Three major aspects of the population are of primary concern:
Census: A census is an official enumeration of the population done periodically. In India, the first census was held in 1872. The first complete census however was taken in the year 1881. Since then, censuses have been held regularly every tenth year. The Indian census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.
Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The population density of India in the year 2011 was 328 persons per sq. km. densities vary from 1,102 persons per sq. km in West Bengal to only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.
The population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the three processes, namely – births, deaths and migrations.
There are three main processes of population change. They are:
(i) Birth rates
(ii) Death rates and
The natural increase in population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.
1. Birth rate: Birth rate indicates the number of births in a country during a year per 1,000 population.
2. Death rate:
Recognizing that the planning of families would improve health and welfare, the Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952. The Family Welfare Programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis.
Major features of NPP 2000:
|1. What is population size and distribution?
|2. How does population growth occur?
|3. What are the factors that influence population change?
|4. How does population density affect a region?
|5. What are the consequences of uncontrolled population growth?