Data Transfer and Manipulation
Data transfer instructions cause transfer of data from one location to another without changing the binary information. The most common transfer are between the ·
Data manipulation Instructions
Data manipulation instructions perform operations on data and provide the computational capabilities for the computer. These instructions perform arithmetic, logic and shift operations.
Program Control Instructions
The program control instructions provide decision making capabilities and change the path taken by the program when executed in computer. These instructions specify conditions for altering the content of the program counter. The change in value of program counter as a result of execution of program control instruction causes a break in sequence of instruction execution. Some typical program control instructions are:
Subroutine call and Return
A subroutine call instruction consists of an operation code together with an address that specifies the beginning of the subroutine. The instruction is executed by performing two tasks:
The last instruction of every subroutine, commonly called return from subroutine; transfer the return address from the temporary location into the program counter. This results in a transfer of program control to the instruction where address was originally stored in the temporary location.
The interrupt procedure is, in principle, quite similar to a subroutine call except for three variations: