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Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1

Many individuals are moving to urban areas with the desire for a more comfortable lifestyle filled with modern technology and convenient food options. Unfortunately, they have neglected the fundamental source of their existence: the land that produces the crops that sustain us. It is crucial to educate ourselves on the cultivation of crops and their significance in order to fully appreciate the purpose of our daily efforts, which is to provide ourselves with nourishment.

What is a Crop?

Plants of the same kind that are grown and cultivated as a source of food in a large cultivable land is called a crop.

Examples :  Wheat, Rice, Corn, Soybeans etc.

Wheat CropWheat Crop

Agricultural Practices

People in the past ate raw fruits and vegetables and started hunting animals for food. Later, they could cultivate land and produce rice, wheat and other food crops. Thus, was born ‘Agriculture’. 
  • So, as we know that when the same kinds of plants are grown at one place on a large scale, it is called a 'Crop'
  • Different types of crops like cereals, vegetables and fruits etc., can be classified on the basis of the season in which they grow. Crops Grown in a Field
    Crops Grown in a Field
  • India is a vast country. Here climatic conditions like temperature, humidity and rainfall vary from one region to another. Hence, a rich variety of crops can be grown in different parts of India. So, we are lucky to be here.

Despite this diversity, two broad cropping patterns can be identified:

1. Kharif Crops: Plants that are planted during the rainy season are called Kharif crops. The rainy season in India is generally from June to September. 
Examples: Paddy, Maize, Soybean, Groundnut, Cotton, etc.

Kharif CropsKharif Crops2. Rabi Crops: Crops that are grown in the winter season are called rabi crops. Their time period is generally from October to March.
Examples:  Wheat, Gram, Pea, Mustard and Linseed

Rabi CropsRabi Crops

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:Which of the following is not an example of kharif crop?
View Solution

Basic Practices of Crop Production 

The several activities undertaken by the farmers for the cultivation of crops over a period of time are referred to as agricultural practices.

1. Preparation of Soil

  • One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it. The top layer of soil supports plant growth and is rich in nutrients. 
  • The loose soil allows the roots to penetrate and breathe easily, even when they go deep into the soil. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil.

Preparation of SoilPreparation of Soil

  • The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough that is made of wood or iron.
  • If the soil is very dry, it may need watering before ploughing. The ploughed field may have big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is necessary to break these crumbs with a plank. The field is levelled by a leveller for sowing as well as for irrigation purposes. 

Agricultural Implements


A plough is a device that is used by farmers for different purposes such as adding fertilizers, tilling, and loosening the soil.

A Traditional Wooden PloughA Traditional Wooden Plough

  • It is also used for adding fertilizers to the soil, removing weeds, scraping of soil, etc.
  • The ploughshare is the triangular iron strip.
  • A plough shaft is the main part of the plough, which is made using a log of wood.
  • The other end of the shaft has a handle.
  • The other end is attached to a beam that is placed on the bull’s necks.
  • A wooden, traditional plough can be operated by a pair of an ox and a man.
  • Nowadays these wooden ploughs are being replaced by iron ploughs.


A hoe is a tool that is used to dig up soil to remove weeds and also loosen up the soil before planting a sapling.


A cultivator is attached to the tractor and helps in loosening soil.

Cultivators are used instead of ploughs since they are faster.

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called
View Solution

2. Sowing

Sowing is the most important part of crop production. Before sowing, good-quality seeds are selected. These are clean and healthy seeds of a good variety.

Farmers prefer to use seeds that give a high yield.

Before sowing, one of the important tasks is to know about the tools used for sowing seeds:

(a) Traditional Tool: It is the tool-shaped liked funnel used traditionally for sowing seeds. The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there. 

Traditional ToolTraditional Tool

(b) Seed Drill: Nowadays, the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. With the help of this tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing and prevents damage caused by birds. It saves time and labor. 

Seed DrillSeed Drill

Point to Remember:

How to separate damaged seeds from healthy seeds?

  • Put the seeds in water. Damaged seeds are hollow and lighter and thus, float on water. Good and healthy seeds sink in water and settle down.

While sowing seeds, it is essential to make sure that:
(a) Seeds are healthy and of high quality.
(b) They are planted at the correct distance from each other so that they can get proper light, water, and nutrients from the soil.
(c) They must be sown deep enough to protect them from animals and birds (which might eat them) and wind (which might blow them away) but not so deep that they may not get enough air to germinate. 

3. Adding Manure and Fertilizers

When crop after the crop is grown in the same field, the soil becomes poor in certain nutrients. 

  • Manure and fertilizers are added to the soil to replenish it with nutrients to ensure the healthy growth of plants. Fertilizers are chemicals used to add minerals like potassium, phosphorus and nitrates to the soil. 

Manure can be of various types such as:
(a) Natural Organic Manure
This includes raw manure, compost, and green manure:
(i) Raw manure is a mixture of cattle and domestic waste.
(ii) Compost is well-rotted plant and animal residue.
(iii) Green Manure are crops grown in the field as the pure crop or as an intercrop between the main crops and then, buried in the field to enrich the soil.

Organic ManureOrganic Manure

(b) Biofertilizers: These are the nitrogen-fixing organisms that are widely used in organic farming and make agriculture sustainable. These include Rhizobium, Azotobacter, blue-green algae. 

(c) Vermi-Compost: It is a type of compost that is made using earthworms.


Three methods of replenishing the soil with nutrients are:
(i) Adding organic manure to the soil.
(ii) Adding chemical fertilizers to the soil.
(iii) Leaving the field uncultivated (or fallow) between two crops and Crop rotation, in which different crops are grown alternately to allow the soil to replenish with different nutrients. 

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:What is the purpose of tilling or ploughing the soil before crop cultivation?
View Solution

Pros and Cons of using Fertilizers
Pros: They are chemicals, rich in particular nutrients and help farmers get a better yield of crops like wheat, paddy and maize.
Cons: They make the soil less fertile and also cause water pollution. 

Ques. Why is Manure better than Fertilizers?
Ans. Organic Manure is better than Fertilizers because:

  • It adds humus to the soil and increases its water holding capacity.
  • Improves soil texture.
  • Makes soil porous which makes the exchange of gases easier.
  • Increases the number of friendly microbes.

Table: Difference between Manure and Fertilizers:

Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1

4. Irrigation

Water is important for the proper growth and development of plants.

  • Water is essential because the germination of seeds does not take place under dry conditions. Nutrients dissolved in the water get transported to each part of the plant.
  • Water also protects the crop from both frost and hot air currents. The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.
  • It’s not a good idea to depend on rain for water as it is not fully reliable. A proper irrigation system will ensure timely and adequate water for crops. This will lead to more yield. 

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:What is the disadvantage of using Fertilisers?
View Solution

Sources of Irrigation: Wells, Tube wells, Ponds, Lakes, Rivers, Dams, and Canals.

Tube WellTube Well

Traditional Methods of Irrigation

The water available in wells, lakes, and canals is lifted up by different methods in different regions, for taking it to the fields. Here various traditional methods are:

Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1

Modern Methods of Irrigation

  • Sprinkler System: In this system, perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it sprinkles from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. 

Sprinkler SystemSprinkler System

  • Drip system: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called the drip system.

Drip SystemDrip System

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:In today’s world, where water is a scarce resource, which among the following irrigation methods is most feasible and sustainable?
View Solution

5. Protection from Weeds

  • Weeds are undesirable plants that may grow naturally along with the crop in the field.
  • The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeding is necessary because they affect the growth of the crop by competing with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light. 

Weed Control 

  • Farmers use many ways to remove weeds and control their growth. Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds, which may then dry up and get mixed with the soil. Removal of Weeds
    Removal of Weeds
  • The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds. The manual removal includes the physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, from time to time with the help of a khurpi
  • Weeds are also controlled by spraying certain chemicals called weedicides, in the fields to kill the weeds. They do not damage the crops. 

6. Harvesting

  • Cutting down a crop once it has reached maturity or once the crop has ripened is called Harvesting
  • A sickle has a sharp serrated-edged metal blade attached to a wooden handle. A sickle is used for cutting the crop. A harvester is a machine that helps to cut the ripened crop from the fields. HarvestingHarvesting

  • Threshing is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff. A thresher is used for threshing. 
  • A combine is a combination of a thresher and a harvester. 
  • Winnowing is a process in which we allow natural wind to blow through the grains, so the lighter substances fly away, whereas the heavier grains fall to the ground. The fan in a winnowing machine blows away the chaff.Winnowing

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:The process of separation of grain from the chaff after harvesting is known as
View Solution

7. Storage

Precautions to be taken during storage of food grains are:

  • Grains should be dried properly, or they might rot easily.
  • They should be stored in completely dry gunny bags.
  • The bags should be kept in a place that is completely moisture-free.
  • Storage areas should be well-ventilated.
  • In larger godowns, care should be taken that chemicals used to repel or kill insects and rats do not contaminate food grains.  

Ques. How are grains protected from pests, bacteria, and fungi?

  • Grains (seeds) are dried in the sun to reduce their moisture.
  • On small scale, grains are stored in jute bags or metallic bins.
  • On large scale, they are kept in silos and granaries.
  • Dried neem leaves are used at home to protect food grains.
  • In big godowns, chemical treatments are done to protect the large quantities of grain.


  • Granaries are the place where freshly obtained food grains are stored. GranaryGranary

Food from Animals

  • Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals for milk, egg, or meat.Animal Husbandry
    Animal Husbandry
  • Animal husbandry has been practised for thousands of years since the first domestication of animals. 
  • Humans are dependent on animals in innumerable ways. The animals are domesticated by humans for many purposes.

Question for Chapter Notes: Crop Production and Management
Try yourself:
What is the purpose of the sprinkler system in irrigation?
View Solution

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1. What do you mean by the term crop? Explain briefly the types of crops. 

Ans: Crop is the term used to describe a plant that is grown in a field on a large scale. For example, cereal crops, pulses, and fruit crops.

  • The crops grown in India can be classified as kharif and rabi.
  • Kharif crops are sown in the rainy season by June/July and are harvested by September/October. 
  • Thus, they are also known as summer season crops. For example, rice, maize, etc.
  • Rabi crops are sown in the winter season in October or November and are harvested by March/April. Thus, they are also called winter season crops. For example, mustard, wheat, potato, etc.

Q.2. What is irrigation? Name the two main methods of irrigation and define them briefly.

Ans: The artificial method of watering the plants for assisting in the growth of the plants is called irrigation. The two main methods of irrigation are:

  • Traditional method: The traditional method of irrigation is very less expensive and they often lead to wastage of water. The traditional method of irrigation involves a chain pump, dhekli, moat (the pulley system), and rahat (lever system).
  • Modern method: Modern methods of irrigation are more inclined towards the use of diesel, bio¬gas, solar energy, and electricity for lifting water.
  • The two most important modern systems of irrigation are: Sprinkler irrigation system & Drip irrigation system

Q.3. Write a short note on the terms:


  • Storage: Storage of produce is an important task. If the crop grains are to be kept for a longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats, and microorganisms. Before storing, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria, and fungi. Grains are stored by farmers in jute bags or metallic bins. However, large-scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
  • Harvesting: After the maturation of crop, harvesting is an important task. In harvesting, crops are pulled out or cut close to the ground. It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature. Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by a machine called harvester.
The document Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1 is a part of the Class 8 Course Science Class 8.
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FAQs on Crop Production and Management Class 8 Notes Science Chapter 1

1. What are the basic practices of crop production?
Ans. The basic practices of crop production include preparation of soil, sowing, adding manure and fertilizers, irrigation, protection from weeds, harvesting, and storage.
2. Why is irrigation important in crop production?
Ans. Irrigation is important in crop production as it provides crops with the necessary water required for their growth and development, especially during dry periods when natural rainfall is insufficient.
3. How does adding manure and fertilizers benefit crop production?
Ans. Adding manure and fertilizers enrich the soil with essential nutrients that are necessary for the healthy growth of crops, resulting in higher yields and better quality produce.
4. What is the significance of protecting crops from weeds?
Ans. Protecting crops from weeds is important as weeds compete with crops for nutrients, water, and sunlight, which can significantly reduce crop yields if left unchecked.
5. Why is proper storage important in crop production?
Ans. Proper storage is important in crop production to ensure that harvested crops are protected from pests, moisture, and other environmental factors that can cause spoilage and reduce the quality of the produce.
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