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Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population

Introduction

  • The people are important to develop the economy and society. 
  • The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality. 
  • Coal was only a piece of rock until people were able to invent technology to obtain it and make it a ‘resource’. Hence, the population is the pivotal element in social studies. 
  • It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning. 
  • Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment. 
  • Human beings are producers and consumers of the earth’s resources
  • Therefore, it is important to know how many people are in a country, where they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what their characteristics are.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population

Three major aspects of the population are of primary concern:

  • Population size and distribution: How many people are there and where are they located?
  • Population growth and processes of population change: How has the population grown and changed through time?
  • Characteristics or qualities of the population: What are their age, sex-composition literacy levels, occupational structure and health conditions?

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Census: A census is an official enumeration of the population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in 1872. The first complete census however was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held regularly every tenth year. The Indian census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.

Population Size and Distribution

Indian’s Population Size and Distribution by Numbers

  • India’s population as of March 2011 stood at 1210.6 million, which accounts for 17.5 percent of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion people are unevenly distributed over our country's vast area of 3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4 percent of the world’s area.
  • The 2011 Census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh, with a population size of 199 million people, is the most populous state in India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 percent of the country’s population. on the other hand, the Himalayan state Sikkim has a population of just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64, 429 people.
  • Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh,  Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5 percent of India's total population.

Indian’s Population Distribution by Density

Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The population density of India in the year 2011 was 328 persons per sq. km. densities vary from 1,102 persons per sq. km in West Bengal to only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population

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  • Low Density: The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Rajasthan And Madhya Pradesh Have Very Low Population Density. Rugged terrain and unfavorable climatic conditions are mainly responsible for the sparse population in these areas.
  • Moderate Density: The bulk of the peninsula blocks and Assam have a moderate density of population. The distribution of population is influenced here by the rocky nature of the terrain, low to moderate rain, and shallow and less fertile soil.
  • High density: The Northern Plains, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have a high to very high density of population because of the plain terrain, rice and fertile soil, abundant rainfall and moderate climate.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population

Population Growth and Processes of Population Change

The population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the three processes, namely – births, deaths and migrations.

Population Growth

  • Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.
  • The absolute number added each year or decade is the magnitude of the increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population from the latter population. It is referred to as the absolute increase. When a low annual rate is applied to a very large population, it yields a large absolute increase. India’s current annual increase in the population of 16.5 million is large enough to neutralize efforts to conserve the resource endowment and environment.
  • The rate or the pace of population increase is the other important aspect. It is studied in percent per annum, e.g., a rate of increase of 2 percent per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. this is referred to as the annual growth rate.
  • India’s population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1210 million in 2011. From 1951 to 1981, the annual rate of population growth was steadily increasing. Since 1981, however, the rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rates declined rapidly. The declining trend of growth rate is indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth control. Despite that, the total additions to the population base continue to grow, and India may overtake China in 2045 to become the most populous country in the world.

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What is the population density of India in the year 2011?
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Processes of Population Change / Growth

There are three main processes of population change. They are:
(i) Birth rates                            
(ii) Death rates and                            
(iii) Migration
The natural increase in population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.

1. Birth rate: Birth rate indicates the number of births in a country during a year per 1,000 population.

2. Death rate

  • Death rate indicates the number of deaths in a country during a year per 1,000 population. 
  • The main cause of the rapid rate of growth of the Indian population is the fast decline in death rates. 
  • Since 1980, birth rates have started declining gradually, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
    The reasons for this trend are:
    (i) Most people, especially in urban areas, have adopted the two-child norm.
    (ii) The birth rate has also declined at a faster rate.
    (iii) Standard of living has increased considerably.
    (iv) Women folk are more conscious of their health.
    (v) Family Welfare Schemes are being adopted in a big way.
    (vi) The Muslim population is also trying to keep their family small.

3. Migration

  • Migration means the movement of people across regions and territories. 
  • Migration can be internal or international. 
  • In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factor in rural areas. 
  • These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the ‘pull’ of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions. 
  • Migration is an important determinant of population change. 
  • It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition. 
  • In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of the population in cities and towns. 
  • The urban population increased from 17.29 percent of the total population in 1951 to  31.80 percent in 2011
  • There has been a significant increase in the number of ‘million-plus cities’ from 35 to 53 in just one decade, i.e. 2001 to 2011.

Adolescent Population

  • The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. 
  • It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. 
  • Adolescents are generally grouped in the age group of 10 to 19 years
  • They are the most important resource for the future. 
  • The nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. 
  • Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. 
  • The diet available to adolescents is inadequate in all nutrients. 
  • A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anemia. 
  • Their problems have so far not received adequate attention in the process of development.

Question for Detailed Chapter Notes - Population
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What is the main cause of the rapid rate of growth of the Indian population?
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National Population Policy

Recognizing that the planning of families would improve health and welfare, the Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952. The Family Welfare Programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
Major features of NPP 2000:

  • The NPP 200 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education to children up to 14 years of age.
  • It aims at reducing the infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births. Another aim is to achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Promotion of delayed marriage for girls.
  • It also aims at making family welfare a people-centered programme.
The document Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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FAQs on Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Population

1. What is population size and distribution?
Ans. Population size refers to the total number of individuals in a particular area or region. It is a measure of how many people live in a specific area at a given time. Population distribution, on the other hand, refers to how the population is spread out across the area. It takes into consideration factors such as density, concentration, and dispersion of individuals within a population.
2. How does population growth occur?
Ans. Population growth occurs through two main processes: birth rate (natality) and death rate (mortality). When the birth rate exceeds the death rate, there is a natural increase in population size. Additionally, migration, the movement of individuals into or out of an area, can also contribute to population growth. Immigration, the influx of individuals into an area, leads to population growth, while emigration, the movement of individuals out of an area, results in population decline.
3. What are the factors that influence population change?
Ans. Several factors influence population change. These include birth rate, death rate, migration, and natural disasters. Birth rate is affected by factors such as fertility rates, access to healthcare, and cultural norms. Death rate is influenced by factors such as healthcare facilities, disease prevalence, and living conditions. Migration can be influenced by economic opportunities, political stability, and environmental conditions. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes or hurricanes, can also significantly impact population change.
4. How does population density affect a region?
Ans. Population density refers to the number of individuals per unit of area. It can have significant effects on a region. High population density can lead to increased competition for resources, strain on infrastructure, and higher rates of pollution. It can also increase the risk of the spread of infectious diseases. On the other hand, low population density can result in limited economic opportunities, less access to services, and difficulties in providing essential services such as healthcare and education.
5. What are the consequences of uncontrolled population growth?
Ans. Uncontrolled population growth can have several consequences. It can put immense pressure on limited resources such as arable land, water, and energy sources. This can lead to food scarcity, water shortages, and energy crises. It can also result in environmental degradation, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity. Additionally, uncontrolled population growth can strain healthcare systems, education systems, and social services, making it challenging to provide basic necessities and improve the standard of living for all individuals in the population.
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