes in our society. This statement is very true though the changes are beneficial in some case and disadvantageous in some other cases.
Liberalization refers to a number of policies such as privatization of public sector enterprise; loosening of government regulations, reduction in tariffs and import dudes. The result of liberalization is evident in form of more foreign firms entering in Indian markets. This is followed by economic growth and prosperity. More employment opportunities are generated.
The foreign goods are easily available in country at low costs. Though some sectors like software and information technology and agriculture (Like fruit and fish) are benefitted by liberalization, yet there are some sectors which fail to compete with the global market, such as (automobiles, electronics or oilseeds). This was also followed by loss of employment in many sectors.
Indian agriculture was protected from the global market by support prices and subsidies. Support prices help to ensure a minimum income generation for farmers because they as it is the price at which the government agrees to buy agricultural commodities. Subsidies lower the expenses of farming as the government pays part of the expenses incurred (like those on fertilisers or diesel oil). Liberalization is against this kind of government interference in markets, so support prices and subsidies are missing. So, the farmers are not able to earn decent livelihood.
Ques 24: In what ways has colonialism brought about a social, economic and political influence on Indian society to promote urbanization.
Ans: Colonialism refers to British rule over India. The objective of colonialism was to promote the interests of the colonial rule. In order to get educated working class of people who can serve the British rule, western education was imparted; this led to opening of schools and colleges. There was a mass production of books, literature, etc. Mass media such as radio, newspaper and magazine were also promoted to safe guard the interest of the British rule.
In order to generate profits, it opened many industries and introduced modern technology to gear up the process of production at lower expenses. This led to industrialization in the country. The factory produced goods were liked and purchased by people, which helped in making their lives comfortable.
Machines were used even in the agricultural production to enhance the yields. This also led to labourers getting jobs in factories. The colonial rule promoted roads and transportation for smooth transfers of raw material and good, which led to construction of road in country.
Opening of schools, colleges, hospitals, setting up of industries and modern means of transportation were some of the influence of colonialism in social, political and economic spheres which ushered urbanisation in the country.
Ques 25: Read the following passage and answer the given question:
The place is a cramped..... rented shack stacked with music tapes and rusty electrical appliances which doubles up as Raghav's radio station and repair shop. He may not be literate, but Raghav's ingenuous FM station has made him more popular than local politicians. Raghav's love affair with the radio began in 1997 when he started out as a mechanic in a local repair shop.
When the shop owner left the area, Raghav, son of a cancer-ridden farm worker, took over the shack with his friend.
Sometime in 2003, Raghav, who by now had learned much about radio ...In impoverished Bihar state, where many areas lack power supplies, the cheap battery-powered transistor remains the most popular source of entertainment. "It took a long time to come up with the idea and make the kit which could transmit my programmes at a fixed radio frequency.
The kit cost me 50 rupees, says Raghav. The transmission kit is fitted on to an antenna attached to a bamboo pole on a neighbouring three - storey hospital. A long wire connects the contraption to a creaky, old homemade stereo cassette player in Raghav's radio shack. Three other rusty, locally made battery-powered tape recorders are connected to it with colourful wires and a cordless microphone.
(a) What changes has media experienced over the last few years?
(b) How can media be successful in representing the weaker section of society?
Ans: (a) There has been a phenomenal expansion in the use of mass media, such as television, radio, newspaper, etc. over the past few years, as it helps in spreading news information and entertainment to large masses.
(b) Media can be successful in representing the weaker sections of the society as:
(i) It has a wide reach.
(ii) It can represent the issues faced by the weaker sections of the societies like gender based discrimination, untouchability, exploitation, etc.
(iii) It can help in mobilising people to act against the social evils prevalent in society.
(iv) It can help in spreading awareness about the equality for all irrespective of caste, religion, language, gender or class.