|Table of contents|
|Economic Activities by Men and Women|
|Gender Roles and Economic Activities|
|Quality of Population|
People as Resource aims to illustrate how the population serves as an economic asset, not a liability. Through investments in education, training, and medical care, the population is transformed into human capital—a reservoir of skills and productive knowledge.
Human capital formation is the development of existing human resources through education and health improvements.
It is likened to physical capital formation (through education, training, medical care) and yields return in the form of higher incomes due to increased productivity.
Formation of human capital
Examples: The Green Revolution and IT Revolution in India illustrate how knowledge input significantly enhances productivity, showcasing the pivotal role of human capital over material and machinery.
Sakal, a twelve-year-old from Semapur, faced financial challenges but had supportive parents who valued education.
Impact of Education:
Stories of Vilas and Sakal
Vilas, living in the same village, had a different reality with financial struggles and limited opportunities.
Lack of Educational Opportunities:
Sakal's education and skills led to economic success where as Vilas faced economic challenges due to the absence of education and health care.
- This development increases the productivity of workers, as educated, trained, and healthy individuals can utilize natural resources more effectively.
- By enhancing the quality of labor, human capital formation contributes to economic growth and higher incomes due to increased productivity.
- The formation of human capital also plays a crucial role in promoting technological advancements and attracting foreign investment, but these are additional benefits rather than the core contribution to economic growth.
People, like Vilas and Sakal, engage in various economic activities classified into three sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
- These activities contribute to the production of goods and services, adding value to the national income.
- Trade involves buying and selling goods or services, while transport refers to the movement of goods or people from one place to another.
- Therefore, option C, which includes trade and transport, is the correct answer.
Historical Division of Labour
Challenges in Women's Employment:
- Domestic chores, such as household duties, are typically seen as unpaid contributions that are not included in the formal economy.
- This historical and cultural division of labor has led to women's work in the home being undervalued and not given the same recognition as paid work.
- As a result, the economic contributions of women in domestic roles are often overlooked and not accounted for in measures of national income.
Education enhances national income, cultural richness, and governance efficiency.
Budgetary Allocations and Expenditure
Trends in Literacy Rates In Post-Independent India
Literacy Rates and Disparities
Over the years, literacy rates have shown a commendable upward trend, reaching 85% in 2018. Literacy is acknowledged not just as a fundamental right but also as a prerequisite for citizens to effectively fulfill their duties and enjoy their rights. However, gender and regional disparities persist, with males exhibiting a 16.1% higher literacy rate than females. Urban areas also show a 14.2% advantage over rural areas, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions to bridge these gaps.
Challenges in Primary Education
While the expansion of the primary school system to over 7,78,842 lakh in 2019–20 reflects a positive stride, concerns arise over the dilution of educational quality and high dropout rates. The implementation of initiatives like Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, with elements such as bridge courses, back-to-school camps, and the mid-day meal scheme, aims to counter these challenges, striving for universal elementary education.
Higher Education Scenario
In the realm of higher education, the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for the age group of 18 to 23 years reached 27% in 2019–20, aligning broadly with the world average. The strategic focus revolves around increasing access, ensuring quality, modifying curricula to suit state-specific needs, encouraging vocationalization, and embracing information technology. Noteworthy is the emphasis on distance education and the convergence of various education formats, encompassing formal, non-formal, distance, and IT education institutions.
- However, there has been a decline to 2.8% in 2020-21.
- This information indicates that the current expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP in India is 2.8%.
In the pursuit of profit maximization, firms place a significant emphasis on workforce efficiency. The selection of employees with optimal health is crucial for ensuring productivity and achieving organizational goals. The premise is that individuals in good health are better positioned to contribute effectively to the overall growth and success of the organization.
Significance of Health
Health Infrastructure in India
Health Progress Indicators
Healthcare Disparities and Infrastructure Gaps
Despite progress, healthcare disparities persist in various regions of India. Many areas lack even basic healthcare facilities. The availability of medical and dental colleges is unevenly distributed, with only 542 medical colleges and 313 dental colleges nationwide. States such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu host a concentration of medical colleges, revealing regional imbalances in healthcare infrastructure.
- Employees in good health are more productive and can contribute effectively to the overall growth and success of the organization.
- When individuals are healthy, they can maximize their output, positively impacting the overall organizational performance.
- Therefore, firms prioritize the selection of healthy employees to ensure productivity and achieve organizational goals.
Unemployment is characterized by the inability of willing individuals to secure jobs at prevailing wages. It is crucial to differentiate between those not seeking employment and those facing challenges in finding suitable opportunities. In India, both rural and city areas face unemployment, but the reasons differ.
- Certain months witness reduced agricultural activities, leading to temporary job scarcity for these individuals.
- This type of unemployment is caused by the seasonal nature of agricultural work, where there is a lack of employment opportunities during specific periods of the year.
- It is important to note that seasonal unemployment is different from other types of unemployment, as it is temporary and related to specific industries or sectors.
While official statistics may indicate low unemployment rates, many individuals with low income and productivity are considered employed. Forced work for subsistence rather than by choice is prevalent, contributing to the statistical landscape.Disguised Unemployment in Agriculture
The agriculture sector in India experiences disguised unemployment, with self-employment characterized by surplus labor. Despite shared work and produce among family members, surplus labor eventually migrates from villages in search of alternative job opportunities.
|1. What are some economic activities commonly performed by men and women?|
|2. How do gender roles influence economic activities?|
|3. How does the quality of the population affect economic activities?|
|4. What is the significance of unemployment in the context of economic activities?|
|5. Can you provide some solutions to address unemployment in the context of economic activities?|