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Ques 1: Who was considered as the most powerful Chola ruler?
Ques 2: Who were sufis?
Ans: Sufis were Muslim mystics.
Ques 3: What do you mean by focus?
Ans: The point of origin of an earthquake is called focus.
Ques 4: Who built Agra Fort?
Ques 5: When was Civil Rights Act passed?
Ques 6: Where are Yaks found?
Ques 7: What was the relationship between the mansabdar and jagir?
Ans: Mansabdars were the patrons who joined Mughal services. They received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs. Mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
Ques 8: Name the three types of earthquake waves.
Ans: (i) P wave and Longitudinal waves
(ii) S wave or Transverse waves
(iii) L waves or surface waves
Ques 9: Write the meaning and the basis of universal adult franchise.
Ans: (i) Voting right to all adults is called universal adult franchise.
(ii) It is an essential aspect of all democracies.
(iii) The idea of universal adult franchise is based on the idea of equality because it states that every adult in a country, irrespective of their wealth and the communities, he/she belongs to, has one vote.
Ques 10: Mention the major features of tropical evergreen forests.
Ans: Major features of tropical evergreen forests are:
(i) These forests are so dense that thick canopies are developed which do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forests.
(ii) As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This keeps the forests evergreen.
(iii) Hardwood trees such as ebony, rosewood and mahogany are found here.
Ques 11: Describe the architecture of Hampi.
Ans: The towns grew around temples, because:
(i) Hampi was a well-fortified city. There was no use of mortar nor cementing done in the construction of walls and the technique followed was to wedge them together by interlocking.
(ii) The buildings in the royal complex had splendid arches, domes and pillared halls with niches for holding sculptures.
(iii) They also had well-planned orchards and pleasure gardens with sculptural motifs such as the lotus and corbels.
Ques 12: Match the following:
|(i) Trade Winds||(a) Incoming solar energy|
|(ii) Loo||(b) Seasonal wind|
|(iii) Monsoon||(c) Layer of ozone gas|
|(d) Permanent wind|
|(e) Local win|
Ques 13: What were the major ideas expressed by Kabir?
Ans: The major ideas expressed by Kabir, include:
(i) Rejection of major religious traditions.
(ii) Criticism of all forms of external worship of both Brahamanical Hinduism and Islam
(iii) Criticism of priestly classes and caste system.
(iv) Belief in a formless Supreme God.
(v) Emphasis on Bhakti or Devotion to achieve salvation.
Ques 14: How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women's right to equality?
Ans: Women are considered inferior to men. There is a belief that women do not have technical mind and therefore they cannot be engineers or scientists. It is thought that women are good at only certain jobs such as teaching and nursing. These stererotypes about women?s capability or incapability of doing certain jobs badly affects women?s right to equality. It is due to this reason that women are paid less wages than their male counter-parts.
Ques 15: What is an Oasis? Mention its features.
Ans: In the depressions where underground water reaches the surface, an oasis is formed. People may settle around these water bodies as these areas are fertile and people can grow date palms and other crops. Sometimes, the oasis may be abnormally large. Tafilalet Oasis in Morocco is a large oasis with an area of about 13,000 sq. km.
Ques 16: How is an government function in a state?
Ans: A government is headed by the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister, in order to manage the functioning of government, appoints ministers at various levels like cabinet ministers, state ministers and deputy ministers. Every government department is headed by a cabinet minister who is directly accountable for the functioning of the particular department and responsible for the handling of the government decisions. The bureaucrate project and get the works completed. The ministers give approval to the works.
Ques 17: Enlist the major features of the tribal societies.
Ans: Major Features of the Tribal Societies:
(i) Members of each tribe were united by kinship bonds.
(ii) Many tribes obtained their livelihood from agriculture.
(iii) Others were hunter-gatheres or herders.
(iv) Some tribes were nomadic and moved from one place to another.
(v) A tribal group controlled land and pastures jointly, and divided these amongst households according to its own rules.
(vi) Many large tribes evolved in different parts of the subcontinent. They usually lived in forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach. Sometimes they clashed with the more powerful caste-based societies.
(vii) The tribes retained their freedom and preserved their separate culture. (Any four)
Ques 18: How have the people of Prairies used technology and resources for
Ans: The people of prairies are very hard working. They have successfully harnessed technology to utilize their rich natural resources:
(i) USA and Canada, the most developed countries are located in this region.
(ii) Scientific methods of cultivation and use of tractors, harvesters and combines of both have made North America a surplus food producer. Thus, the Prairies are also known as the Granaries of the world, due to the huge surplus of wheat production.
(iii) Dairy farming is another major industry. Dairy farming and extensive agriculture both promote setting up of food processing industries.
(iv) Large mineral deposits mainly coal and iron and a good network of roads, railways and canals in this region have made it the most industrialised region in the world.
Ques 19: Why do people not bargain in shops located in malls whereas they bargain in weekly markets?
Ans: Advertisements play a big role in our lives.
(i) We buy products based on them.
(ii) They influence the way we think of ourselves, friends and family.
(iii) It is important that we understand how advertisements work before we choose a product.
(iv) We should critically understand that advertisement uses particular images, emotions to affect thinking.
(v) They make us vulnerable to how we perceive ourselves with or without that product.
Ques 20: Compare public health services with those of private health services.
Ans: Shops located in malls usually sell branded items with price tags. This arrangement leaves no scope for the customer to bargain. But in weekly markets, there are many shops selling the same goods. This means there is competition among them. If some traders were to charge a high price, people would move to another shop where the same thing may be available at chapter rate where the buyer can bargain. Hence, bargaining can be easily done in weekly markets not in malls.
Ques 21: Fill in the blanks:
(a) Ghenghis Khan was a ruler of ____ tribe.
(b) Jahangir ruled from 1605 CE to ____ CE.
(c) Rathore Rajputs were associated with ____.
(d) Salary of the mansabdars was called ____.
(e) ____ was the revenue minister of Akbar.
Ans: (i) Public health services are run by government while private health services are managed by the individuals or companies.
(ii) Public health care services provide healthcare facilities either free of cost or at a low cost so that even the poor can seek treatment easily. So far private health services are concerned, they are run mainly for profit. They usually prescribe expensive treatment. It is common for private doctors to prescribe unnecessary medicines, injections or saline bottle when tablets or simple medicines can suffice.
(iii) Public health services are found both in rural and urban areas, while private health services are found in urban areas only.
(iv) Due to the huge rush in government hospitals, people have to wait for hours in a long queue. But private hospitals are maintained properly and people don?t face such long queues there.
Ques 22: How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Ans: (a) Mongol
(e) Todar Mal.
Ques 23: Mention the drawbacks of advertising.
Ans: Kings usually constructed temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. The Rajarajeshvara temple is a beautiful and noticeable example of this. Thus, temple is built by king Rajarajadeva for the worship of his God, Rajarajeshvaram. The king took the God?s name because it was auspicious and he wanted to appear like a God. Through the rituals of worship in the temples, one God i.e., Rajarajadeva honoured another i.e., Rajarajeshvaram. Kings usually constructed the largest temples. The other, lesser deities in the temple were gods and goddesses of the allies and subordinates of the ruler. The temple was a mainiature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. As they worshiped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the gods on earth.
Ques 24: A. On the outline map of North America, locate the following :
(a) The Rocky Mountains
(b) River Mississippi
B. On the outline map of India, locate the areas where the following tribal people may have lived.
Ans: Advertising has following drawbacks:
(i) Advertisements create a wrong belief that branded and packaged products are far better than things that do not come in packets.
(ii) We forget that the quality of a product is not concerned with the packaging that it comes in.
(iii) This shift to packaged products negatively affects the sales of several small businesses
(iv) Advertising tends to promote a certain lack of respect for the poor. They are not the faces we most often seen in advertisements and so we tend to dismiss their lives are worthless.
(v) Advertising appeals personal emotions because the people who cannot afford certain brands feel bad. They feel that they are unable to give their loved ones the best care that branded products appear to offer.