The document Derivability Over An Interval JEE Notes | EduRev is a part of the JEE Course Mathematics (Maths) Class 12.

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**Definition : **A function f is **differentiable at a **if f'(a) exists. It is **differentiable on an open interval **(a,b) [or ] if it is differentiable at every number in the interval.

**Derivability Over An Interval :** f(x) is said to be derivable over an interval if it is derivable at each & every point of the interval. ^{ }f(x) is said to be derivable over the closed interval [a, b] if :

**(i)** for the points a and b, f '(a+) & f '(b^{ }-) exist &**(ii)** for any point c such that a < c < b, f '(c+) & f'(c^{ }-) exist & are equal .

**How Can a Function Fail to Be Differentiable ? **

We see that the function y = |x| is not differentiable at 0 and Figure shows that its graph changes direction abruptly when x = 0. In general, if the graph of a function f has a "corner" or "kink" in it, then the graph of f has no tangent at this point and f is not differentiable there. [In trying to compute f '(a), we find that the left and right limits are different.]

There is another way for a function not to have a derivative. If f is discontinuous at a, then f is not differentiable at a. So at any discontinuity (for instance, a jump discontinuity), f fails to be differentiable.

A third possibility is that the curve has a **vertical tangent line **when at x = a,

This means that the tangent lines become steeper and steeper as x â†’ a. Figure (a, b, c) illustrates the three posibilities that we have discussed.

**Right hand & Left hand Derivatives **By definition : f '(a) =

**(i)** The right hand derivative of f ' at x = a denoted by f '** _{+}**(a) is defined by :

f '** _{+}**(a) = , provided the limit exists & is finite.

**(ii)** The left hand derivative of f at x = a denoted by f '-(a) is defined by :

f ' -(a) = , Provided the limit exists & is finite. We also write f '** _{+}**(a) = f '(a

f'(a) exists if and only if these one-sided derivatives exist and are equal.

**Ex.20 If a function f is defined by f(x) = **** show that f is continuous but not derivable at x = 0**

**Sol. **We have f(0 + 0) = = 0

f(0 - 0) = = 0

Also f(0) = 0 f(0 + 0) = f(0 - 0) = f(0) â‡’ f is continuous at x = 0

Again f'(0 + 0) = = 1

f'(0 - 0) = = 0

Since f'(0 + 0) f'(0 - 0), the derivative of f(x) at x = 0 does not exist.

**Ex.21 A function f(x) is such that ****, if it exists.**

**Sol. **Given that =

**Ex.22 Let f be differentiable at x = a and let f (a) Â¹ 0. Evaluate .**

**Sol. ***l* = (1^{âˆž} form)

*l* = (put n = 1/h)

**Ex.23 Let f : R â†’ R satisfying **** then show f(x) is differentiable at x = 0.**

**Sol. **Since, f(0) = 0 ...(i)

....(ii) {f(0) = 0 from (i)}

Now, â†’ 0 ...(iii) {using Cauchy-Squeeze theorem}

from (ii) and (iii) , we get f'(0) = 0. i.e. f(x) is differentiable at x = 0.

**F. Operation on Differentiable Functions**

**1.** If f(x) & g(x) are derivable at x = a then the functions f(x)^{ }+ g(x), f(x) -^{ }g(x), f(x). g(x) will also be derivable at x = a & if g^{ }(a) 0 then the function f(x)/g(x) will also be derivable at x = a.

If f and g are differentiable functions, then prove that their product fg is differentiable.

Let a be a number in the domain of fg. By the definition of the product of two functions we have

(fg) (a) = f(a) g(a) (fg) (a + t) = f(a + t) g(a + t).

Hence (fg)' (a) =

The following algebraic manipulation will enable us to put the above fraction into a form in which we can see what the limit is:

f(a + t) g(a + t) - f(a) g(a) = f(a + t) g(a + t) - f(a) g (a + t) + f(a)g(a + t) - f(a) g(a)

= [f(a + t) - f(a)] g(a + t) + [g(a + t) - g(a)] f(a).

Thus (fg)' (a) = .

The limit of a sum of products is the sum of the products of the limits. Moreover, f'(a) and g'(a) exist by hypothesis. Finally, since g is differentiable at a, it is continuous there ; and so = f(a). We conclude that

(fg)'(a) =

= f'(a)g(a) + g'(a)f(a) = (f'g + g'f) (a).

**2.** If f(x) is differentiable at x = a & g(x) is not differentiable at x = a^{ }, then the product function F(x) = f(x)^{ }.^{ }g(x) can still be differentiable at x = a e.g. f(x) = x ^{ }and g(x) =^{ } .

**3.** If f(x) & g(x) both are not differentiable at x = a then the product function ;

F(x) = f(x)^{ }. g(x) can still be differentiable at x = a e.g. f(x) = & g(x) =

**4.** If f(x) & g(x) both are non-deri. at x = a then the sum function F(x) = f(x)^{ }+ g(x) may be a differentiable function . e.g. f(x) = & g(x) = - .

**5. **If f(x) is derivable at x = a â‡’ f '(x) is continuous at x = a.

e.g. f(x) =

**G. Functional Equations **

**Ex.24 Let f(xy) = xf(y) + yf(x) for all x, **** and f(x) be differentiable in (0, âˆž) then determine f(x).**

**Given f(xy)= xf(y) + yf(x)**

**Sol.** Replacing x by 1 and y by x then we get x f(1) = 0

On integrating w.r.t.x and taking limit 1 to x then f(x)/x - f(1)/1 = f'(1) (ln x â€“ ln 1)

âˆ´ f(1) = 0) âˆ´ f(x) = f'(1) (x ln x)

**Alternative Method : **

Given f(xy) = xf(y) + yf(x)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t.x treating y as constant, f'(xy) . y = f(y) + yf'(x)

Putting y = x and x = 1, then

f'(xy). x = f(x) + xf'(x)

Integrating both sides w.r.t.x taking limit 1 to x,

Hence, f(x) =- f'(1)(x ln x).

**Ex.25 If **** and f'(1) = e, determine f(x).**

**Sol.**

Given e^{â€“xy} f(xy) = e^{â€“x}f(x) + e^{â€“y}f(y) ....(1)

Putting x = y = 1 in (1), we get f(1) = 0 ...(2)

On integrating we have e^{â€“x}f(x) = ln x + c at x = 1, c = 0

âˆ´ f(x) = ex ln x

**Ex.26 Let f be a function such that f(x + f(y)) = f(f(x)) + f(y) x, y where Îµ > 0, then determine f"(x) and f(x).**

**Sol.** Given f(x + f(y)) = f(f(x) + f(y)) .....(1)

Put x = y = 0 in (1), then f(0 + f(0)) = f(f(0)) + f(0) â‡’ f(f(0)) = f(f(0)) + f(0)

âˆ´ f(0) = 0 ...(2)

Integrating both sides with limites 0 to x then f(x) = x âˆ´ f'(x) = 1.

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