Q.1. In which country of Africa was democracy replaced by a military regime in 1966?
Ans. President Nkrumah of Ghana was unseated by a military coup in 1966.
Q.2. Which country out of Afghanistan, China, Tajikistan, and Myanmar does not share a land boundary with India?
Ans. Tajikistan does not share a land boundary with India.
Q.3. How did the new artists depict liberty during the French Revolution?
Ans. The new artists depicted liberty as a female figure with a torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man on the other hand.
Liberty Leading PeopleQ.4. On what charges was King Louis XVI executed?
Ans. King Louis was executed on the charge of treason against the state.
Ques 5: On the map, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
1. A brackish water lake in the state of Odisha.
2. A range of hills in Nagaland bordering Myanmar.
3. The third highest mountain in the world located on the border of India.
1. Chilka Lake
2. Naga Hills
Q.6. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution?
Ans. Dr. BR Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution.
Q.7. Is the argument that democracy is a less accountable form of government than other forms of government, in favour of democracy?
Ans. No, it is incorrect, as democracy is a more accountable form of government than other forms of government.
Q.8. Is it true that foodgrains output in India has increased significantly in the last few years because larger areas of land have been brought under cultivation?
Ans. This is not true, because the foodgrain output has increased due to the use of modern methods of agriculture.
Q.9. In which category of activity will you place a social worker educating poor children for free?
Ans. Since the social worker is not earning any money, his activity will be classified as a non-market activity.
Q.10. What role does education play towards the growth of society?
- Investment in educating children is similar to investment in land and capital, as it results in higher earnings for them and a greater contribution to society.
- Educated people make better use of resources like land and capital, leading to the development of society.
- Even in employment, better-educated people perform better in their jobs, leading to more efficient working of the organization where they work.
Q.11. Explain in brief the revolutionary principles incorporated by Napoleon in the administration of France during his reign.
- Throughout Europe, Napoleon introduced a uniform system of weights and measures like the kilogram, metre and litre, based on the decimal system, while the old local sizes were abolished.
- A standardized registration of births, marriages, divorces and deaths was introduced.
- The social positions were abolished, including the special rights and privileges of the clergy and the aristocracy.
- Napoleon secured the right to property.
- Education and healthcare were improved and made more accessible to ordinary citizens.
Q.12. Explain the differences between socialist and capitalist ideas about private property.
List the problems faced by the Weimar republic.
The two differences are as follows:
(i) The capitalists believed that individuals owned private property, whereas the socialists believed that all property belonged to the society as a whole, i.e., to the state.
(ii) The capitalists believed that the profits from the property should belong to the property's owners, whereas the socialists believed that profits are due to the workers' labour and so should be shared by them.
The following problems were faced by the Weimar republic:
- It was forced to accept the harsh conditions of the Versailles Peace Treaty in which Germany was dispossessed of its territories and its resources.
- Germany was financially crippled due to overwhelming war debts which had to be paid in gold.
- The French occupied Germany's chief industrial area-the Ruhr-to exact its debts.
- The uninhibited printing of paper money to manage expenses caused hyperinflation.
Q.13. The people of Central Asia responded to the two revolutions in Russia in 1917 in different ways. What were their reasons for this difference in response?
Why was Nazi propaganda effective in creating a hatred for the Jews?
The Bolsheviks controlled most of the former Russian empire by January 1920.
People in Central Asia responded positively and with enthusiasm to the February Revolution of 1917 because of the following reasons:
(i) The revolution freed them from the oppression of Tsar's regime and strengthened their hopes for autonomy.
(ii) They responded with fear to the October Revolution of 1917, because the autocracy of Tsar was replaced by the autocracy of Bolsheviks.
(iii) In Khiva in Central Asia, Bolshevik colonist brutally massacred local nationalists in the name of defending socialism.
(iv) In this situation, people in Central Asia were confused about the real nature of the Bolshevik Government.
Due to these reasons and situations, people of Central Asia responded to the Russian Revolution differently.
Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for the Jews because of two main reasons:
- Firstly, the Jews were stereotyped as killers of Christ. They had been barred since medieval times from ownership of land.
- Secondly, they were hated as usurers or money-lenders. Violence against Jews, even inside their residential ghettos, was common. Hitler's pseudo-scientific race theories used in Nazi propaganda made this hatred complete.
Q.14. Why is the difference between day and night durations not felt at Kanyakumari, whereas it is not so in Srinagar, Kashmir?
- Since the axis of rotation of the earth is tilted at 23.50 to the perpendicular, the Circle of Illumination of the earth varies from summer to winter.
- At the equator, it does not cause any time difference between day and night throughout the year, but north or south of it the durations vary.
- Kanyakumari is close to the Equator, while Kashmir far away.
- So this difference is felt in Kashmir in winter or summer, but not at Kanyakumari.
Q.15. In India, the northern mountains are the major sources of water and forest wealth. What negative effects can result from uncontrolled exploitation of water and forest resources of the mountains?
- Biodiversity will be affected on a large scale if there is uncontrolled exploitation of water and forest resources.
- Animals will lose their natural habitat and climatic changes will occur after a few years.
- So the use of natural resources of the mountains should be done with care so that the ecology is not seriously disturbed.
- Only a very limited amount of water and forest reserves should be used. Trees can be freshly planted to replace the forests being exploited.
Q.16. List the economic benefits of rivers and lakes.
Economic benefits of rivers and lakes are as follows:
- They provide fresh water for drinking and other domestic purposes.
- The water is useful for irrigation in agriculture as well as for industrial processes in manufacturing.
- Deltas of rivers provide fertile soil for increasing agricultural yield.
- They are used for the generation of hydroelectricity.
- They provide economical inland transport facilities.
- They provide freshwater fisheries.
- Rivers help to carry away effluents and sewage.
Q.17. What are the difficulties faced by the people in a non-democratic country? Explain any three.
In non-democratic countries, the following difficulties are faced by the people:
- They cannot freely choose their leaders.
Example: The oppressive undemocratic rule of General Pinochet in Chile.
- They cannot form political parties without the consent of those who are in power.
- In some extreme cases, people who protest against the authorities are tortured and killed. The military coup of 1973 in Chile and the Communist government in Poland, which ruled till 1990, are examples of oppressive undemocratic rule.
Q.18. What arguments can you give against democracy? Explain any three.
Arguments against democracy are:
- Leaders keep changing every few years and sometimes even earlier. This leads to instability in governance, with different policies being followed by different rulers.
- Democracy leads to corruption as it is based on electoral competition and power play. As a result, morality gets sidelined.
- Democracy leads to delays in taking decisions, as many people have to be consulted before making decisions.
Q.19. Give three reasons why we can call India a secular democratic republic.
The reasons we can call India a secular democratic republic:
- India is called secular because its citizens have complete freedom to follow and practice any religion of their own choice. The state does not have any official religion.
- Democratic means that India has a government where people enjoy equal political rights and elect their rulers who are accountable.
- India is a republic because the Head of state, i.e. India's President is elected and is not hereditary.
Q.20. Under what conditions will an entrepreneur setting up a cane crushing and jaggery manufacturing unit in a village suffer a loss?
Conditions under which he may face a loss can be:
- If his crushing machine becomes defective, his production will reduce or totally stop.
- If due to drought, the supply of sugarcane reduces, his jaggery production will come down, leading to a loss for him.
- If demand for jaggery decreases, he will not be able to sell enough to break even.
- If other costs like electricity, labour or transportation costs increase, he may face a loss.
Q.21. Explain any three factors which have enabled the farmers to increase the productivity of their land.
Factors increasing the productivity of land include:
- Irrigation Using tube wells and canals, farmers are able to grow more than one crop in a year, thus increasing productivity.
- HYV Seeds Use of the High Yielding Variety of seeds enables farmers to get more crops from the same area of land, increasing productivity.
- Fertilizers and Pesticides: By using fertilisers, the productivity of land went up. Pesticides destroy any pests which can cause plants to die, ensuring a full harvest.
Three features are shown on the outline map of India. Identify these features and write their names on the lines marked on the map.
1. A manmade lake in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh
2. A river on which the Krishna raja Sagar Dam has been built
3. A mountain range between the Narmada and Tapi rivers
1. Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar
2. Kaveri River
3. Satpura Range
Q.23. Despite various reforms introduced by Robespierre, his reign was termed as a "reign of terror". Explain the reasons for this.
- The Jacobin government under Robespierre abolished monarchy and declared France as a Republic, a form of government where people elect the government, including the Head of State.
- In spite of bringing these landmark changes, his period was referred to as a "reign of terror" because Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment.
- All those who opposed him were considered enemies of the republic, were arrested, imprisoned and tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If found guilty, they were guillotined.
- Examples of his policies were a maximum ceiling on wages and prices and rationing of meat and bread.
Q.24. What were the changes introduced by the Bolsheviks in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917? Explain any five.
What were the features of political policy followed by Hitler after coming to power? Explain any five.
The changes introduced by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution were:
- Most of the industries and banks were nationalized in November 1917. This meant that the government took over their ownership and management.
- Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
- In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
- The use of the old titles of aristocracy was totally banned.
- New uniforms were designed for the army and officials, following a clothing competition organized in 1918-when the Soviet hat (budeonovka) was chosen.
Policies adopted by Hitler once he came to power in 1933 were:
- By the Fire Decree of 28 February 1933, he indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly.
- Most of the communists were hurriedly packed off to the newly established concentration camps.
- On 3rd March 1933, the Enabling Act was passed, which gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree. All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates.
- The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
- Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted.
Q.25. Describe the river systems of the Northern plain, giving their main features.
- The three river systems in the northern plain from east to west are the Brahmaputra, Ganga and Indus systems.
- A large part of the Indus system lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries Jhelum, Chenab. Ravi, Beas and Satluj originate in the Himalayas. This section of the plain is dominated by the doabs.
- The Ganga plain extends between the Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It spreads over the states of Haryana. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, part of Jharkhand and West Bengal. It has tributaries like the Yamuna. Gomati, Ghaghara, Son, Gandak and Kosi.
- The Brahmaputra plain lies in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, where it is joined by its tributaries like the Dibang, Lohit, Raidak and Sankosh.
Q.26. Explain how pollution is caused to river water and what action the Government is taking to minimize it.
- Due to the requirements of the increasing population, large amounts of industrial effluent and untreated sewage are released into drains which ultimately flow into rivers.
- Further, due to requirements in agriculture and industry, larger amounts of water are being drained out from rivers.
- All this has led to increased pollution of the water remaining in the rivers. The government has launched various action plans to clean rivers.
- The major offensive in this regard is the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP), which envisages pollution abatement in 38 major rivers covering 172 towns in 20 states currently. Under this plan, 4400 million litres of sewage is targeted to be intercepted, diverted and treated every day (information given by National River Conservation Directorate).
Q.27. What is democracy? Explain any four features of a democratic set up.
- Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people and these rulers have the final decision-making power.
- Four features of a democratic set up are:
(i) A democratic government is a better government because it is more accountable to the people. The rulers can be voted out in case they do not perform.
(ii) Democracy improves quality of decision making as a democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens' rights.
(iii) Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.
(iv) Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens by giving them the power to vote.
Q.28. Why do we need a constitution? Describe any three main functions of the constitution.
- We need a constitution because it is the supreme law of a country which not only determines the relationship among the people living in a territory, but also the relationship between the people and the government.
- The three main functions of a constitution are:
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have power to take which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the power of the government and tells us what are the rights of the citizens. It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
Q.29. Explain the problems faced by a small farmer with only 1 hectare of land to his farming.
- A farmer with 1 hectare of land will produce barely enough for the survival of his family.
- He needs to buy seeds and fertilizers, for which he needs loans at high-interest rates from large farmers, traders or moneylenders.
- These loans may also require him to work in the lender's fields. He works on his land with his family members.
- The output depends upon the availability of water for irrigation, or if not available, on rainfall, which is uncertain and erratic.
- To meet family expenses and repay loans, he and his family members have to also work as farm labourers. After harvest, there is no surplus left, as he uses the produce for his needs or for repaying his lenders.
Q.30. Explain the four requirements for the production of goods and services. What are the items that come under physical capital?
The four main requirements for the production of goods and services are:
- The first requirement is land and other natural resources.
- The second is labour, i.e., people who carry out the work for production.
- The third is physical capital, i.e., varieties of inputs that are required for production such as fixed capital (Building, equipment, machinery, tools, etc.) and working capital (cash, raw materials, etc.).
- The fourth requirement is human capital, which may include technology, qualified manpower, etc. The items under physical capital are fixed capital and working capital.